Industrial Symbiosis in Biofuel Industries: A case for improved environmental and economical performance Michael Martin

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1 Industrial Symbiosis in Biofuel Industries: A case for improved environmental and economical performance Michael Martin Environmental Technology and Management

2 What do you know about biofuels?

3 Problems with Biofuel Production Biofuel production systems have questionable performance Food vs. Fuel Debate Depletion of Rainforests Which vehicle to choose? Are they really green? CO2 Emissions equivalents?

4 Social and Ethical Biofuel Issues

5 Food vs. Fuel Debate

6 Media and some academics only see the problems. Environmental Economic Energy

7 What are biofuels and how are they produced?

8 Biofuels for Transport Vehicle fuels derived from biomass and wastes Solid Liquid Gas Replacement of traditional/conventional fuels Total substitution Partial (blending) Dual Fuel

9 1 st vs. 2 nd Generation Biofuels First Generation Biofuels Common Produced from allocated feedstocks Second Generation Biofuels Created from ligno-cellulose Not common More development needed HUGE POTENTIAL!

10 Biofuels for Transport 3 Main Fuels for Transport Ethanol Biodiesel Biogas SVO, Pure Vegetable Oil

11 Ethanol Raw Materials Sugar Rich Crops Sugar cane Sugar beets Starch Rich and Cereals Sorghum Sweet Potatoes Wheat Corn (Maize) Cellulosic Crops Abundant

12 Ethanol Production Process

13 Ethanol Production Material/Energy Flows Other chemicals to balance ph Biogas from waste water treatment Heavy alcohols Fats from Seeds and Grains

14 Biodiesel Raw Materials Raw Materials Sunflower Oil Rapeseed (Canola) Waste Cooking Oils Animal Fats Soybean Oil Jatropha Cashews Algae Etc...

15 Biodiesel Production Production Transesterification of oils and fats Seperate glycerin and methyl esters Uses Methanol or Ethanol and catalysts

16 Biodiesel Production Material/Energy Flows Heating done with electricity, water or other means Methanol Recovery Glycerol produced contains some chemicals Biomass from plants

17 Biogas Raw Materials Manure Food Residues Biomass Sewage Landfills Glycerin Rubber Fats Mats Eklund and his V70 Bi-fuel

18 Biogas Production Anaerobic fermentation of organic matter Produces methane and CO2

19 Biogas Production Material/Energy Flows Smuggled Booze Cloetta Chocolate Arla Products Scandic West and Restaurant wastes

20 How can biofuels improve their environmental & economic performance? Industrial Symbiosis

21 Industrial Symbiosis for Biofuel Production Make use of material and energy flows Outputs can be used as raw materials External Industries for Biofuel Raw Materials and Ouputs Energy/Material Cascading Synergies

22 What are Synergies? syn-ergo Greek for Working together Several Parts Final outcome greater than sum of the parts

23 What are typical biofuel synergies? Using ethanol for biodiesel production Using glycerol for biogas production Ethanol stillage used for biogas production Biogas digestate used as biofertilizer for biofuel crops Pelletizer from ethanol production used to pelletize biogas digestate Oil/Fat from ethanol production used for biodiesel production Flue gases from biogas plant taken care of at ethanol facility Materials cascaded (Corn example) Combined capture/use of CO2 Waste heat used for subsequent processes

24 Bad Example, No Symbiosis: U.S. Ethanol & Stand Alone Plants Use Coal and Oil for Fuel Questionable Energy Efficiencies No conection to other industries Run by incentive programs

25 Bettering the Ethanol in USA (Material Cascading Synergies) Pressing Corn Meal + Organic Fluids Digestate Distillers Grain Ethanol Production Biodiesel Production Ethanol Glycerol

26 Regional Biofuel Industries

27 Norrköpings Industrial Symbiosis Agroetanol Svensk biogas Holmen Paper Graphic Packaging E.ON Norrköpings kommun Econova Tidnings- Retur drank ånga fordonsgas fordonsgas biogas hh-avfall fjärrvärme biobränsle aska vs-avfall slam rejekt returslam fiberslam slam tidningar Jordbruk vete gödsel Sweden Bioenergy glycerol, rester rapskaka IL Recycling Göran Årsjö Däckstommar Colmec gummi däckstommar Cleanaway etiketter, lim Returpack PET-flaskor Rostiprimpac PET tidningar kartong Skogsbruk flis flis

28 Regional Agriculture Fodder Manure Seedcake Grains Wheat Biomass Raps Oil Stillage Glycerol Methanol Heat, Electricity & Steam CHP Plant Biomass Greenhouse Linköping and Surrounding Communities

29 The Biogas Concept: Wastes to Winnings = CH 4

30 Improved Performance with Integrated Biogas Systems Cascading = Energy + Economics Why not pure biogas?

31 Biofuel Synergies in Tanzania

32 Synergies and Symbiosis with External Industries

33 Biofuel Industry External Industry Synergies C02/Water from Ethanol production for Algae Production Glycerol used as a carbon source in biological cleaning steps Glycerol used as binding agent for wood pellets Wet Stillage used for Animal Feed Direct (no drying) C02 trapped from Ethanol, Biogas production for Greenhouses Waste heat from ethanol, biodiesel and biogas used in nearby greenhouses Waste water from biodiesel or ethanol production used for Salix production

34 Potato Chip Waste Biofuels + Ethanol Production

35 Low Quality Cashews for Biodiesel PVO Generator Cashew Tree Oil Biodiesel Processing Biodiesel Cashew Fruit & Nut Oil Extractor Press Cake Digester Biogas Animal Feed

36 Ethanol Systems Perspective

37 Effects on Energy Balance, Pål Börjesson Option 1: Energy Balance, 1.2 Current Production Systems All Energy allocated to ethanol Option 3: Energy Balance, 1.7 Future Production Systems Increased use of waste heat All energy allocated to ethanol Option 8: Energy Balance, 5.2 Current Production Systems Hay used to provide heat and energy Energy input from ethanol and malt pellets Use of some malt to offset protein fodder imports (Börjesson, 2007)

38 Systems Performance: Good Example Option 6, Energy Balance = Heating Fodor 2.0 Prod. Harvest Malt Pellets Ethanol Energy In Energy Out

39 Systems Performance: Best Case Example Soy Protein Feed Energy In: 0.76 Energy Out: 7.2 Energy Balance: 9.2

40 CO2 Storage/Combustion from Industries

41 The Future?: C02 and Heat Algae

42

43 Conclusions Economical Benefits Environmental Performance Carbon Capture Potential Efficient use of Materials and Energy Better view of biofuels

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