# Estimating Income and Costs: Calculating a Price

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1 Estimating Income and Cost: Calculating a Price Estimating Income and Costs: Calculating a Price Karen Mundy, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Virginia Tech S. Gary Bullen, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, N.C. State University Part I: What the Agent Needs to Know At your first meeting, you discussed what, in general, your client needs to know. At this second meeting, you will cover what it will cost to produce a product. Farmers need to know not only the input costs such as seed, land preparation and fertilizer but also the cost of management time and labor. Once they know these costs, they can calculate their breakeven price the price at which they cover all costs of production, assuming they can sell 100 percent of that production. They can use the breakeven price as the price for their products, or they can add an additional amount to the breakeven price. They can calculate either their mark-up price or their margin. More information on how to determine price is found in Direct Answers for Direct Marketing (available by ing ncsu.edu). To understand pricing, you first need to know something about production costs. Before clients have actual costs, they need to develop budgets. Budgets are based on the actual average costs of producing a product. You can find budgets for many agricultural products on university Web sites. In North Carolina, for instance, go to ag-econ.ncsu.edu/extension/ag_budgets.html and select the appropriate category and budget. Budgets typically show income from the expected production and market price shown first, then costs broken down into variable costs and fixed costs. Variable costs will change with how many acres a client produces and harvests. These costs are the ones your clients pay as they go along such as seed, fertilizer, pesticides, labor. Fixed costs are long-term costs that your clients may not be able to easily attribute to a specific crop such as land, equipment, advertising, telephone, electricity. fixed costs (like trellising, fruit trees, brambles, cows) are paid for over more than one production season. Once your clients have invested in these inputs, they have to pay for the inputs whether they produce or don t produce. The best example of both variable and fixed costs is machinery. The variable costs of machinery include fuel, repairs and maintenance. These vary based on how much the machinery is used. Fixed costs are insurance, taxes, depreciation and the interest on the loan a client might still be paying. Farmers have these costs whether they use the machinery or not. Depreciation is a paper cost to allocate the replacement cost over a period of time. Labor could be either variable or fixed depending on whether a client keeps the workers employed only when they are needed or year-round whether they need them or not. All of this information is necessary to calculate price. Developing start-up budgets will help your clients determine how long it will be before they realize a profit from their investments. In other words, how much money do they need to have before they can sell their product, and how long before they will be able to repay that money? It makes no difference if the money is borrowed or their own. Start-up budgets may cover more than one year. If a client produces trellised apples, for example, it will be four years before they harvest. The first year is preparation, the second year is planting, the third year is training and maintenance and the fourth year is the beginning of harvest. The following sample budget is a start-up budget for honey. 7

2 Initial resource requirements (first-year establishment based on a 10-hive unit in a 50-hive production system). Apiary sites \$ 10 packages of bees (3 lb each) plus shipping Capital investment Brood boxes, frames and foundation Top, bottom and inner covers Supers with frames and foundation Protective clothing Hive and smoker Feeder Queen excluders Fume board Extractor Bottling tank (300 lb) with cover and strainer Uncapping tank Uncapping knife Total equipment investment 3, Building Adapting and upgrading existing facility 1, Total start-up cost 5, Source: Frazier, M., G. L. Greaser, T. W. Kelsey, J. K. Harper. Beekeeping. Agricultural Alternatives publication series. Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. University Park: The Pennsylvania State UniversityOnline: How long will it take to cover these start-up costs? Whether your clients produce anything or not, these costs must be paid. Calculating Price Production budgets help your clients calculate their variable costs for the year. In production budgets, some amount of the fixed costs are allocated to each crop produced. Many farmers use a percentage of the total fixed costs based on a crop s acreage. Julie, for example, who has 1 acre of tomatoes, 2 acres of brambles and 7 acres of trellised apples, uses a simple method to allocate her fixed costs: 10 percent of her fixed costs go to tomatoes, 20 percent to brambles and 70 percent to apples. Your clients can use other methods. A budget will help your clients know how much they need to charge to cover their variable, fixed and total costs, and what they will have left to help repay the startup costs. Note that no labor costs are included in the sample budgets. Your clients need to include labor unless they are donating their time to the operation. In the honey example, a typical production budget will look like the one below. Honey weighs, on average, 0.73 pounds per liquid ounce. From 10 hives that pollinate lavender, your client collects 600 pounds of honey, which will fill ounce jars. Honey Production and Pollination Budget (established operation) Summary of estimated costs and returns for 10 mature hives. Item Unit Amount Receipts or costs per unit \$ Total receipts or costs (for one crop) \$ Receipts Honey (extracted) a pounds , Pollination fee b Spring hives Summer hives Wax pounds Total receipts after establishment 1, Your estimate 8

3 Variable costs Bees (replacement bees) Package (3 lb) hive Queens (replacement) queen Parasite and disease control Terramycin 6.4 oz pkg Varroa chemical control pkg of Fumidil-B 2 gm bottle Menthol oz packs Sugar pounds Jars cases of Labels (supplier & quality id) Chemical for fume boards quart Paint gallon Buckets 5 gallons Vehicle d miles Marketing e one year Registration fee (\$20) for two years one year Total variable costs Fixed costs Brood boxes with frames and foundation Top, bottoms and inner covers Honey supers with frames and foundation Protective clothing 4.00 Hive tool/smoker 3.50 Feeder 2.30 Queen excluder 5.70 Fume boards 2.50 Extracting equipment for 50 hives Extractor 945 f Bottling tank (300 lb with covered strainer) 715 f Uncapping tank 195 f Uncapping knife 67 f 6.70 Upgrading existing facilities 1,500 g,h Total fixed costs Total costs 1, Returns Returns over variable costs Net returns Source: Penn State University. Online: a Retail price. b Rental fee may vary depending on the crop. c Estimated 20% loss each year. d Fuel, maintenance, depreciation (10 years) e Including advertising, production information and bee management f Depreciate over 10 years. g Depreciate over 20 years. h Building may not be necessary. Sideline beekeepers often convert a garage, basement or outbuilding into honey house. 9

4 To calculate a break-even price, a beekeeper must know how many units they need to sell based on production of 60 pounds per hive and 10 hives. The producer uses 8-ounce jars, and the honey in them weighs about 11 ounces each. Based on these estimates, this client would estimate production of about ounce jars from the 600 pounds. Assuming the variable honey cost is \$1.05 per 8-ounce jar, this formula would calculate a breakeven price: Break-even price = Per unit variable cost + (annual fixed costs projected units sold). Break-even price = \$ (\$ ) Break-even price = \$ \$0.51 Break-even price = \$1.56 Using these figures, your client concludes that at least \$1.56 per jar must be charged for the honey. This breakeven price does not include any marketing costs. Marketing costs (such as rent at a farmers market and labor to man the market) are not included in this example. Your clients must consider these costs as well when they prepare their budgets. To determine what the price needs to be if more or less honey is sold, simply change the projected number of units and recalculate the price. The more the client thinks he or she can sell, the lower the price can be after variable costs are covered because the fixed costs are spread over more units. Show your clients two other methods to calculate the price of their products: Mark-up and margin. Both of these methods require a client to choose a percent of increase in the total costs. These methods do not take into account the quantity available to sell. Markup is the amount the cost is raised to achieve a desired selling price. Your client decides to consider using a markup. If a 30 percent markup is added, the calculation would be: Markup amount = Total cost/unit percent of markup Markup = (\$1,278/820) 0.3 Markup = \$ Markup = \$0.47 Selling price = \$ \$0.47 Selling price = \$2.03 per 8-ounce jar Margin is the percentage of the selling price above the cost of producing the product. Suppose your client decides she wants a margin of 30 percent. The calculation would be: Selling price = Total cost /unit ( Margin percentage) Selling price = (\$1,278/820) ( ) Selling price = \$ Selling price = \$2.23 per 8-ounce jar Even though the client starts with the same costs, using a markup gives a lower price than using the margin method. Break-even pricing will result in the lowest price of all. This client needs to determine what specialty honeys are selling for elsewhere. It might be that an average of the two methods provides a better alternative to just selecting the higher price. A study from the University of Chicago School of Business and the Sloan Institute found that prices ending in 9 sold more product than prices ending in any other number for the same product. Consumers think they are getting a bargain, even if they are not. If you want to sell something for \$8.00 a pound, price it at \$7.99 a pound. However, if everything you sell ends in a 9, it loses its effectiveness. 10

5 Your clients need to consider three things when they are trying to price their products: what their cost of production is, how much consumers would buy and what their goals are for their operations. These three elements determine whether they price high, low or the same as everyone else. Startup costs Item Beginning Inventory Units Cost/unit (\$) Total cost (\$) Part II: Income and Costs Worksheet Ask your clients to complete the worksheet at home. They may choose not to discuss the results with you because they consider production costs confidential information. Ask them if they compared their costs to any budgets produced by Extension from either their state or other states. Extension budgets often vary because costs of production vary by location. Have your clients complete the following questions and, to the extent possible, the budgets. The items shown in each budget are to remind your clients to include them in addition to all other costs. These costs are often overlooked. Buildings Equipment Equipment Equipment Licences and permits Professional Fees Supplies Insurance Establishment Cost What are your pricing goals: make as much money as possible, only cover your total costs or keep your price the same as everyone else s? Total Cost Will you have product to sell in the first year? How much are your variable costs? List the items needed, the number of units of each item, the cost per unit and calculate the total cost (number of units cost/unit) Variable costs If you have no product to sell in year one, in what year will your product be available? Item Units Cost/unit (\$) Total cost How much are your startup costs? List the items needed, the number of units of each item, the cost per unit and calculate the total cost (number of units cost/unit) Total Cost 11

6 How much are your fixed costs? List the items, the number of units, the cost/unit and calculate the total cost. What will be your price at that percent markup? Fixed costs Item Units Cost/unit (\$) Total cost What percent margin will you use? Depreciation for equipment Depreciation for machinery Depreciation for buildings What will be your price at the percent margin? Selling price = Total Cost ( margin percentage) Land Charge Management Total Cost How much do you think you will be able to sell in the first year of production? What will be your breakeven price? Break-even price = Per unit variable cost + (annual fixed costs projected units sold) What percent markup will you use? Calculate your selling markup price Markup selling price = Total Cost percent markup 12

7 References Ag Econ Extension. Enterprise Budgets. Stillwater: Oklahoma State University. Online: okstate.edu/budgets/ Arsham, Hossein. Break-Even Analysis and Forecasting. Baltimore, Md.: University of Baltimore, Merrick School of Business. Online: ntsbarsh/business-stat/otherapplets/breakeven.htm Bullen, Gary Direct Answers for Direct Marketers. Marketing Resource CD developed as part of Southern Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) grant. Raleigh: N.C. State University, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. ehow Business Editor. How to Calculate a Price Markup. Bellevue, Wash.: ehow. Online: how_ _calculate-price-markup.html. Frazier, M., G. Greaser, T. Kelsey, J. Harper Beekeeping. Alternative Algriculture (publication series). Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University. Online: agalternatives.aers.psu.edu Hofstrand, D. 2007, March. Breakeven Selling Price. Ames, Iowa: Ag Marketing Resource Center, Iowa State University. Online: business/gettingstarted/brkvnsellingprice.htm Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture. Marketing and Food Systems Initiative. Ames: Iowa State University. Online: marketing.htm 13

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