Therefore, this is a very important question, which encourages consideration of the current management of the resource.

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1 Aalisarnermut, Piniarnermut Nunalerinermullu Naalakkersuisoqarfik Department of Fisheries, Hunting and Agriculture Finn's speech to NAFMC Climate change in the North Atlantic has become a reality which we each experience in different ways and I believe that the effects will be increasingly apparent in the future. One of the areas where I feel we need to adjust our practices in order to meet the challenges caused by climate change is in the utilization of our marine resources. The effects of climate change on the living marine resources in the North Atlantic impact greatly on those communities that are dependent on fishing. Therefore, this is a very important question, which encourages consideration of the current management of the resource. Effects of the climate changes Here in Ilulissat it is evident how global warming impacts the melting of the glaciers. Understandably, the melting glaciers have become a symbol of climate change and the threat of rising water levels is an important global concern. The period 2005 to 2010 was the warmest ever in the Arctic regions, and resulted in longer and drier summers, reduced sea ice and an enormous loss of inland ice. Science has made it clear that global warming is occurring at a faster rate in the Arctic regions than in other places in the world. And the rise in temperature is far more serious here. Scientific scenarios indicate that we can expect an average temperature increase of up to ten degrees in the Arctic regions in this century. The Arctic regions play an important role in the understanding of the effects of climate changes in the Arctic area, but also in regard to the effects on the global climate system. The melting of the Greenland ice sheet, Antarctica and glaciers around the world is faster now than in the past. Over just the last decade, the rise in global sea levels increased from 1.8 mm per. year to 3.4 mm per year. The latest forecast says that sea levels could rise by up to one meter by year This has severe consequences for other vulnerable communities in lowlying countries far from the Arctic and can give the world community immense problems. The people of the Arctic regions It is important for me to emphasize that climate change also impact the people of the Arctic regions and challenge our ability to adapt. The Arctic regions are home to many indigenous 1/7

2 peoples whose cultures and activities have been formed by the Arctic climate through generations. We have a long tradition of living in close interaction with the nature on which we are dependent. We have observed the climate changes and we have adapted ourselves, our lifestyle and our traditional gathering of food. Through generations, indigenous peoples in the Arctic regions have been used to dealing with climate changes. But what we have experienced in recent years is that the weather patterns are becoming more unpredictable, which makes it more difficult to trust the traditional knowledge that has been passed on from generation to generation. Changes in the quality and extent of snow and ice impact the livelihood in many communities and threaten the cultural survival of some indigenous peoples. Climate change has affected the Inuit population's access to some of our important fishing and hunting locations and consequently challenges our traditional lifestyle. Climate change places us in a position where our traditional way of life and our unique Arctic biodiversity face new and more radical changes not least challenges we must meet together. Observations Here in Disko, the bay is covered in ice in winter and the ice functions as an important transport route with dog sledges for the winter's traditional ice fishing for Greenland halibut. The situation now is that the season for ice fishing is shortened in line with the warmer temperatures. Previously, ice fishing lasted from October to May, but now the ice period is shortened from December to March. This winter, however, there was no possibility for ice fishing at all and ice fishing as an occupation is now almost gone. Many ice fishermen have, however, been able to adapt to the new conditions, which is why they fish from small boats dinghies instead. During the period the ice is melting, ice fishing is dangerous. At the same time, the ice cannot be used for ordinary inshore fishing either since the ice is still too thick for the small boats to launch. As a result of climate change, we see that this period is longer than it used to be, and the consequence for the fishermen is a much poorer yield in their fishing. Hunters in Uummannaq which is north of here - have observed significant changes in the weather and environment. The sea ice freezes later, the ice is thinner and it breaks up earlier. According to a survey done among the polar bear hunters in North-Western Greenland, there have been almost precisely the same observations of similar changes in the ice conditions. 2/7

3 Ten years ago you used to be able to predict what the weather would be like tomorrow. Today, it is far more unpredictable as the weather can change quickly and storms occur more often. Previously, there used to be snow in the autumn which ensured calm weather conditions and snow until the spring. There used to be two stable seasons; winter and summer. Now, summer and winter have become shorter, while spring and autumn are now longer and generally have more rain and more unstable weather. Adapting In line with the rise in temperatures, we expect the inland ice to continue to melt, changes in the permafrost and changed ice conditions on land and at sea. These are all factors that affect our society and our living conditions, and this requires adaptation initiatives and more resilience. Adapting to climate change is a priority and we have a long tradition of adapting to a changing climate. As with any kind of change, regardless of whether it is caused by climate changes or any other types of changes, it is natural for people to take advantage of the opportunities that come about and cope with the challenges that arise. The government of Greenland is working on integrating adaptation to climate changes in the management of natural resources. Consequently, a study was carried out in 2012 which focuses on the possibilities of climate adaptation in the fishing and hunting industries. Climate change bring new economic opportunities for the shipping industry, especially in the form of shorter sailing routes, longer sailing seasons and increased access to oil and gas resources. But there is also uncertainty and challenges related to these opportunities in the form of safety and environmental considerations, among other things. The occurrences of minerals, rare earths and gems will become more accessible as the ice gradually withdraws. This will form the basis for a potential mining industry in Greenland. Other opportunities within the extraction industry, for example, within oil and gas have also become more accessible due to the reduction of sea ice. Less sea ice and a longer ice-free period helps extend the sailing season and opens up for new sailing routes. New sailing routes can become a reality in this century. Climate change improves the conditions for agriculture in south-westerly Greenland, which will experience longer summers and less harsh winters. In South Greenland climate change has, over the past 5 years, resulted in less rainfall. This has the consequence that sheep farmers are experiencing that lambs are born smaller and grass 3/7

4 yield decreases. Small lambs, combined with the fact that you have to import feed from abroad, results in poorer economies for sheep farmers. Fortunately, last year there was a lot of rain and good results, but fact is that the weather has become more unpredictable. Knowledge and sufficient information forms the basis of suitable adaptation. Greenland is a focal point for comprehensive research in climate change and through continued focus on climate related monitoring and research activities, Greenland contributes significantly to the strengthening of national and international climate research. Opportunities and challenges Greenland is sparsely populated and we have no solid infrastructure to connect our more than 70 towns and settlements. As a consequence of this, Greenland is facing considerable challenges when it comes to maintaining a well-connected society in order to meet the needs for transportation and basic energy supply there is a need for large volumes of fossil fuels. Six large towns in Greenland get electricity from hydro power, which corresponds to 70 percent of the electricity consumption. The fishing and hunting industry are important to our national identity and these industries constitute a livelihood for many families, especially in the smaller settlements. But these industries will not only encounter cultural and social challenges. Fishing is the backbone in Greenland's economy and is Greenland's most important export sector. The consequences that climate change will have on the fishing industry will therefore have major direct and indirect consequences not only for the industry itself, but for the Greenlandic society as a whole. In the coming years it is clear that the Greenlandic shrimp fishing will be significantly limited as recruitment of the stock has been poor for several years and there is yet no biological basis for replacing it with fishing for cod. Despite new fishing opportunities, the overall profit from fishing faces major challenges as the shrimp fishing comprises such a considerable part of the sector's income. A reduced shrimp stock or even a collapse of this as a result of climate change will have considerable consequences for Greenland's economy. New opportunities It is important for me to note that climate change also brings new opportunities and that in some instances it is possible to turn the challenges into opportunities. 4/7

5 It is only natural that we consider how these opportunities can form the basis for our country's development - as any country would do. The Greenlandic fisheries are very vulnerable and we try to optimize what we have while being very aware of the opportunities in new fishing activities. Until recently, Greenland had generally not had occurrences of pelagic species, which constitutes a large part of the fishing activities in other parts of the North Atlantic. However, the waters in East Greenland are currently undergoing major climatic changes. Rising sea temperatures have seen species such as mackerel and herring now appearing in East Greenlandic waters. Exploratory fishing of pelagic species has taken place in the past two years and will continue this year. Since mackerel migrated into East Greenlandic waters in around 2011, significant changes have occurred for the Greenlandic fishing industry and with a exploratory quota of 100,000 tonnes of mackerel in 2014, mackerel fishing is expected to become Greenland's largest fishing activity. As yet there is no biological advice for mackerel in Greenland as it still a new fishing activity. The marine ecosystems are undergoing bigger changes than so far observed in Greenland. The cause for the mackerels' migration to East Greenland is, among other things, ecosystem and climate changes, including a rise in the sea temperature over the past ten years. The changed environmental conditions in East Greenland is also the reason why other pelagic stocks such as herring and blue whiting can be found today in larger quantities in East Greenland. At the same time, the cod seems to have improved. New challenges We don't know yet if mackerel will remain in our waters - and in the large quantities we have seen last year. It is an entirely new species in Greenland and there is a need for a great deal of knowledge about mackerel, including how it will influence the ecosystem. We would like to understand why the mackerel has migrated into Greenlandic waters. Will the stock be gone next year perhaps? Can we carry out long-term planning of the fishing activity? How should the fishery be taxed? How should we invest in the new fisheries? In addition, there is a challenge in adapting the fleet capacity in both Greenland and throughout the North Atlantic - the fleet capacity is expected to grow - as Greenland and Iceland now are part of the mackerel fisheries. We must consider what the ships will fish for the remainder of the year after the mackerel season. At the same time, changed and new fishing activities can have consequences for the processing factories on shore. This development will require a significant adjustment of the fishing industry in the form of investments in new equipment, utilization of new fishing methods, developing new knowledge of the fishery and utilization of new fishing grounds, etc. The uncertainties about the effects of 5/7

6 climate change can increase and can impact the industry's desire to make the necessary investments in order to better utilize the fishing resources. Therefore, it is important to have timely management of the resources that keep up with the climate changes. This must also be seen in relation to the changed behavior and migration patterns of the catches. The changes in the fish stocks in the North Atlantic have led to increased conflicts of interests about the distribution of the resources. International agreements on fishing activity have become challenged. The challenges increase if the management of the fishing resources is unable to keep up with the actual development in the stocks. Research and cooperation Monitoring and registration of new species traditionally commences simultaneously with the start of the new fishing activity. Biological advice is typically brought about when a solid body of data has been collected. In any case, it is important to make the right decisions at the right time so that the fishery does not over-exploit existing fish stocks or ignores any new opportunities. I believe that there is a need to analyze the effects of climate change on fish stocks in the North Atlantic. We all face the challenge of distributing shared fish stocks agreeing on the principles for distribution as the stocks are migrating. It is appropriate to consider whether the management systems in the North Atlantic countries are suitable for a more dynamic future. The changes we face in our future fishing activities must take into consideration the great complexity and the many aspects involved in the management of fishing activities. I would like to emphasize the importance of increasing research cooperation throughout the North Atlantic - within marine environment, biological research and management - in particular on our shared fish stocks. Greenland takes part in the joint research cooperation where the entire range of the mackerel is studied in order to gain a complete picture of its distribution - also of all the relevant Greenlandic sea areas. The countries in the cooperation - Iceland, Norway, Faroe Islands and the EU - also exchange data and scientific studies. On the basis of a special grant from the government of Greenland in the amount of DKK 2 million, the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources is working together with their Icelandic counterparts in carrying out studies on the distribution in Eastern Greenland in /7

7 The mackerel distribution in the area between Iceland and Greenland has not yet been studied in its entirety. A strengthening of joint research and monitoring of the resources in the North Atlantic can ensure that the adaptation to new fishing activities and the adaptation of the existing ones can keep up with the faster changes so that fishing can continuously take place on a sustainable basis and that agreement can be reached on the distribution of the resources. Thank you very much. 7/7

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