1 Pollution CO CO 2 Carbonaceo us soot H 2 S, NOX, SO2
2 The National Building Code (NBC) contains set of minimum provisions, designed to protect the safety of the public with regard to structural sufficiency, fire hazards and health aspects of buildings. 1 st Published st Revision nd Revision 2005
3 OBJECTIVE NATIONAL BUILDING CODE PART - 4 Fire and Life Safety. (This Part covers the requirements for fire prevention, life safety in relation to Fire and Fire protection of buildings. The Code specifies construction, occupancy and protection features that are necessary to minimize danger to life and property from fire.
4 NBC - SECTIONS MAIN SECTIONS Part - 0 Integrated Approach - Prerequisite for applying provisions of this code (This part covers guidelines to be followed for judicious implementation of the provisions of various Parts/ Sections of the Code). Part 1 Definitions (This Part lists the terms appearing in all the Parts/ Sections of the National Building Code of India). Part 2 Administration (This Part covers the administrative aspects of the Code, such as applicability of the Code, organization of building department for enforcement of the Code, procedure for obtaining development and building permits, and responsibility of the owner). Part 3 Development Control Rules & General Building Requirements (This Part deals with the development control rules and general building requirements to ensure health and safety of the public). Part 4 Fire and Life Safety. (This Part covers the requirements for fire prevention, life safety in relation to f ire and fire protection of buildings. The Code specifies construction, occupancy and protection features that are necessary to minimize danger to life and property from fire.
5 MAIN SECTIONS NBC - SECTIONS Part 5 Building Material (This Part of the Code covers the requirements of building materials and components, and criteria for accepting new or alternative building materials and components). Part 6 Part 7 Structural Design (This Section covers basic design loads to be assumed in the design of buildings). Constructional Practice and Safety (This Part of the Code covers the constructional planning, management and practices in buildings; storage, stacking and handling of materials. It also covers guidelines relating to maintenance management, repairs, and strengthening of Buildings). Part 8 Part 9 Building Services (This Section covers requirements and methods for lighting and ventilation of buildings). Plumbing Services (This Section covers the basic requirements of water supply). Part 10 Landscaping, Science & Outdoor display structures (This Section covers requirements of landscape planning and design).
6 BEURO OF INDIAN STANDARDS Main Indian Standards on Fire Systems Design: IS: 2190: 1992 IS: 2189: 1988 IS: 15908: 2011 IS: 3844: 1989 IS: 13039: 1991 IS: 15105: 2002 Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of portable first - aid fire extinguisher (third revision) Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of automatic fire detection and alarm system (second revision) Selection, Installation & Maintenance of Control & Indicating Equipment's for Fire Detection & Alarm System-Code of Practice Code of practice for installation of internal fire hydrants in Multistory buildings. External Hydrant Systems Provision & Maintenance - Code of practice Design & Installation of Fixed Automatic Sprinkler Fire Extinguishing Systems - System-Code of Practice
7 NBC - SECTIONS Group Type Purpose A Residential Building in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes with or without cooking. B Educational School, college and training institutions for day-care purposes. C Institutional Building which is used for purposes, such as medical or other treatment. D Assembly Building, where number of persons not less than 50 congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, purposes. E Business Building which is used for transaction of business. F Mercantile Building, which is used as shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise, either wholesale or retail. G Industrial Building in which products or materials of all kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled, manufactured or processed, H Storage Building used primarily for the storage or sheltering (i/c servicing, processing / repairs incidental to storage) of goods, ware or merchandise J Hazardous Building which is used for the storage, handling, manufacture or processing of Clause highly combustible or explosive materials. Any building not covered by Annex B or shall be classified in the group which most nearly resembles its existing or proposed use.
8 KEY CHALLENGES FIRE ALARM SPRINKLER PUMPS GENERAL FIRE CONTROL ROOM SPRINKLER IN ATRIUM WATER STORAGE & PUMPS DETECTION IN BASEMENT DESIGN PARAMETERS PUMP ROOM LOCATION BEAM STRUCTURE OPTIONAL EXCEPTION PUMP ARRANGEMENT BASIC TERMS REFUGE AREA & FIRE CHECK FLOOR BASEMENT COMPARTMENTATION DETECTOR SITTING OBSTRUCTIONS WATER CURTAIN DETECTORS IN BATHROOM ONE & TWO WAY COMMUNICATION KEY POINTS
9 FIRE CONTROL ROOM NBC-2005 For all buildings 15 m in height or above and apartment buildings with a height of 30 m and above, there shall be a control room on the entrance floor of the building with communication system (suitable public address system) to all floors and facilities for receiving the message from different floors. BIS: Control & Indicating Equipment's for Fire Detection & Alarm System-Code of Practice 1.Control Centre of area 15 to 20 M Sq Mtr. 2.The Control room shall have attached WC & drinking water facility Hrs Manning. 4.Mimic Panel of premises protected. 5.Segregated from AC system of rest of building. If ducts are common, provide damper. 6.In complex building with multiple entries, discuss with local fire authority for control room.
10 DETECTION IN BASEMENT 1. Is it mandatory in the first place? if so then which part in NBC & relevant clauses call for it? 2. If not, how important Is it from Life safety point of view? 3. Are the other builders getting away with it in NOIDA? 4. Can we do away with it and save some Rs. 1.5 cr /on an average Early information is basement is must for fast evacuation as these areas are critical and unattended most of the time and thus allow fire to spread with in building, if reaches to hazardous condition. Sprinklers activate at later stage (68 degree C). Fire alarm system is required to activate the smoke extraction system in basement for extraction of smoke to help occupants to escape at the earliest.
11 BEAM STRUCTURE Heat Detector (Beam Structure) D < 4 Inches = Smooth Ceiling spacing. D > 4 Inches, spacing not more than 2/3 rd of listed, perpendicular to beam. D > 18 Inches, separate area. Smoke Detector (Beam Structure) D < 10% of ceiling height = Smooth Ceiling spacing. D > 10% & < 40%, spacing not more than 1/2 of listed, perpendicular to beam. D > 40%, Separate area. D
12 HEAT DETECTOR SITTING DETECTOR BIS:2189 NFPA-72 Ceiling Height Spacing Ceiling Height (M) Multiply Listed Spacing (15M) by M (15 x 1 =15M) M M M M (15x 0.34=5.1 M)
13 DETECTOR SITTING SMOKE DETECTOR Without Forced Ventilation Up to 6 M height 9.0 M 6 M to 7 M height 7.5 M 7 M to 8 M height M 8 M to 9 M height M 9 M to 10 M height 5.0 M BIS: 2189 NFPA - 72 ACPH Area Sq Meter ACPH Multification Factor (9.1 M) > (9 X 1 = 9M)
14 DETECTOR SITTING BIS: 2189 NFPA - 72 All points on the ceiling shall have a detector within 7.5 m in case of smoke detector and 5.3 m in case of heat detector. Detectors shall be located on the ceiling not less than 500mm from sidewall Detectors shall not be mounted within I m of any air inlet (HVAC system). On the sidewalls between 150 mm and 300 mm from the ceiling. Voids as in false ceiling/flooring more than 800 mm shall be protected with detectors. All points on the ceiling shall have a detector within a distance equal to or less than 0.7 times the listed spacing Smoke- 9.1 x 0.7 = 6.37 M Detectors shall be located on the ceiling not less than100 mm from sidewall Detectors shall not be mounted within 950mm of air inlet (HVAC). On the sidewalls between 100 mm and 300 mm from the ceiling. Voids as in false ceiling/flooring shall be protected.
15 DETECTORS IN BATHROOMS
16 ONE & TWO WAY COMMUNICATIONS SP SP SP Audio Riser Segment Panel Zone S. P.A. Amp P.A. Amp A.S
17 KEY POINTS All stairwells, lift shafts, other utility shafts etc, shall have a detector at the top. Lift machine rooms shall be provided with a detector. Detectors shall not be required below open grid ceilings if openings constitute at least 70 percent of the area of the ceiling material. Detectors shall not be required in concealed, accessible spaces above suspended ceilings that are used as a return air plenum. Bathroom, lavatories need not be protected. A lobby smoke detector shall be located on the ceiling within 21 ft (6.4 m) of the centerline of each elevator door.
18 SPRINKLER IN ATRIUM Sustainability Concern Indoor environment quality, air quality, ventilation, restricted air movement Sustainable Solutions Open Spaces like atria
19 DESIGN PARAMETERS BIS: Description Light Hazard Moderate Hazard High Hazard Definition Non industrial bldgs. individual room area is not more than 125 Sq. mtr. and all walls are going up to roof. Occupancy Minimum Pressure (Hydraulically) Non industrial bldgs. individual room area is more than 125 Sq. mtr. and/or all walls are not going up to roof. Hazard Table Manufacturing Occupancy 0.70 Bar 0.35 Bar 0.50 Bar Design Density 2.25 L/m/m 2 5 L/m/m 2 10 L/m/m 2 Assumed Area of Operation 84 m m m 2 Coverage area of Sprinkler Water Velocity Side wall- 17m 2, Max Spacing M Other - 21m 2, Max Spacing-4.5 M Side wall- 09m 2, Max Spacing 3.4 M Other - 09m 2, Max Spacing M In general 09 m 2 Spacing 3.4 M Storage 10 m 2 Spacing M Water velocity shall not exceed 6 m/sec at any valve or flow monitoring device, or 10 m/sec at any other point in the system
20 OPTIONAL EXCEPTION SPACE BELOW STAIRS
21 OPTIONAL EXCEPTION
22 OPTIONAL EXCEPTION BIS: Sprinkler protection required in case ceiling void is 800mm or more. Sprinkler protection required at top of elevator shaft, chute etc. Its required in boot and motor of escalator. Its required in lift pit where is there is possibility of accumulation of debris. Sprinkler protection is required under ducts or other obstructions, if width of obstruction is more than 1m. However its also required if width is more than 800mm and distance of obstruction from side wall is less than 150mm. Sprinklers shall be provided under work tables if there is power source below the table.
23 SPRINKLER IN BEAM COFFER As per National (BIS: 15105) and International (NFPA-13) codes, the beam depth is not the deciding factor for putting sprinklers in coffer. In actual, it s the distance of sprinkler from edge of beam. If sprinkler is coming with in distance if 1 feet from beam, then we can provide it below the beams and no requirement of taking sprinkler in coffer. However if distance of sprinkler is increasing from one feet, than the position of deflector shits towards roof.
24 WATER STORAGE & PUMPS
25 PUMP ROOM LOCATION Preferably the pump house shall be located outside the building at minimum distance of 6M from adjoining building as per BIS: As per NFPA-20, it shall be 50 m away from building. In case pump room is located inside the building (Gnd or basement),it should be separated from the rest portion with a wall having 2 h (4h)fire rating and fire check door at its entrance having 1 h tire rating. As per NFPA, the rating required shall be of 2 Hrs. The pump room inside the building shall have direct access in form of ramp / stair. The fuel tank capacity shall be sufficient to run the diesel engine pump for minimum 4Hrs as per BIS: As per NFPA-20, Fuel supply tank(s) shall have a capacity at least equal to 5.07 L per kw (1 gal per]hp), plus 5 percent volume for expansion and 5 percent volume for sump.
26 PUMP ARRANGEMENT A minimum clearance of 1 m at front and back and 0.75 m on sides and between pumps should be provided for all major pumps exceeding 2280 LPM capacity. For smaller pumps, including jockey pumps, the clearance required should be 0.75 m at front and back and 0.60 m at sides and between pumps. The head room clearance for all pump houses should be minimum 2.75 m. As per BIS: 12469, the foundation of pumps shall have minimum grade of reinforced concrete as M 15. The thickness of the foundation shall be 50 mm for pumps up to 900 LPM, 75 mm for up to 2280 LPM, 100 mm up to 4500 LPM and 150 mm for higher pumps. As per NFPA-20, the weight of foundation must be at least 5 times the weight of pump-motor set. Foundation bolts of proper size should be embedded in the concrete to a depth of 8 inches to 12 inches and locked with either a hook around reinforced bar or by using J shaped bolt. The capacity of the jockey pump shall neither be less than 3 percent (with a minimum of 180 LPM) nor more than 10 percent of the installed pumping capacity.
27 BASIC TERMS Fire Load: The Maximum heat that will generate if all the contents of that space i/c walls, partitions, furniture etc. will burn. It can be expressed in KJ/Kg (1KJ=1btu). Fire Exit: A way out leading to escape route. It can be door way or even horizontal exit. (Corridor). Building Height: The vertical distance from the average level of ground floor to the terrace of the last liveable floor of the building adjacent to the external wall; Fire Tower: The enclosed staircase outside the building with approach from all floors and separated by respective floor area by fire resistant door. High Rise Building : All buildings 15 m or above in height shall be considered as high rise buildings. As per NFPA, its 23 M.
28 FIRE RESISTANCE STAIRCASES: STAIRCASE WALLS - 2 HOUR RATED; STAIRCASE DOORS / EXIT DOORS - 2 HOUR RATED; GLASS IF USED IN STAIRCASE - 2 HOUR FIRE RATED. LIFTS AND LIFTS LOBBIES: LIFT WALLS - 2 HOUR FIRE RATED; LIFT LOBBY DOOR - 2 HOUR FIRE RATED; LIFT LANDING DOOR - 1 HOUR FIRE RATED. ELECTRICAL SUB STATIONS: CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING WALLS / DOORS / CUTOUTS - 4 HOUR FIRE RATED. BOILER ROOMS : CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING WALLS / CUTOUTS - 4 HOUR FIRE RATED. DOOR - 2 HOUR FIRE RATING. SHAFTS: ENCLOSURE / INSPECTION DOORS OF ELECTRICAL SHAFT 2 HRS FIRE RATED ENCLOSURE / INSPECTION DOOR OF OTHER SHAFTS - 1 HOURS FIRE RATING
29 REFUGE AREA
30 BASEMENT PARKING NBC recommends that for basement car parking: a. Split area in to different compartments, each of no more than 1125 Sq Mtrs (If sprinklered). b. Provide Smoke Ventilation to achieve 30 Air Changes Per Hour. c. Limit Travel Distance to 45 Meters. The intent of compartmentation is to contain fire with in a certain space, delaying the spread, aiding occupant evacuation.
31 WATER CURTAIN Water Curtain Nozzle distributes water in the form of a flat extending all the way to the ground for fire compartment segregation. The fire water curtain system is designed prevent the fire from propagating into adjacent areas in case of a fire incident. The Water Curtain system consists of Pipe network, Water Curtain nozzles and Deluge Valve with trims. In case of fire, the Addressable detector at the basement ceiling level shall detect the heat and send the signal to the Fire alarm panel. The Fire Alarm Panel shall send the signal to the solenoid valve of the deluge valve of the respective zone. The Deluge Valve shall open to spray water through water curtain nozzles.
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