GLOBAL WARMING AVOIDED EMISSIONS WITH THE ADOPTION OF BIOFUEL POLICIES IN SPAIN.

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1 GLOBAL WARMING AVOIDED EMISSIONS WITH THE ADOPTION OF BIOFUEL POLICIES IN SPAIN. Y.Lechón, H. Cabal, N. Caldés, M. Santamaría, and R. Sáez.

2 Objectives to evaluate and quantify the GHG emissions of the production and use of fuels that have equivalent functions : ethanol from cereal crops gasoline 50 ppm of S biodiesel from oil seeds biodiesel from reused oil diesel 50 ppm of S along their whole life cycle to calculate, based on the above results, the GHG emissions avoided due to the implementation of biofuel goals in Spain under different biodiesel and bioethanol support policies Determine the biodiesel and bioethanol introduction scenario that maximizes global warming avoided emissions

3 Methodology Life Cycle Assessment (UNE-EN-ISO ) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity including the entire life cycle from extracting and processing raw materials to final disposal. From the cradle to the grave

4 Life Cycle Assessment. LCA. INPUTS Raw materials Raw materials procurement Production OUTPUTS Atmospheric emissions Liquid effluents Energy Use/Reuse/ Maintenance Recycling Waste management Solid wastes Co-products Other wastes

5 LCA. Studied systems. Bioethanol. System E5: production and use of the blend E5 (5% ethanol and 95% gasoline) System E85: production and use of the blend E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) System gasoline: production and use of unleaded gasoline ppm S in a flexible fuel passenger car, (Ford Focus 1.6i 16 V Zetec Flexifuel) driving according to the driven cycle defined in the 98/69/EC Directive;

6 LCA. Studied systems. Biodiesel. System BD5A1: Production and use of biodiesel from oil seeds, blended with diesel in a 5%. System BD10A1: Production and use of biodiesel from oil seeds, blended with diesel in a 10%. System BD100A1: Production and use of pure biodiesel from oil seeds. System BD5A2: Production and use of biodiesel from reused oil, blended with diesel in a 5%. System BD10A2: Production and use of biodiesel from reused oil, blended with diesel in a 10%. System BD100A2: Production and use of pure biodiesel from reused oil. System Diesel: Production and use of diesel from crude oil 50 ppm S in a diesel passenger car (Ford Focus 1.8 Tddi 90 CV), driving according to the driven cycle defined in the 98/69/EC Directive

7 Functional unit. The amount of fuel expressed in MJ of each fuel needed to drive one kilometre E85: 2.24 MJ/km E5: 2.36 MJ/km Gasoline: 2.36 MJ/km Diesel, biodiesel and blends: 1.89 MJ/km

8 Raw materials Bioethanol production: Domestically grown cereals (wheat and barley) Imported cereals from Europe (UK and Denmark) Biodiesel production Domestically grown sunflower and rapeseed Imported soybeans (USA), imported rapeseed (France), imported palm oil (Thayland) Base case Bioethanol : domestically grown wheat and barley Biodiesel from oil seeds: 40% soybean oil (imported seeds) 25% rapeseed oil (5% domestically produced rapeseed and 95% imported rapeseed) 25% imported palm oil 10% sunflower oil (domestically produced seeds)

9 Source of data. AOP. Data related to the extraction, transport and oil refining for the production of gasoline ands diesel in Spanish refineries Higher Technical School of Agricultural Engineering (ETSIA) of the Madrid Polytechnic University. Data related to the stages of agricultural production of cereals and oil seeds in Spain. Abengoa Bioenergía. Data related to its ethanol production plants located in Cartagena and Curtis Bunge-MOYRESA. Data related to oil extraction processes from oil seeds. BIONOR, BIONET EUROPA y ACCIONA Biocombustibles. Data related to the biodiesel production processes ECOGRAS RECUPERACIÓN Y RECICLADO S.L.. Data related to the process of collecting and recycling the reused oil. Ford. Data related to emissions and fuel consumption by the reference vehicles with the different types of fuel under consideration

10 Results. GHG emissions g CO2 equiv/km Ethanol production Final use Transesterification of waste oils Waste oil transport Waste oil recyling Waste oil collection Distribution Refining Crude oil transport Crude oil extraction Tranesterification Oil refining 0.00 Diesel EN-590 BD5A1 BD10A1 BD100A1 BD5A2 BD10A2 BD100A2 E85 E5 E0 Oil transport Oil extraction Seeds trasnport Seeds production

11 Results. GHG emissions avoided. E85: 136 g CO2eq/km (67%) E5: 8 g CO2eq/km (4%) BD100A1: 92 g CO2eq/km (56%) BD10A1: 9 g CO2eq/km (6%) BD5A1: 5 g CO2eq/km (3%) BD100A2: 144 g CO2eq/km (88%) BD10A2: 15 g CO2eq/km (9%) BD5A2: 8 g CO2eq/km (5%) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 88% 67% 56% 3% 5% 6% 9% 4% BD5A1 BD5A2 BD10A1 BD10A2 BD100A1 BD100A2 E85 E5

12 Sensitivity analysis Origin of the seeds to produce bioethanol and biodiesel Saturation of the glycerine market Production of bioethanol without CHP units

13 Sensitivity analysis. Origin of the seeds 250 GHG emissions (g CO2 equiv/km) BD100A1 Base case BD100A1 from Imported soy BD100A1 Imported rapeseed BD100A1 Imported palm oil BD100A1 Domestic sunflower BD100A1 Domestic rapeseed E85 Domestic cereal E85 Imported cereal BD100A2 Diesel Gasoline

14 Sensitivity analysis. Co-products. Saturation of glycerin market and ethanol production without CHP 250 GHG emissions (g CO2 equiv/km) BD100A1 Base case BD100A1 without coproducts BD100A2 BD100A2 without coproducts E85 base case E85 without CHP Gasoline Diesel

15 Biofuel goals in Spain Directive 2003/30/CE 2010: 5.75% total vehicle fuel consumption An Energy policy for Europe. COM (2007)1 2020: 10% total vehicle fuel consumption Law 12/ : 1.8 % total vehicle fuel consumption (indicative) 2009: 3.4 % total vehicle fuel consumption (binding) 2010: 5.83 % total vehicle fuel consumption (binding)

16 Biofuel goals in Spain. Scenarios Year Aggregate biofuel consumption goal % BD/BE support scenarios considered A)Maximum support to Bioethanol B)Maximum support to Bioediesel C)BD/BE support proportional to fule consumption A)Maximum support to Bioethanol ktoe Gasoline Diesel Total Lineal (Total) Simple linear extrapolation of the observed tendencies from year 1998 until year % % B)Maximum support to Bioediesel C)BD/BE support proportional to fuel consumption A)Maximum support to Bioethanol B)Maximum support to Bioediesel C)BD/BE support proportional to fuel consumption Scenario A Bioethanol Biodiesel Scenario B Bioethanol Biodiesel Scenario C Bioethanol Biodiesel

17 Scenario analysis GHG emissions avoided (Mt) Scenario A Scenario B Scenario C 2010 (5.83%) 2020 (10%)

18 Conclusions (1/2) Under the current biofuel production and use conditions in Spain, there are clear benefits in terms of GHG emissions avoided arising from the use of biofuels mixtures, compared to the use of fossil fuels, especially when the blend has higher biofuel content. Best results correspond to biodiesel produced from waste oils. Results from the sensitivity analysis have shown that there are important differences in GHG emissions of biofuels production and distribution depending on the raw material used and whether this is domestically produced or imported. Bioethanol production using imported cereals has higher GHG emissions associated compared to bioethanol produced using domestic cereals. Biodiesel production from palm oil has shown the worst results in GHG emissions; whereas it is worthy to note the good results obtained by biodiesel production from domestic sunflower.

19 Conclusions (2/2) Bioethanol produced without CHP units would produce very little GHG emissions avoided. Biodiesel production and use in a context of glycerine market saturation would produce worse results but still would shown benefits compared to the use of diesel in terms of GHG emissions avoided. The substitution of biofuels for conventional fuels in the percentages set by the EU Biofuel Directive and the Energy policy for Europe can have important benefits in terms of global warming emissions avoided. GHG emissions benefit would be maximized with a policy of maximum penetration of bioethanol.

20 Thank you!

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