ANALYZING THE INFLUENCE OF IE FACTORS ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PERFORMANCE USING KALMAN FILTER

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1 Journal o Science and Arts Year No. (9) pp. 99- ORIGINAL PAPER ANALYZING THE INFLUENCE OF IE FACTORS ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PERFORMANCE USING KALMAN FILTER NICOLETA VALENTINA FLOREA DOINA CONSTANTA MIHAI Manuscript received:.9.; Accepted paper:..; Published online:......the things o this world cannot be made nown without mathematics Roger Bacon Abstract. The human actor is nown as being one o the ey actors through which the organization may obtain success []. Only attracticng recruiting and maintaining those right candidates with proper sills nowledge and competencies an organization may obtain perormance in a global competiting environmet dynamic and in continuos change []. Perormance o a recruitment and selection process depends on the internal and external (IE) actors which are analyzed in our article. We implemented the Kalman ilter on a new area that o HR recruitment and selection because is well nown that this model has been used in engineering or in inance. This will help us to ind new solutions to develop new strategies to improve orecast accuracy to improve communication in recruitment and selection processes to now its limits and to overcome its ineiciecies and also to establish in what measure each actor internal or external will inluence our analyzed processes. Keywords: recruitment selection IE actors Kalman ilter perormance.. RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION IMPORTANCE FOR ORGANIZATION Recruitment regroups all activities aimed to analyze individuals their sills that it best or the requirements o the vacancy []. Recruiting is a set o actions taen by the organization to attract candidates with the necessary sills or immediate employment or a uture vacancy []. The recruitment process consists o several stages rom the preparation o recruitment when are identiied the needs or recruitment till the acceptance and integration o the new employee into the organization []. Recruitment is the most popular dimension o human resource management []. Recruitment is not a trivial activity but one o management that occurs either in emergency situations- winning new customers creating new jobs retirements departures or in planned situations- maing a recruitment strategies to be consistent with the organization strategy [7]. A study by the CIPD in 7 shows that the main objectives o the HR unction are recruitment and selection [8]. Valahia University o Targoviste Faculty o Economic Science Targoviste Romania. loreanicol@yahoo.com. Valahia University o Targoviste Faculty o Sciences and Arts Targoviste Romania. mihaidoina@hotmail.com. ISSN: 8 98

2 Analyzing the inluence o IE Selection is the process o discovery o candidate qualiications and its characteristics in order to determine their suitability or the vacancy [9]. Selection means "to pic and chose out" []. Selection o candidates is that decision which candidates are subjected to one o two possible situations - accepted or rejected. A good selection process will bring those people trained and a better classiication o people already employed and also will bring better compatibility o individuals with dierent characteristics o the vacancy []. I an employee does not have the right qualities or the job the organization will not get perormance []. Eective recruitment and selection practices will mae the dierence between success or ailure o an organization such as the sills nowledge and competencies mae the dierence to achieve organizational perormance []. On the selection o those necessary human resources the organization unctioning will depend to achieve goals []. HRM should have a value-oriented personnel policy and that policy must begin with a rigorous selection [].. THE INFLUENCE OF IE FACTORS ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESSES The importance o recruitment and selection depends on the inluence the internal and external actors have on these processes: the cost which varies according vacancy employment stability qualiication o human resources union presence technological change and consumer demands [] and the orientation size structure and strategy o the organization and political actors social economic cultural or legal... THE INTERNAL FACTORS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS Orientation and size o the organization The volume o recruits is establishe on the size o the organization and its sector o activity oten beign an indicator o the development o organizational strategies. The start o recruitment process requires nowing the organization orientation and these guidelines must be precise to achieve its objectives [7]. Organizational culture Due to relevant values promoted the culture positively inluences the desire or recruitment and hiring o candidates [8]. Large organizations with a strong culture adopt human resource management activities more sophisticated and socially responsible due to the costs involved and because it is under pressure o gaining legitimacy [9]. Organization structure Describes the allocation o duties and responsibilities o individuals and departments and designate the nature and grouping o individuals in organizations [9]. Each structural shape will meet unique challenges which will impact HRM. In organizations which have departments HR management is made by implementing recruitment selection training perormance evaluation and compensation processes and those who wor in teams need to

3 Analyzing the inluence o IE use new methods o analysis recruitment and socialization activities. This leads to better care or HRM implications on wororce diversity Business strategy Recruiting is not a ield by itsel but it belongs to HR planning and strategic planning o the organization []. Business strategy involves exploring activities analysis and deense. Exploring organizations are looing to develop those who analyze are looing to develop but in a stable and predictable way and those who are looing or deense are less concerned with recruiting candidates rom outside the organization and more interested in developing current employees. This classiication has implications on the HR low rom organizations []. The strategy applied by the organization has an important impact on HRM particularly on the recruitment and selection o employees [9]. Lie cycle o the organization Literature ocuses on changing management priorities whcih are charaterizing the organization in dierent stages o development such as: start growth maturity and decline or re-development [] and who inluence the existing HRM. * Phase - start. The employer conducts its employees alone because in this pase are ew ; * Phase - growth. This increase implies a larger number o employees and the organization must recruit select and hire and have iles or each employee; * Phase - maturity. During this period the proits increase and thus is a signiicant need or diversiication o operations. Recruitment and selection can be made by the organization and the specialized agencies thus creating new jobs ; * Phase - decline or re-development. In the decline phase the most important activity o human resources will become training the current employees and those that will be employed. In the re-development phase i the organization will revitalise the human resources department will create new jobs or specialists in the ield o human resources management. The number o employees increases having diversiied qualiications will develop negotiations with unions will appear new tass and complex legislation. Executive managers and HR managers need to see the recruitment and selection as the most important aspects o HRM while in mature irms greater care is given to maintaining employees [9]. Recruitment and selection team An eective recruiter never act alone []. For recruitment to be as eective recruitment team should be well trained and experienced in recruitment. Due to the array o eatures that have to meet a candidate recruitment team must consist o at least one psychologist a sociologist economists lawyers and a specialist to analyze the qualities sills nowledge and behavior o the candidate []. Choosing a candidate implicitly perorming the organization's perormance. Team eectiveness o recruitment and selection is to choose those people in the right place or interviewing and choosing the right person based on ethical principles o non-discrimination sustainable development equity and wellestablished integration programs thereby achieving individual eiciency and implicitly organizational []. An eective recruiter never acts alone []. In order or recruitment to be more eective the recruitment team should be well trained and experienced. Due to the array o eatures that have to meet a candidate recruitment team must consist o at least o one psychologist a sociologist economists lawyers and a specialist to analyze the qualities sills nowledge and behavior o the candidate []. Choosing a perorming candidate implicitly will guide to the perormance o organization. Recruitment and selection team eectiveness consist o choosing those people in the right place or interviewing and ISSN: 8 98

4 Analyzing the inluence o IE according to the ethical principles o non-discrimination sustainable development equity thereby achieving individual and organizational eiciency []. Jobs stability The employees will change jobs throughout their lie but they must want a lielong learning. This mobility will cost much the employer thereore it is necessary to develop eective programs to motivate and retain talented employees. Many candidates choosing a job maing a comparison between present job and their desired job []. By applying attractive rewards systems potential candidates will choose an organization base don the oered beneits: salary beneits pacage reputation learning and development opportunities which aect the ability to attract candidates or a vacancy []. When a potential candidate tae into consideration a hiring oer these beneits not only aects that person's decision to submit but the decision to remain an employee or a longer period o time in the organization. Union presence Economic boom rom 9-97 caused the emergence o trade unions. The old labor contracts included only inormation on pay and leave now it includes clauses on technological change and retirement []. In the U.S. employees who belong to unions receive to other employees up to % more in salary and these unions are credited as having the role to improve woring conditions and saety [7]. Unions give lie to its members establish policies and procedures to improve woring conditions and increase the level o pay job security and health insurance and pension beneits [8]. Unions have seen a decline in recent years due to external orces such as international competition and the shit rom manuacturing to a service economy. HRM researchers need to understand recognize and incorporate these realities in their wor i they want organizations to achieve success in a global context [9]. Ethics non-discrimination and equal opportunities Recruitment represents the organization windowthrough that people watch and observe its activities such as social responsibility ethical behavior sustainable development non-discrimination and diversity [7]. Every day managers and organizations are orced to mae decisions that have moral implications. As a manager it is important to understand the ethical obligations to meet the expectations o the organization and be taen as a model o its employees. This means to act airly and honestly in relation to employees (recruiting and hiring). Organization must propose itsel in achieving recruitment policy to meet the ollowing characteristics [9] to announce all the jobs internally to respond to all applications or employment to inorm all the employees the essential data about the conditions o employment to eiciently process all applications or employment received rom the candidates starting rom their basic sills and to give due consideration to each person interviewed equitably. Diversity In recent years this activity has been increasingly promoted and supported in terms o ethics ensuring a diverse wororce and in terms o management needs. Thus we analyze three main actors []: an organization to provide an environment compatible with diversity by promoting the organization and its culture maintain a balanced gender ethnicity religion or color be attention to where and how the recruitment is conducted and what eects it will have on diversity candidates. Applicant should perceive the organization as a positive place where you can wor [] so some steps are required in applying the principles o diversity []: the image o diversity diversity in recruitment team integration applicating new

5 Analyzing the inluence o IE methods o recruitment such as anonymous resumee inserting in the recruitment notice o images and texts that support the use o diversity; statements o organization in which it shall equal employment or use by organizations o recruitment ads and special materials []. Sustainable development Recruitment and selection based on nowledge sills and abilities human resource development and motivation mae organization to have the ability to develop sustainably and respond rapidly to a constantly changing environment. Employees who engage in sustainable activities and adopt principles o sustainable development will become sustainable human resources. I the organization and its valuable employees are aligned (with ethical woring conditions healthy and sae) will increase sta morale and their engagement. Employees involved in such programs will recommend the organization will be loyal and motivated. The human actor is nown as a ey actor or achieving international success o the organization []. Practitioners recognize the value o the role o HR in achieving organizational objectives []. Under the principle o "healthy people in healthy organizations and a healthy environment" HR plays an important role in the implementation o sustainable development activities. Level o qualiications Beore to employees were required to be only strong and healthy and now are required to understand a business plan to provide maximum eiciency to provide eedbac to manipulate a machine or a computer to be able to wor in a team to participate in decisionmaing through participatory management etc. Exclusion based on judicial history on ethnic bacground or political records [8] or subjective preerence o a candidate over another should not aect recruiting but the competencies must be the only criterion that can avor a candidate and increase the proits or an organization. Talent war must be silent because it announces a huge number o people but should reach only those persons which have those rare sills necessary to carry out certain activities. So "it is not easy to attract talents" []. Talent is that positive notion that human resources specialist is always needed. Knowledge More and more specialists recognize that the success o a company is determined by a range o nowledge nowledge which reers to products / services promotion distribution or processes which dier rom competitors providing added value to customers. Competitive advantage obtained through human resources should be a goal o all modern companies. Unortunately their role is not recognized in all the organizations. A set o rules (VRIN Architecture) should be respected in order to achieve competitive advantage through employees [7]: resources must be valuable- people are a source o competitive advantage when they are involved with the eicient and eective achievement o objectives rare it means that nowledge sills and abilities must be unique diicult to imitate- it means that these resources are not among employees o other competitors and irreplaceable- it means that HR to hold those unique nowledge that other people do not have and good results can be achieved when talent is combined and developed through wor. Competencies and sills Competencies can be natural (lie personality) acquired (lie education sills and experience) and adapted (lie career results the candidate's ability to use natural and acquired sills) [8]. By competence it is understood those responsibilities designed and maintained by employees assigned as a result o negotiations and agreements between them and the managers [9]. Management sills are piloting an organization that mae production and development sills a major vector o perormance and value creation in the organization. ISSN: 8 98

6 Analyzing the inluence o IE Management sills involves sorting internal resources which is competitive advantage or the organization []. Measurement and evaluation o a candidate's sills are activities heavier than we imagine so analyzing the nowledge and sills held by them []. Competencies are deined as an individual's recognized capabilities in mobilizing its own resources to achieve actions and pending the results expected []. More precisely we can deine recruitment as a set o actions taen by the organization to attract candidates with the necessary sills or immediate or uture employment o a vacancy []. Policy and human resource management practices Without nowing the strategies and policies o the organization without an analysis o the organizational long-term planning situational awareness absences retirements recruitment methods become inaccurate and imprecise and human resource management in an organization could not have a proper planning o vacancies or movement o human resources []. One o the irst measures to be taen when planning recruitment is to establish policies and procedures. Recruitment policy is the code o conduct o the organization in this ield [9]... THE EXTERNAL FACTORS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS Internationalization Increasing the international interdependence and globalization o marets has led or the last two decades to an internationalization o business organizations. Internationalization is not only expanding national management activities abroad it also means an increase in complexity and modernization o HRM. They are motivated by the multitude o unctions and activities that have gained international character loads generated by heterogeneous economies o the countries the increased ris due to the personal nature and causes o inancial ailure on commitments abroad etc. []. HRM needs to address a number o operational issues as: reducing costs and increasing quality recruitment and selection o competent candidates hiring training mentoring adaptation and integration o the new employee into the organization and reintegration o oreign labor. Globalization Due to developments in technology demographic changes and globalization the world o wor is changing. Given that competition is increasingly ierce the labor maret evolving HR must quicly adapt to a world in the process o globalization in order to deal with any challenges. Thus by adopting modern techniques with internet access labor becomes every day more and more demanding in terms o employee-employer relationship. The impact o globalization and ICT recruitment and selection processes have resulted obtain lexibility and responsiveness o employees. Thus the labor maret using new methods o recruitment and selection to increase eiciency and improve woring conditions reduce stress time and expense o recruiting and selection and widening geographical areas o recruitment and selection. Globalization is a phenomenon o the modern era. Mutations in HRM occur in response to changes occurring in the external environment o the organization. Currently labor maret is highly inluenced by complex phenomena such as labor migration rom Eastern Europe the European internal maret development and competition conjectural developments in technology demographic changes globalization the impact o ICT on HR

7 Analyzing the inluence o IE employment appearance o new proessions the world division o labor and the emergence o multinational irms. Labor maret conditions Some economic dimensions including unemployment labor diversity and structure o the labor maret are considered important macroeconomic variables. The entire recruitment process is expensive since the search candidates and training o those carrying out recruitment and the cost varies depending on the number o vacancies ; with an unemployment level below the average o % in Europe the new generations the withdrawal generations retire compete to become increasingly acute among organizations. Such organizations hire those who have some potential and are willing to develop their sills []. Organisations may use dierent institutions and dierent categories o candidates to attract them: universities the relationship between organizations and universities are beneicial or both sides [] placement agencies can be an important source o recruitment people with disabilities they ace various negative attitudes but the organization must tae into account or certain activities and retirees who because they possess sills which can be a source o recruitment should not be orgotten. Technological change In the past wor was done by people with less aid rom the machines today robots are replacing the human resources. Computerization presence is elt in human resources through programs that assess candidates' CVs in record time and maes the recruitment process in a short time; impact o technology on the social dynamics o organizations has been long recognized but little time American researchers have determined the implications o technology on human resource management [9]. Snel and Dean [] showed that human resource management is directly inluenced by the presence o advanced technology quality management and just-in-time control. A study made in manuacturing irms has shown that companies which are using traditional technologies to those that are using advanced technology were less involved in selective hiring training development evaluation and air payment []. The combination o the complexity o existing technology in an organization and human resource management is an indicator o climate conducive to technical equipment. Legal and political actors In recent decades the state has adopted many laws on labor relations so employees are better protected; during the two processes o recruitment and selection candidates should not be discriminated so the candidates will be chosen on sills and nowledge criterion. Because American companies have been operating across borders they were aced with legal problems o the host countries [9]. European countries are obliged by law to allocate some money or training and development. Social and economic situation Some candidates submit their resumes or positions or which they are qualiied or less qualiied so those ho recruit must be careul when recruiting candidates " overqualiied " A number o actors have led to the trend shit rom ull-time employment to atypical conditions such wor rom home ixed-term contracts or part-time alongside their outsourcing and contracting with external collaborators. Outsourcing o recruitment and selection can be one o the chosen services irm to better ocus on activities that now better to perorm. This is supported by well-nown authors in the ield o management Tom Peters who urges companies to ocus on what I can do better. But regardless o the available ISSN: 8 98

8 Analyzing the inluence o IE wororce an organization must pay particular attention to the recruitment and selection processes even i they are outsourced to be sure that the human resources o the organization is satisied with the most eicient manner possible [7]. Attractive area location The organization the more close to inhabited areas (especially urban) the candidates are more interested in enrolling in a post vacant currently no organizations; but or example tourist areas can attract candidates. Education and culture Researchers have shown that the practices o recruitment selection and retention o employees are closely lined to culture [8]. When a company wants to expand its business in another country must consider the criteria on which the selection is perormed otherwise you will have diiculty in recruitment and selection o sta. A study in the 8 Western companies operating in Russia has shown that personality and experience are the main criteria or selection. Consequently criteria such as certiicates and diplomas mattered less in comparison with honesty ambition team spirit willingness and ability to learn. In the international context multinational companies establish criteria equivalent. Recruitment and selection due to dierences in educational systems and cultural speciicities o each country. Not understanding the dierences between the education systems o dierent countries may generate obstacles to recruitment and selection o employees using the system equivalence []. Emergence o multinational irms Because American organizations have expanded their operations beyond their borders they were aced with legal problems o the host countries [9]. For example in European countries organizations are required to establish certain amount o money or training and development. For corporations where employees are expatriates immigration can inluence decisions in human resources [9] and can meet the social and political realities. For example in some countries civil and religious laws can co-exist and deine the legal context or human resource management. The experience gained by them in recent decades conirms that the greatest beneits were obtained rom organizations that have successully integrated the latest achievements in science and technology within their organization and also promote high standards or sta training []. Today multinational corporations is a massive presence in the global economy they internaţionalizând and production services. Global corporations are positive orces or development and economic prosperity []. Multinational companies have brought human resources policies and thereore new methods o recruitment and selection. In the multinational companies recruitment and selection o a strategic gain as promoting parent company strategy and values o the host country is provided by managers and employees involved in its subsidiaries. The emergence o strategic alliances Competitive advantage increasingly depends not only more internal capabilities o a company but also the types o alliances and the scope o its relations with other companies []. Collaborative wor between companies has a proound eect on managerial practices implicitly on best practice recruitment and selection. Alliances can be ormed in order to increase maret access reducing costs increasing productivity and sales proit and improve the image []. Alliances are now perceived as a means to add value to the irm ocusing on strategy nowledge and opportunity to involve competitors. Alliances appear in various legal and organizational orms some contract some based on a joint venture [].

9 Analyzing the inluence o IE 7 Competition When some experience is required or a job there are various competitors which can be in the same area or the same area. Even small companies can beneit rom employees at large companies that own sills obtained rom training programs ollowed []. Multinational companies may ace labor maret globally with a very intense competition. Image and brand o the organization The results o this practice have an economic impact on the organization the social impact on the organization and its image and psychological impact on candidates : loss o conidence and trust in the organization []. Recruitment activity not only supply resources but also one mareting. So when trying to recruit employees the organization does nothing to compete with other organizations to obtain suitable candidates. I you are treated airly and eectively candidates communicate on a positive image even i their application is unsuccessul hiring. I the organization has a negative recruitment eorts may be limited []. To become an employer reerence organizations must improve their ability to attract and retain employees and candidates []. Recruiting the organizational brand combines elements such as recruitment and mareting to present a true and positive organization among those to be recruited. This combination o human resources and mareting allows the organization to excel in attracting talent and customers []. Organizations need to attract employees in the same way that attracts customers. To be a real "magnet" among candidates the organization needs to now how to draw and once established relationship between them we must recruit and retain them [7]. Brand talent is a mareting tool that provides the required number o employees. Organizations must involve employees in the development and improvement o organizational brand [8]. Especially in organizations that provide services employees are customer brand image [9]. When the organization is a leader has certain inluence on the people they employ what positions and how they are organized to operate []. In the current increasingly people react more to their organization's name and reputation and rumors or inormation provided by the nowledge []. In a recent study o 7 people % said that the most recent job was occupied by nowledge []. The brand must not only smart and attractive advertising developed by the company's mareting department but must ensure that what loos on the outside it is inside []. The strategic role o the HR department In large irms and multinational alignment is achieved by recruitment and selection processes in vision and objectives o the organization while the small and medium there is no HR department to conduct recruitment and selection processes and manager o the company is directly involved in choosing employees through an intuitive management. Department o HR has a strategic role in the organization by: staing orecasting order planning human resource planning by analyzing the organization's objectives [9] methods used in the determination o human resources estimating human resource needs based on productivity labor tass or job analysis and job designation speciication writing sta (by determining behaviors nowledge and sills o candidates in hiring vacancy) the content o recruitment using mareting methods to attract a suicient number o potential employees that the vacancy using internal and external sources to meet the requirements o vacancies use o recruitment methods and techniques as varied using new recruitment techniques to attract a large number o candidates using new methods and techniques or selection conducting interviews with a specialized team consisting o economists sociologists and psychologists (without distinction) to better understand the behavior and thining o each candidate []. ISSN: 8 98

10 8 Analyzing the inluence o IE Maret dynamics Substantially aect human resource management. Today the European internal maret is becoming stronger by removing many barriers between countries. Also when taing into consideration: increased traic o goods communications policy media policy consumer policy literacy policy ree choice o employment and residence stability we can say that we are witnessing the essential events will give rise to signiicant changes. They go to standardize on one hand and on the other hand avors the growth o maret dynamics. Changes in marets leading inevitably to a new application personnel both quality and quantity time with them on getting sta to change and the increased demands on sta development. - Outsourcing - Outsourcing recruitment process gaining more ground in the organization and is explained by []; - Routine process outsourcing using all unctions o the organization - the organization may outsource only certain phases o the process and those considered strategic eeping them to control the process; - The importance given to the process in time and money - may be more cost eective i outsourced; - The level o proessionalism o some external providers - recruitment agencies thus reducing the ris o outsourcing. In recruiting aims []: - The quality o internal customers - adequacy individual post by indicators such as the percentage o employees at the end o the probationary period the assessment activity ater one year the degree o leaving the job early - Quality external clients - use indicators such as the number o spontaneous applications. Most organizations ocus increasingly more on their core activities and related activities (recruitment selection) are delegated to specialized organizations or in certain countries where costs are lower [].. ABOUT KALMAN FILTER AND ITS STEPS OF IMPLEMENTATION The Kalman ilter is an estimator or is called the linear-quadratic problem which is the problem o estimating the instantaneous []. Kalman ilter is a recursive algorithm or optimal processing o inormation about the system studied. It incorporates all the inormation that is provided by the system by processing the measurements available given their degree o precision in order to estimate the current value o the variable o interest [7]. Producing accurate economic orecasts using data-based quantitative models is diicult. The model must be based on past data [8]. Kalman algorithm is based on three elements: () nowledge o the system and mechanism dynamics measurements; () a statistical description o the system noises measurement errors and uncertainty in dynamic models [9]; () any available inormation about the initial conditions o the variable o interest.

11 Analyzing the inluence o IE 9 Whether a descrete dynamic system modeled by an Itô stochastic equation: x ( t t ) x + Γ( t ) w N + = Φ + + () where through x we denoted the system estate at the moment t x R Φ being a square matrix non-singular o order n matrix o passing o system estates r Γ M n r ( R) and { w } N is a white vectorial Gaussian sequence w N ( Q ). We suppose that x the initial condition is a random variable with a given independent repartition and independent rom the sequence { w } N. We also consider the stochastic equation which models the observation process which tae place over the estate system: n y m ( t ) x + v N H M v N ( R ) R > = H m n. () We suppose that the sequences { w } şi { } N v N are independent. Kalman algorithm as deined above is a set o equations that provides an eicient means o computing and recursively estimate the state o a dynamic system supporting all nown inormation about the system. Filter equations consist o two groups: the time evolution equations o the system and the equations or updating data inormation obtained by statistical measures. The time evolution equations provide the projection on the time and the estimate o the current state error covariance matrix to obtain estimates or the next step while the update equations o the eedbac data carries out by incorporating the ollowing estimate new inormation about the system state in order to improve them. Thus while evolution equations are called prediction equations and updating the inormation with the new measures are called correction equation [7]. At least in the case o discrete Kalman ilter algorithm resembles the algorithm predictor - corrector. Fig.. The mode o action o the Kalman ilter. The two types o equations are summarized below. Proposition. [7]:. Equations o evolution in time o the discrete Kalman ilter are: xˆ P ( t t ) xˆ + = Φ + () T T ( t t ) P Φ ( t t ) + Γ( t ) Q Γ ( t ); + = Φ () ISSN: 8 98

12 Analyzing the inluence o IE. Time evolution equations estimates the states o the dynamic system design and the covariance matrix rom time to time are the matrices deined above and which appear in the stochastic dierential equation system (.') while the covariance matrix deining the nature o the disturbing process.. Actually matrices and changes in each iteration but it can be assumed constant.. Equations or updating inormation through new statistical measurements the Kalman ilter are: [ + R ] T T K P H ( t ) H ( t ) P H ( t ) () xˆ xˆ + K ( xˆ ) ( t ) y H ( t ) = () T T [ I K( t ) H ( t )] P [ I K( t ) H ( t )] K( t ) R K ( t ) P = + n n. (7). First requirement i the measurement update is to compute the value o the expression Kalman. The next step is to update the measurement process obtaining the vector and then to generate an estimate o the system by incorporating new measurements as shown in (). The inal step is to obtain an estimate o the covariance matrix o the estimation errors (7).. Ater each set o update equations and measurement time by perorming repeated algorithm a new estimate used later in the design and prediction o the next step. Recursive nature is a quality oering Kalman ilter application - maes practical implementation more easible condition estimate all past measurements. The igure below gives a complete loo to the operation o the ilter combining equations diagram in Fig. above. 7. First requirement or measurement update is to compute the value o the expression Kalman. The next step is to update the measurement process obtaining the vector and then to generate an estimate o the system by incorporating new measurements as shown in (). The inal step is to obtain an estimate o the covariance matrix o the estimation errors (7). 8. Time ater each set o equations and measurement update algorithm is repeated by perorming a new estimate used later in the design and prediction o the next step. Recursive nature is a quality oering Kalman ilter application - maes practical implementation more easible condition estimate all past measurements. The igure below gives a complete loo to the operation o the ilter combining equations diagram in Fig. above.

13 Analyzing the inluence o IE Fig.. A complete picture o the behavior o the Kalman ilter combining the diagram o Fig.. Propozition : Filter parameters and regulation When implementing the ilter the noise covariance matrix R aecting the measurements is usually measured prior to the time at which the ilter operates. The measurement covariance matrix R is in general possible because in practice the measurement system may be perormed at any time (and under the eect o the ilter in some cases) so that in general need to now the noise variance measurement [7].. Determination covariance matrix Q o the system disturbance is generally more diicult especially when we are not able to directly observe a system whose evolution estimate. Sometimes a relatively simple model can produce acceptable results i one "injects" enough uncertainty in the selection o system dynamics matrix Q. Certainly in this case we might hope that the measurements made on the system are sae.. The other situations when we have a reasonable basis or the choice o parameters in time superior perormance can be improved by setting the ilter parameters o the ilter R and Q. adjustment occurs requently with another Kalman ilter separately an process that resembles an identiication system.. When Q and R are constant both estimates o the error covariance matrix + P + P + and Kalman's harmonizing actor will stabilize quicly and remain constant. Where appropriate these parameters can be pre-calculated every time the ilter independently or or example by determining the stationare value P.. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The importance o Kalman iltering in engineering is well now [7] but it is also one o the most popular in inance stoc prices and many other areas where it can be employed [7]. This article is describing how the Kalman ilter can be used to estimate dynamic interaction o IE actors on HR recruitment and selection processes. Factors inluencing the recruitment and selection must be reduced to munimum negative inluence and positive impact should be streamlined to the maximum to achieve perormance []. The actors inluencing the recruitment and selection processes are divided into groups o internal actors and external actors group. ISSN: 8 98

14 Analyzing the inluence o IE Internal actors- actors divided into categories with actors each - organizational structure orientation and size o the organization organizational culture - human resource policies and practices team recruitment and selection employment stability - business strategy lie cycle o the organization trade union presence - ethics and non-discrimination diversity sustainable development - level o sills nowledge and abilities External actors- actors divided into categories with actors each - internationalization globalization the emergence o multinational irms 7 - labor maret conditions the strategic role o HR department outsourcing 8 - technological changes political and legal actors education and culture 9 - attractiveness o the area and brand image o the organization the emergence o strategic alliances - competition maret dynamics socio-economic situation Determine the inluence o each actor on actor analyzed with the values between and where minimum inluence and - maximum inluence. It establishes and mutual inluence o each actor in its own group and in the second group eliminating their inluence on actor analyzed as ollows: - Internal actors o the organization according to the environmental analysis o mareting theory inluence each other but are also inluenced by external actors o the organization; - External actors according to the same theory not inluenced by actors in the internal environment o the organization but only inluence each other. = = = = = = = = =+7+8+ =

15 Analyzing the inluence o IE ISSN: 8 98 Thus we propose to analyze the evolution o a dynamic system using Kalman ilter. The system is governed by the actors remember which inluence each other through a linear matrix described by the ollowing equation: = We transorm the matrix system estate in a stochastic matrix Φ = and obtain Ito stochastic dierential equation with which we intend to study the evolution o the system: ( ) N w x t t x + Γ Φ = + + = I Γ ( ) Q N w ( ) where the estate vector is : ( ) T x =. Equations () are: ( ) > = + = R R N v I H N v x y ( ) For the studied system the equation () o the ilter is written as:

16 Analyzing the inluence o IE z = Φ ( ) x Was redeined the estate variable z xˆ + = x = ˆ and the estate matrix x Φ = Φ( t ) is remaining constant in time ( R) + t Φ M and has the next orm:.... Φ = Equation () o the ilter or the studied system is: A T = ΦP Φ Q; ( ) + To implement MATLAB program we renoted the matrix the co-variance matrix Q + = Q is considered constant in time. A P + = These renotations appear in this manner in the next equations o the ilter: P = P and [ A + R] K A ( ) x = z + K ( y z ) ( ) P T T [ I K ] A [ I K ] + K R K = (7 ) n Running data using MATLAB helps us to analyze the inluence o disturbing actors and dynamics actors that impact on each other and on the processes o recruitment and selection analysis. By turnover data is also analyzed and the system states ater a certain period state denoted by n where n = or. Factors to note the state vector o the system are analyzed and analyzes the results o the intererence ilter them and absorb noise maing it a dynamic system into a more stable. By running the system data were obtained the ollowing results with the initial values

17 Analyzing the inluence o IE ( ) y Q = I P = I R = I : x = aleatory n = z n = x n = z n = x n = z n = x resulting that we obtained on the irst places as importance inluence on recruitment and selection processes: For n= Zwe have. For n= X we have 8 7. For n= Z we have. For n= X we have and. For n= Z we have. For n= X we have Ater more turnovers we see that is several times on the irst place then and. That means that recruitment and selection are inluenced more by - business strategy the lie cycle o the organization trade union presence - level sills our nowledge sills and abilities - organizational structure orientation and size o the organization organizational culture - ethics and discrimination diversity sustainable development and - human resource policies and practices team recruitment and selection employment stability and - competition maret dynamics socio-economic situation - internationalization globalization emergence o multinational irms and 7 - labor maret conditions the strategic role o the HR department outsourcing. T x = P I R = I For ( ) = y aleatory ISSN: 8 98

18 Analyzing the inluence o IE it is obtained: Q = n = z n = x n = z n = x n = z n = x resulting that: or n= n= n= (Z and X) on the irst places are the ollowing actors: where - business strategy the lie cycle o the organization trade union presence - level sills our nowledge sills and abilities - organizational structure orientation and size o the organization organizational culture - policies and practices human resources team recruitment and selection wororce stability - ethics and non-discrimination diversity sustainable development.. CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS Implementing this model it can be made partial observations analysis and inding advantages but also some limitations which can be reduced. Knowing them the organizations may develop good strategies and maing new decisions. Applying this model allows: - the HR manager to study HR recruitment and selection in detail and their complexity - the managers to be inormed o the potential consequences the impact o recruitment and selection processes on organizational perormance or to establish an alternative course o action

19 Analyzing the inluence o IE 7 - explaining and understanding the past inluences o IE actors on recruitment and selection processes and orecasting the uture inluences - using large volumes o data about dierent candidates - maing quic adaptation to new situations - taing into account the eects o one-o special events - bringing new inormation and alternative perspectives to the orecasting tas - oering statistical challenges or maing rational assessments - improving orecast accuracy and better communication in recruitment and selection processes - investing little eort in exploring the model evolution or to limit its ineiciencies - oering inormation about average perormance o recruitment and selection processes over a number o periods - supplying eedbac motivation and implicitly organizational and individual learning - drawing attention to HR managers to mae pertinent decisions. This model has also some limitations: - the orecast may generate less accurate data - it can generate results inconsistent with economic theory - the ris to obtain less eicient results - it can be subjected to systematic biases and ineiciencies that can damage orecast accuracy - the costs o greater complexity and data collection - the poor quality due to low expertise and subjective judgement o the researchers regarding the problem structuring decision maing and judgemental assessment - the minimization o orecast errors - it can mae real predictions to suit their objectives or to achieve credibility. Despite their limitations quantitative models can lead to an enhanced understanding o the reasons underlying the past behavior o economies. For its application it is not always possible or desirable to measure every variable that you want to control and the Kalman ilter provides a means or inerring the missing inormation rom indirect and noisy measurements. From the standpoint o those involved in estimation and control problems this is considered the greatest achievement in estimation theory o the twentieth century. In this article we discussed the problem o initializing a Kalman ilter and using stochastic equations in a new area that o HR recruitment and selection where there is no analysis made. We made an analysis under the pressure o internal and external actors obtaining results o interest which provide general solutions necessary or decisions maing and problem solving. REFERENCES [] Porter M.E. The Competitive Advantage o Nations MacMillan London 99. [] Sims R.R. Organizational success through eective human resources management Greenwood Pub. Inc.Group USA. [] Cornet A. Warlaud Ph. Gestion de RH et gestion de la diversité Dunod Paris 8. [] Lahdar S. et al. Gestion de ressources humaines Universite de Boec Canada. [] Guillot-Soulez C. La gestion des ressources humaines e Ed. Gualiano Paris 9. ISSN: 8 98

20 8 Analyzing the inluence o IE [] Benchemam F. Galindo G. Gestion des resources humaines Gualino ed. Paris 9. [7] Thevenet M. et al. Fonction RH metiers et outils de ressources humaines Pearson Edu Paris 9. [8] Foot M. Hoo C. Introducing HRM Pearson Edu.Ltd Harlow England 8. [9] Pattanaya B. Human resources management Prentice Hall New Delhi India. [] Sutter P.E. Comment recruter ou se aire recruter Ed. de Boec Universite Paris 7. [] Campbell J.P. Knapp D.J. Exploring the limits in personnel selection and classiication US Army Research Institute or the behavioral and social sciences p. -. [] Gatewood R.D. et al. Human resources selection Thomson South-Western USA 8. [] Catano V.M. et al. Recruitment and selection in Canada Nelson Edu.Ltd. USA. [] Waxin M.F. Barmeyer C. Gestion de RH internationales Liaisons Publishing House Cedex 8. [] Florea N.V. Impactul globalizării asupra proceselor de recrutare şi selecţie a resurselor umane Conerence Proceedings o the AOSR () 9 9. [] Florea N.V. Auditul resurselor umane C.H. Bec Publishing House Bucharest. [7] Campoy E. et al. Gestion des ressources humaines Pearson Education France p. 8. [8] Manolescu A. Managementul resurselor umane Economica Publishing House Bucharest. [9] Schuller R.S. Jacson S.E. Strategic HRM Blacwell Pub. Oxord 7. [] Kleynhans R. et al. Human resources management Pearson Cape Town p.8. [] Snow C.C. Snell S.A. Staing as strategy. In. Schmitt N. Et al. Personell selection in organization Josey Bass San Francisco 99. [] Baird L. Meshoulam I. Managing the two its o strategic HRM Academy Management Review 988. [] Bonte F. Bustos Y. Méthodes de recrutement. Techniques pour les recruteurs astuces pour les candidats Librairie Vuibert Paris. [] Stegaroiu I. Florea N.V. Tehnici și instrumente de recrutare și selecție C.H. Bec Publishing House Bucharest. [] Florea N.V. et al. HR recruitment selection and employment eiciency in Romanian organisations International Conerence Modern Approaches in Organisational Management and Economy ASE Bucharest pp november 9. [] Grimshaw E. The perect it. Advanced sills or inding and hiring the ideal candidate DragonRising Pub. East Sussex UK 9. [7] Lowler E.E. Mohrman S.A. Unions and the new management Acad. Manage.Exec [8] Armstrong M. Baron A. Employee reward CIPD London. [9] Cole G.A. Personnel management CODECS Publishing House Bucharest. [] Berman E.M. HRM in public service: paradoxes processes and problems Sage Pub.Inc USA. [] Brie A.P. Diversity at wor Cambridge University Press UK 8. [] Brenet T. La diversité dans l entreprise. Les bonnes pratiques AFNOR Editions.

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