Look at Our Galaxy. by Eve Beck. Space and Technology. Scott Foresman Reading Street 2.1.2

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1 Suggested levels for Guided Reading, DRA, Lexile, and Reading Recovery are provided in the Pearson Scott Foresman Leveling Guide. Space and Technology Look at Our Galaxy Genre Expository nonfiction Comprehension Skills and Strategy Main Idea Fact and Opinion Text Structure Text Features Chapter Titles Table of Contents Diagrams Glossary Scott Foresman Reading Street ISBN-13: ISBN-10: by Eve Beck

2 Look at Our Galaxy by Eve Beck Note: The total word count includes words in the running text and headings only. Numerals and words in chapter titles, captions, labels, diagrams, charts, graphs, sidebars, and extra features are not included.

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 4 Our Solar System CHAPTER 2 9 Space Exploration CHAPTER 3 12 The Future Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions. Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Pearson. NOW TRY THIS 14 A Solar System Mobile Glossary 16 Photo locations denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R), Background (Bkgd) Opener:(Bkgd) Getty Images, (C) NASA; 1 MSFC/NASA; 6 JPL/NASA; 7 Getty Images; 8 NASA; 11 NASA; 12 NASA ISBN 13: ISBN 10: Copyright by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permissions, write to Pearson Curriculum Rights & Permissions, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Pearson is a trademark, in the U.S. and/or in other countries, of Pearson plc or its affiliates. Scott Foresman is a trademark, in the U.S. and/or in other countries, of Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates V0G

4 Chapter 1: Our Solar System Our solar system has eight planets. These eight planets orbit the Sun, which means they travel around the Sun. Earth, where we live, is one of the eight planets. The others are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. There are also millions of large pieces of rock orbiting the Sun. These are called asteroids. The Sun is the center of our solar system. The word solar means having to do with the Sun. The solar system includes the Sun and everything circling the Sun, including the planets and asteroids. The Sun is actually a star. It keeps everything orbiting around it by a force called gravity. Each orbit is the shape of an oval. This picture shows the Sun and planets of our solar system. Which planet is closest to the Sun? Which is farthest away? Can Earth you find Earth? Venus Mercury Neptune Jupiter Mars Saturn Sun Uranus 4 5

5 The solar system also includes the planets moons. Six out of the eight planets have moons. Earth has only one moon. Mercury and Venus have no moons. Mars has two small moons. Uranus has five large moons and many small ones. Neptune has two large moons and eleven smaller ones. Saturn has more than 40 moons. Jupiter has more moons than any other planet. It has more than fifty moons! Jupiter Saturn Saturn and three of its moons Jupiter and one of its moons 6 7

6 Each planet moves in its own orbit. The planets change position as they move. Their distance from the Sun also changes. Look at the diagram of Earth and the Sun below. Use your finger to trace Earth s orbit. It takes Earth 365 days to orbit the Sun one time. Chapter 2: Space Exploration Scientists use spaceships, robots, and satellites to explore space. People called astronauts travel into space. Many astronauts are also scientists. Astronauts train for many years to do their job. They need to be healthy. They also need to know how spaceships work. Satellites are spacecraft that are sent to orbit Earth without people on them. We can learn new things about our solar system from the information astronauts, robots, and satellites bring back. Earth Sun 8 9

7 Let s look at some space exploration missions. The first satellite launched by the United States was called Explorer 1. It was sent into space in January In 1964, Mariner 4 flew by Mars. It took the very first close-up photographs of another planet. In 1969, the first humans landed on the Moon. They were American Apollo astronauts. Deep Space 1 was a spacecraft built to use new equipment in space. The mission was a success! In 2001, Deep Space 1 flew past a comet called Borrelly and took photographs of it to send back to Earth. Comet Borrelly Apollo 11 astronauts walked on the Moon. Deep Space

8 Chapter 3: The Future An exciting mission is taking place right now on Mars. It is called the Mars Exploration Program. Two robots, named Spirit and Opportunity, landed on Mars in January These robots are trying to learn if life could ever have existed on Mars. In addition to current study, scientists are making plans for the future. One of their plans is the Mars Science Laboratory. A laboratory is a place where scientific information is gathered. The Mars Science Laboratory will be special. It will be a robot that can gather even more information than Spirit and Opportunity are collecting! Many scientists hope that we will be able to explore more of the galaxy. A galaxy is a huge star system. Our Sun is just one star in a galaxy called the Milky Way. Some people hope space travel will be easier. By the time you are grown up, you may be able to ascend into space and descend back to Earth, even if you re not an astronaut. This robot can drive on the surface of Mars

9 Now Try This A Solar System Mobile Would you like to learn the names of all the planets and the order in which they appear, from closest to farthest from the Sun? Follow these steps and build a model of the solar system! Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Sun Here s How to Do It! You will need string, poster board, paints, scissors, a hole punch, and a pencil. 1. First, use the information in this book and the picture on page 14 to draw a circle for each of the planets in our solar system. Also, make a circle for the Sun. The Sun should be the biggest circle. Label each planet. 2. Carefully cut out each circle. Line up the planets in order of distance from the Sun. Mercury should be the first one on the left and Neptune should be the last one on the right. 3. Cut a different length of string for each planet. 4. Use a hole punch to make nine holes around the edge of the Sun. Make one hole in the top of each planet. Attach each planet to the Sun with string

10 Glossary ascend v. to move upward. asteroids n. small pieces of rock orbiting the Sun. descend v. to move downward. gravity n. a force that pulls objects to Earth. laboratory n. a place where scientific information is gathered. orbit v. to move around something. n. the path a planet, moon, or satellite travels as it circles another body in space. satellites n. objects that circle a planet or moon, made and put in orbit by humans. Think and Share 1. What was the main idea in Chapter 2? What are some details from the chapter that support this idea? Details Main Idea Details Details 2. How is this book organized? What does the author tell about first? Use the headings in the book to help you answer this question. 3. What is an orbit? Draw a simple picture that shows what an orbit is. 4. Do you want to explore the galaxy? What kinds of information would you hope to find? 16

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