Settlement system structure of the Kaliningrad Region: history and current processes

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1 Settlement system structure of the Kaliningrad Region: history and current processes III Congress of Lithuanian geographers Vilnius, Dr. Andrey Levchenkov Baltic federal university (Kaliningrad)

2 History of settlement system forming Development after 1945 Current process

3 Schlüter O. Wald, Sumpf und Siedlungsland in Altpreußen von der Ordenszeit, Jena 1921

4 Forming history: stages - Stage 1 (VIa.d.-1280): Prussian period of settlement, land settle predetermined by features of nature, sustainable condition, minor human impact. - Stage 2 ( ): The beginning of German period of settlement. Intensive colonization of western margins of the area, deforestation, watercourse regulation, extensive agriculture. - Stage 3 ( ): Reclamation of eastern margins of the area, expansion of the large-scale farming, rise of human impact on an environment. - Stage 4 ( ): Land reform, settlement system is formed. Melioration, intensive agriculture, forest devastation. - Stage 5 ( ): Fundamental changes of the settlement system and land ownership. - Stage 6 (1991-now): changing of the economic system (i.e. landuse feature).

5 Colonization of Old Prussia Scheu, E. Ostpreußen. Eine wirtschaftsgeographische Landeskunde, Königsberg 1936

6 Settling of the area by peasants Pr.-Eylau, 1450 (M.Rousselle)

7 Angerweiler: Sollecken-Косатухино, 1407, Kr.Heiligenbeil Angerweiler Woydehnen, Kr. Tilsit-Ragnit (Ветрово), 1722 Streusiedlung: Unter-Eiseln, Kr. Tilsit- Ragnit (Большое Село), gegr. 1504

8 State at 1507/19

9 State at 1540

10 State at 1618 Schirwindt-Kutuzovo 1515; Schloßberg-Dobrovolsk 1519; Gumbinnen-Gussev 1539; Darkehmen-Ozersk, Stallupönen-Nesterov 1540

11 Plague About persons was dead, farmsreads became empty Resettlement programm FW I about migrants total, from Salzburg also Schwitzerland, Nassau, Pfalz, Lithuania Salzburger Church in Gumbinnen 1840 von Karl Friedrich Schinkel

12 Stage 4: Land Reform in Prussia1807/1811and consequences Liberation of the serfs Separation, rural community secession New forms of settlement: isolated farmstead, household, estate New agricultural approaches

13 Estate of Ackerau-Armejskoje settling

14 New settlements

15 Melioration First melioration in 1852 at estate Fuchsberg (now Kholmogorovka)by Belgium engineer Leclerc, subsurface drainage system Reg.-Bez. Königsberg Reg-.Bez. Gumbinnen Provinz Pasture management union area, ha Drainage society area, ha Dams union area, ha Total area, ha Hansen, J. Die Landwirtschaft in Ostpreußen 1916

16 Elchtal colony at Grosses Moosbruch

17 History of settlement system forming Development after 1945 Current process

18 State at 1939 Population , including rural Population density 67,3 Einw./qkm Settlements Small forms of settlements Employment: per100 ha 25 persons Agricultural employment 36,5% labour force

19 Number of frontiermen in the countryside according to other sources, thous. people Source Regional frontierman department Regional statistics department 38,4 44,1 21,4 20,4 5,8 6,7 4,5 4,6 3,5 54,4 54,5 37,9 33,8 21,3 20,9 25,5 25,5 20,7

20 Frontiermen data during According to point of outcome, thous. people Income Outcome Amount of growth Relative share in amount of growth, % RSFSR 253,3 79,2 174,1 70,0 Belarus 35,2 7,6 27,6 11,1 Ukraine 29,2 11,7 17,5 7,0 Baltic states 24,1 11,6 12,5 5,0 Other USSR Republics 50,0 32,9 17,1 6,9 Total 391,8 143,0 248,8 100

21 Archival documents «...during land settle campaign the economic, cultural and general construction in kholhoz had not been provided. Kolkhoz centers are located at settlements and farm yards which do not challenge the requirements to modern kolkhoz centers and which are in need of redivision» «...хозяйственного и культурно-бытового строительства в колхозах, в период кампании заселения, не проводилось. Колхозные центры размещены в населённых пунктах и хуторах, которые в полной мере не отвечают требованиям современных колхозных центров и должны быть в ближайшее время подвергнуты перепланировке» ГАКО, Ф.332, Оп.1 Д.1 Л.1-2

22 «...for frontiermen at 1949 it was repaired houses-apartments while 5000 was planned. Meanwhile, in 1949 all frontiermen together with theirs families were settled to repaired housesapartments located in settlements, farmstead settle had not been allowed» «...для переселенцев 1949 года отремонтировано домовквартир при плане Таким образом, все прибывшие в 1949 г. семьи переселенцев были вселены в отремонтированные дома-квартиры, находящиеся в населённых пунктах, не допуская расселения их на хуторах» ГАКО, Ф.183 Оп.5 Д.133 Л. 11

23 Statement from 3 March 1947 by Chairman of Molotov Kolkhoz on proposal argumentation about kolkhoz division: «Settlement system based on isolated farmsteads provide difficulties to see after each kolkhoz member theft of property is occur, further it will be difficult to detect theft of yield its easier to manage and to reduce to discipline being in kolkhoz, to look into the matter of each person it takes more than 8 hours to gather all to common meeting and its not possible to gather all the people due to long distance, people come to work out of step of the time, its impossible to detect the violation as well as overcome the mess on-time on the common meeting it was unanimously resolved that its better to divide us into two equal kolkhozes, everybody will work harder as well as it will be able to get the governancegoing better» ГАКО, Ф.325, Оп.1, Д.3 Л.169

24 The dynamics of rural population

25 List of settlements liable for further development and settlements liable for gradual liquidation and demolition (Ozersk Production and kolkhoz office ) agriculture 1. Sovkhos «Luzhki» 2. Sovkhos «Yudinsky» Perspectives settlements Лужки Пограничный Новостроево Юдино Destiny Population Liquidation Central estate Branch-office Central estate Branch-office Sovkhos Trudovik 4. Sovkhos «Ozersky» Ново-Гурьевское Central estate Суворовка Кадымка Жучково Дубрава Central estate Branch-office Branch-office Branch-office Kolkhos «Vlast truda» Садовое Шишково Central estate Brigade Ф Оп. 8. Д Л

26 Settling of Lower Neman lowland

27 Rural settlements according to the regions, 1939 in compasion with 2012

28 Settling system after 1945

29 History of settlement system forming Development after 1945 Current process

30 Population of settlements, 2010

31 Geodemographic situation

32 Service centers, 2000

33 Municipalities, since 2009

34 Saldo in rayons,

35 Saldo in communal units,

36 Factors Economic situation Municipal reform Infrastructure objects Change in agriculture sectors Support of major producers Unemployment, but luck of personnel

37 Thanks for your Attention!

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