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1 Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System A N N U A L R E P O R T

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3 ALBERTA CONGENITAL ANOMALIES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM SIXTH REPORT Alberta Children s Hospital Research Centre Department of Medical Genetics University of Calgary 1820 Richmond Road SW Calgary, Alberta T2T 5C7 Alberta Health and Wellness Health Surveillance PO Box 1360 STN MAIN Edmonton, Alberta T5J 2N3 Division of Vital Statistics Alberta Registries Street Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3W7 Medical Consultant: Manager: Health Surveillance Consultants: R.B. Lowry B. Sibbald L. Svenson F-L. Wang i

4 Suggested citation: Alberta Health and Wellness (2004) Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System: Sixth Report, Edmonton: Author. For additional information please contact: Health Surveillance Alberta Health and Wellness P. O. Box 1360 STN MAIN Edmonton, AB T5J 2N3 CANADA Telephone: Toll-Free: (Alberta only) Website: ISSN: (print) ISSN: (online) ii

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (ACASS) receives funding from the Alberta Ministry of Health and Wellness for the on-going collection of data on all congenital anomalies in the province. We would particularly like to thank Dr. Stephan Gabos, Director, Health Surveillance Branch, for his strong support of this activity. The success of ACASS depends upon the interest and activities of many people. We thank health records personnel in the province s hospitals, unit clerks, nurses, clinic cocoordinators and physicians. Many physicians were contacted by letter in order to obtain additional clarifying information and their prompt replies are appreciated. The additional information is vital in improving the quality of the data. We thank the Hospital Systems branch and Vital Statistics staff for expediting documents. We are housed in space associated with the Department of Medical Genetics at the Alberta Children s Hospital, Calgary Health Region. We would like to thank the Department and the Calgary Health Region for their continuing support. Finally, a special thanks to our clerical staff Anne Preece and Judy Anderson, our research assistant Tanya Bedard and our occasional medical consultants. Medical Consultants Principal: Occasional: R.B. Lowry, MD, DSc, FRCPC, FCCMG J. Harder, MD, FRCPC, Paediatric cardiologist R. Sauvé, MD, FRCPC, Community Health Sciences C. Trevenen, MD, FRCPC, Paediatric Pathologist Health Surveillance, Alberta Health and Wellness ACASS Staff S. Gabos, MD, Director F-L Wang, MB, PhD, Epidemiologist L. Svenson, Team Lead, Epidemiologic Surveillance B. Sibbald, MSc, Manager T. Bedard, BSc, Research Assistant J. Anderson, Secretary A. Preece, Clerical Assistant Alberta Registries, Vital Statistics G. Brese, System Administrator B. Haugrud, Assistant Director i

6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. This is the sixth in a series of reports detailing the prevalence of congenital anomalies in the province of Alberta. Aggregate data is also included from 1980 onwards. The main emphasis is on Section XIV (Congenital Anomalies) of the International Classification of Diseases, 9 th Revision (ICD-9). We do monitor selected items from other sections however, such as disorders of metabolism. Data on such disorders will be provided to interested parties upon request. 2. This is the last report to use the ICD-9 coding system. The new International Classification of Diseases, 10 th Revision (ICD-10) classification system has now been adopted in Alberta for congenital anomaly reporting so future reports will use ICD As noted in the previous report, the overall frequency of most congenital anomalies remains relatively unchanged with the exception of neural tube defects that continue to decline. The decline is most obvious with anencephaly, although there was a significant downward trend with spina bifida as well. Although some of the decline might be attributable to termination of pregnancy, folic acid fortification may also be playing a role. 4. The percentage of births to women 35 years of age and over has stabilized over the past three years. About 14.5 per cent of women 35 years of age and over gave birth in the period Limb reductions do seem to be increasing overall and we will be undertaking a review of these anomalies in the coming months. As noted in the last report, this is a very heterogeneous category and can range from the absence of part of a finger to a missing arm or leg. 6. Abdominal wall defects overall are not increasing significantly. However, when one examines the defects included in the category, an increase in the rate of gastroschisis is noted. On the other hand, omphalocele rates have been very stable over the years. The occurrence of gastroschisis is more frequent in younger mothers in Alberta, which is consistent with observations from other jurisdictions. 7. Because of some concern over the frequency of anophthalmia/microphthalmia, a detailed review of ACASS data was undertaken. The review showed that as an isolated defect, it is very rare and not increasing. The majority of cases were associated with a syndrome especially Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome). 8. Since there are substantial differences between ACASS and the Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (CCASS) for anorectal atresia/stenosis, a detailed review has been started. Preliminary results indicate that a substantial number of cases belong in the multiple congenital anomaly categories such as VATER/VACTERL. ii

7 9. ACASS is a member of the recently established Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance Network (CCASN), a Health Canada initiative, and is part of the Advisory Group for the network. The network has been formed to support the development, and maintenance, of high quality population based surveillance systems of congenital anomalies. 10. ACASS is participating in a national study on the impact of folic acid on the rates of neural tube defects for the years The study is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) through 2006 and will include data from Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia. 11. ACASS has been an associate member of the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Monitoring System since 1996 and participates in on-going collaborative studies. iii

8 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements i Executive Summary ii Introduction 1 History 1 Purpose of a Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System 1 Definitions 1 Ascertainment 2 Quality Control Measures 3 Coding 3 Confidentiality and Release of Data 3 Methodology and Limitations 4 Data 4 Trends 4 Neural Tube Defects 5 Cleft Lip and Palate 7 Abdominal Wall Defects 8 Chromosome Anomalies 9 Limb Reductions 12 Anorectal Atresia/Stenosis 13 Anophthalmia/Microphthalmia 13 Summary 16 Appendices 17 Appendix 1 Selected Congenital Anomaly Rates 18 Appendix 2 Selected Anomalies and Rates including Terminations 41 Appendix 3 Numbers of Cases, Anomalies and Anomalies per Case 43 Appendix 4 Termination of Pregnancy Anomalies per Case 44 iv

9 INTRODUCTION History The history of the Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (ACASS) has been well described in previous reports. Although we have had some difficult years, our funding has been stable since 1996, when Alberta Health and Wellness, Health Surveillance Branch, assumed financial responsibility. We also work closely with Alberta Vital Statistics, as we have done since 1980, and rely on them to provide us with notifications of births, deaths and stillbirths. Purpose of a Surveillance System Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data (e.g. regarding agent/hazard, risk factor, exposure, health event). These data are essential to the planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practice, closely integrated with the timely dissemination of these data to those responsible for prevention and control. The purpose of surveillance for congenital anomalies (CAs) is to: provide reliable and valid baseline data of congenital anomalies in Alberta; investigate any significant temporal or geographic changes in the frequency of congenital anomalies with a view to identifying environmental, and therefore, possible preventable causes; measure trends; assess the effectiveness of prevention (e.g. folic acid or antenatal screening); assist with health related programme planning and development through the provision of data. As well, it is important to look at patterns or associations of malformations to determine whether they belong to an existing or new syndrome complex. A principal feature of a surveillance system is timeliness. However, data collection and analysis should not be accomplished at the expense of accurate diagnosis. Definitions A congenital anomaly is an abnormality that is present at birth, even if not diagnosed until months or years later. Most congenital anomalies are present long before the time of birth, in the embryonic period (up to the end of the 7 th week of gestation) and others in the foetal period (8 th week to term). The term anomaly covers all the major classes of abnormalities of development, of which there are four major categories as follows: 1

10 Malformation a morphologic defect of an organ, part of an organ or a larger region of the body resulting from an intrinsically abnormal developmental process (e.g. spina bifida, cleft lip and palate). Deformation an abnormal form, shape or position of a part of the body caused by mechanical forces (e.g. extrinsic force such as intrauterine constraint causing some forms of clubfoot). Disruption a morphologic defect of an organ, part of an organ or a larger region of the body resulting from the extrinsic breakdown of, or an interference with, an originally normal developmental process (e.g. an infection such as rubella or a teratogen such as thalidomide). Dysplasia the abnormal organization of cells into tissues and its morphologic result (e.g. Marfan Syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta). Ascertainment An infant can be ascertained at any time up to the first birthday. Multiple ascertainment of the same infant can occur and indeed, are encouraged, as this frequently improves the quality and reliability of the data. As several malformations may occur in the same infant, it is desirable to allow each to be reported, so that groups of associated malformations may be studied. This, however, leads to difficulties, as the final tabulations may be reported as total malformations (anomaly rates) or as the total number of malformed infants (case rates). ACASS obtains information about infants with congenital anomalies from a variety of independent sources. Acquisition of additional reporting agencies is always a priority, as the use of multiple sources of information improves both the ease and completeness of ascertainment as well as the accuracy of the diagnostic data. ACASS screens many important Alberta Health and Wellness and Alberta Vital Statistics documents for the presence of a congenital anomaly. These documents include: Notice of a Live birth or a Stillbirth often referred to as the Physician s Notice of Birth (PNOB) Medical Certificate of Stillbirth Medical Certificate of Death All acute care hospitals in the province notify Alberta Vital Statistics of the live birth, stillbirth, admission or hospital death of an infant less than one year of age who has a congenital anomaly. A notification form called the Congenital Anomaly(ies) Reporting Form (CARF) is completed by the hospital health records personnel following the birth or an admission of an affected child. This form serves as the single most important source of case ascertainment. Since many children with congenital anomalies are not admitted to hospital, it is important to obtain out-patient information from the Calgary and Edmonton Departments of Medical Genetics. 2

11 Ascertainment at a continued high level requires each hospital record department and each health care provider to co-operate with the system by notifying us as promptly as possible. We are fortunate in having such co-operative agencies and personnel. Quality Control Measures When a copy of a reporting document reaches the ACASS office in Calgary, it is scanned for content by the research assistant and manager. If the information is unclear, such as a vague or queried diagnosis, the manager, on behalf of the medical consultant, writes to the physician responsible for the case seeking clarification. A stamped, addressed envelope is included with the letter and the physician is asked to respond at the bottom of the letter, thus making the mechanics of replying easy. The response from physicians has been very satisfactory (greater than 90 per cent) and usually this is sufficient to make a decision whether to accept or reject an anomaly or case. Any questionable diagnosis that is not confirmed is not entered into the database. Some cases are not included, such as those containing diagnoses that do not belong in a congenital anomaly system or are part of a normal developmental process. This could include patent ductus arteriosus or undescended testes in a premature infant. Any reports requiring a medical decision are reviewed with the medical consultant. Policy decisions with respect to the acceptance or rejection of a case and its coding are referred to the ACASS Advisory Committee. This body is comprised of a paediatric cardiologist, neonatologist/epidemiologist, paediatric pathologist and medical geneticist (medical consultant) with occasional input from a paediatric neurologist, paediatric nephrologist and a paediatric orthopaedic surgeon. Coding Coding is done at the Calgary office using the British Paediatric Association (BPA) adaptation of the International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition (ICD-9). We are currently also using the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) adaptation of the recently introduced International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition (ICD-10). Difficult cases are referred to the medical consultant (medical geneticist). In the past, we were able to code only six anomalies, but since 1997 we have been coding all eligible anomalies reported to us. Confidentiality and Release of Data Notifications of congenital anomalies are sent to Health Surveillance, Alberta Health and Wellness, and then to the ACASS office in Calgary where the database is maintained. The notifications are handled by the manager, research assistant, secretary and medical consultant only. The data are treated in a completely confidential manner and the notifications are kept in locked files in a locked room. The database is secured by limited access and is password protected. Names are not disclosed to anyone. Should further clarification about a case or anomaly become necessary, we communicate with the attending physician or physician responsible for ongoing care. Direct contact is never made with the family. When data are requested, they are released in aggregate form with no personal identifiers. 3

12 Methodology and Limitations Unless otherwise stated, the birth defect rates presented in this report are calculated using the following formulae: Number of a givencongenital anomaly among livebirths and still births Anomaly (defect)rate = 1,000 Total number of livebirths andstillbirths Number of individual infants(liveborn or stillborn) with 1congenitalanomaly Case Rate = 1,000 Total number of livebirths andstillbirths Confidence intervals (approximate 95 per cent) are also included because the rate obtained is actually only a point estimate of the unknown, true population rate. The confidence interval provides information about the precision of the estimate. Thus, the confidence intervals are an estimated range of values where there is a 95 per cent probability that the true population rate will fall. One of the major limitations of the surveillance system is that on its own, the information provided to us does not allow studies to determine aetiology. If increasing trends indicate there is a potentially serious problem, then separate investigative studies will need to be done. However, it is possible to conduct linkage studies with other data sources to explore potential causes of specific birth defects. DATA Trends The following table and graphs of selected sentinel anomalies indicate the trends in congenital anomaly rates in Alberta from 1980 through Sentinel anomalies are those which the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Monitoring Systems watches worldwide, the rationale being they are quite easily identified and therefore will be accurately reported. 4

13 Table 1. Chi Squared Linear Trend Analysis and p-values for Selected Anomalies Inclusive (Live Births and Stillbirths) Anomaly Trend Direction Chi Squared Analysis (c 2 LT) p-value Neural Tube Defects Decreasing Anencephaly Decreasing Spina Bifida Decreasing Hydrocephalus No significant change (n.s.) Cleft Lip +/- Cleft Palate No significant change (n.s.) Cleft Palate Increasing Oesophageal Atresia/Stenosis No significant change (n.s.) Anorectal Atresia/Stenosis No significant change (n.s.) Hypospadias and Epispadias No significant change (n.s.) Limb Reductions Increasing Abdominal Wall Defects No significant change (n.s.) Gastroschisis Increasing Omphalocele No significant change (n.s.) Down syndrome Increasing Renal Agenesis Increasing Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome No significant change (n.s.) *Hypospadias and Epispadias calculated for male live births only Neural Tube Defects Neural tube defect (NTD) rates continue to decline in Alberta. Spina bifida rates are starting to fall somewhat, but the overall decline in NTDs can be attributed more strongly to the marked decrease in anencephaly rates. Terminations of affected pregnancies might account for part of the decline, but it is unlikely that this factor alone explains the total reduction of NTDs in Alberta. We have been able to follow terminations of pregnancy (ToPs) from 1997 only. However, if we extrapolate our ToP data through the years, there seems to be a true decline in the rates of NTDs since the 1998 introduction of folic acid fortification in flour and cereal/grain products (150 µg/100 gm). We have submitted a paper for publication outlining our observations. We are also participating in a Canada wide study of the impact of folic acid fortification and the prevalence of neural tube defects. 5

14 Figure 1. Rate per 1,000 births of neural tube defects in Alberta, 1980 to 2001 Rate per 1,000 Births Figure 2. Rate per 1,000 births of anencephaly in Alberta, 1980 to Year Rate per 1,000 Births Year

15 Figure 3. Rate per 1,000 births of spina bifida in Alberta, 1980 to Rate per 1,000 Births Year Cleft Lip and Palate The birth prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± CP) remains stable. There does appear however, to be a slight upward trend in the rates of cleft palate alone (CP). Figure 4. Rate per 1,000 births of cleft palate in Alberta, 1980 to Rate per 1,000 Births Abdominal Wall Defects Year

16 Figure 5. Rate per 1,000 births of cleft lip +/- cleft palate in Alberta, 1980 to Rate per 1,000 Births Year Abdominal Wall Defects Abdominal wall defects include mainly gastroschisis and omphalocele. Although there is no statistically significant increase in the rates of abdominal wall defect overall, the apparent increase can be attributed to the rising rates of gastroschisis. Omphalocele has remained stable over the years. Figure 6. Rate per 1,000 births of abdominal wall defects in Alberta, 1980 to Rate per 1,000 Births Year

17 Chromosome Anomalies From there were 1,791 chromosome anomalies reported to ACASS. Of these, 1,366 or 76 per cent were either Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) or Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Down syndrome was the most commonly ascertained chromosome anomaly 77 per cent of the above mentioned group of trisomies and 58 per cent of the total number of chromosome anomalies reported. Sex chromosome anomalies accounted for approximately 11% of the total. As previously reported, Down syndrome rates are increasing (Figure 7). In most instances, Down syndrome is associated with increasing maternal age. Figure 7. Rate per 1,000 births of chromosome anomalies (Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18, Trisomy 21) in Alberta, 1980 to Rate per 1,000 Births Year Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) 9

18 Maternal age at delivery seems to be increasing overall in Alberta (Figure 8), in particular the percentage of babies born to women over 35 years of age (Figure 9). Figure 8. Maternal age distribution of live births Percent of Live Births < Maternal Age Groups Figure 9. Percent of live births to women 35 years of age Percent of Live Births Year 10

19 Terminations of pregnancy (ToPs) do not affect rates of Down syndrome greatly until we examine births to women over the age of 30. ACASS has collected data on ToPs since Table 2 illustrates the rates of Down syndrome by maternal age for the years 1997 to The rates including ToPs are in brackets. Table 2. Down syndrome rates per 1000 total births by maternal age, Maternal Year Age < (0.43) (0.40) (1.36) (1.88) 0.76 (0.95) 1.26 (1.55) 1.78 (1.98) 1.52 (1.70) (3.51) 3.89 (5.48) 1.94 (4.29) 2.37 (3.44) 3.00 (4.29) (14.84) 7.68 (19.73) (18.54) 6.32 (11.32) (16.29) (40.00) Infants with Down syndrome often have associated anomalies. ACASS does not code minor anomalies associated with Down syndrome, such as single palmar crease, upslanting palpebral fissures, and increased space between the great and second toes. However, most other malformations, if mentioned on the ascertainment documents, are entered routinely into the database. Anomalies such as patent ductus arteriosus, undescended testes and lung hypoplasia are not coded if the infant was born prematurely or weighed less than 2,500 grams. This is consistent with our general coding policies. Table 3 illustrates the proportion of live birth and stillbirth cases of Down Syndrome that have had other anomalies reported over the past 10 years. ToPs have not been included in Table 3. Table 3. Proportion of Down syndrome cases with and without other anomalies, Alberta live births and stillbirths Year Total Cases (n) Down Syndrome Alone* (n) Heart Defects Only (n) GI Defects Only (n) Single Other (n) Multiple (n) (16) 0.38 (14) 0.11 (4) 0 (0) 0.08 (3) (27) 0.30 (14) 0 (0) 0.02 (1) 0.09 (4) (25) 0.41 (18) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.02 (1) (18) 0.52 (26) 0 (0) 0.04 (2) 0.08 (4) (16) 0.35 (11) 0.09 (3) 0.06 (2) 0 (0) (17) 0.49 (20) 0.02 (1) 0.05 (2) 0.02 (1) (27) 0.36 (19) 0 (0) 0.04 (2) 0.09 (5) (18) 0.33 (15) 0.02 (1) 0.05 (2) 0.20 (9) (26) 0.28 (15) 0.04 (2) 0.04 (2) 0.16 (9) (31) 0.19 (11) 0.02 (1) 0.04 (2) 0.21 (12) * no anomalies reported other than Down syndrome Down syndrome with a single anomaly other than heart or GI Could include heart or GI defects if other anomalies also reported with the cases 11

20 The heart anomalies category, includes only heart defects (no other anomalies) and is comprised mainly of ventriculoseptal defects, atrioseptal defects and endocardial cushion defects. The GI defects include for the most part, duodenal atresia, anorectal stenosis/atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. Again, as with the heart defects, only GI defects are included in this category. The multiple category includes cases with Down syndrome who have two or more other anomalies, mainly urinary tract anomalies, hypothyroidism and musculo-skeletal anomalies. Heart defects and GI anomalies might also be included here if reported in association with the other anomalies mentioned above. They would therefore not be counted in the heart and GI defect categories which were reserved for heart and GI defects alone. Few cases reported an isolated anomaly other than a heart or GI abnormality, but those that did included hydronephrosis, hypospadias, hypothyroidism, hydrocephalus and umbilical hernia to name a few. Limb Reductions Limb reduction defects are on the rise and will be the focus of more in-depth scrutiny over the coming months. There are a number of possible explanations, aside from a true increase in the rates. Due to computer limitations in the years we were able to code only six anomalies per case. Since 1997, we have been able to code an unlimited number of defects per case. The cases will be reviewed to try to determine whether the upward trend is due to increased ascertainment, different coding procedures or whether the rate has truly risen. Figure 10. Rate per 1,000 births of limb reduction defects in Alberta, 1980 to 2001 Rate per 1,000 Births Year

21 Anorectal atresia/stenosis Because differences were noted between ACASS and CCASS (Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System) data, with respect to anorectal atresia/stenosis, a detailed review is currently underway. Preliminary results indicate that a substantial number of cases belong in the multiple congenital anomaly category VATER/VACTERL. Figure 11. Rate per 1,000 births of anorectal atresia/stenosis in Alberta, 1980 to Rate per 1,000 Births Year Anophthalmia/Microphthalmia The Alberta rate of anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) in 1999 was noted to be high (2.89/10,000 total births) as was the Canadian Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (CCASS) rate for that year (1.87/10,000 total births). Most provincial rates for A/M for the years were approximately 1/10,000 as were the Alberta and CCASS rates (1.3 and 1.2 respectively). ACASS rates from showed variable rates from 0.3 to 2.1 with the 19-year aggregate being 1.4/10,000. Alberta cases from were reviewed by a detailed study of each case as reported to ACASS, as well as any accompanying attachments such as ophthalmology and other consultant reports, autopsies, chromosome reports etc. It was not possible to review CCASS cases. There is considerable etiologic heterogeneity in A/M and it is often difficult to distinguish between them. It is also evident that the etiology of A/M may be the same since an affected person may have anophthalmia in one eye and microphthalmia in the other. Optic fissure closure defects (e.g. coloboma) are also part of the A/M phenotype. 13

22 We divided the clinical phenotypes into six categories seen in Table 4. Of the 60 cases, 20 had a chromosome etiology (16 Trisomy 13, one each with Trisomy 18, Triploidy, 6q- and a 3 deletion/inversion) and 13 had a recognised syndrome or association (Table 5). Sixteen cases had extraocular malformations and four of these had holoprosencephaly (three of four with normal chromosomes). In the 11 years there were only six cases of A/M plus coloboma. There were five other microphthalmia cases with other eye anomalies; two with cataract, two with primary hyperplastic primary vitreous and one with aniridia and corneal opacity, giving a total of 11 cases with ocular defects corresponding to a rate of 0.2/10,000 over the 11-year period The annual rates are shown in Table 6. Our rate of 1.4/10,000 is very comparable to other registries. Five cases of Trisomy 13 were reported in Of note, terminations of pregnancy (ToPs) were not included because ACASS has only been able to ascertain ToP cases from Since that time four additional A/M cases were ascertained as a result of terminations (two due to Trisomy 13 and two with extra ocular malformations, one of whom had normal chromosomes while the other was a possible amniotic band syndrome. A/M in association with Trisomy 13 may be under ascertained in earlier years. The inclusion or exclusion of chromosome disorders will make a huge difference to the rates since A/M is a component of at least 40 per cent of Trisomy 13 cases. There are environmental causes of A/M such as rubella, cytomegalic inclusion disease and toxoplasmosis, but we had no such cases in our system. In the past there was a concern that a pesticide (Benomyl) might be responsible for A/M, but studies in England, Italy and Norway showed no support for this. In conclusion, our review confirmed that the 1999 rate for A/M was high, but was mainly due to five cases of trisomy 13 plus one syndrome case (Meckel-Gruber), leaving three microphthalmia cases. The rates in 2000 were also high (2.4/10,000) and included four chromosomally abnormal cases (three Trisomy 13, one trisomy 18 and two syndrome cases Aicardi and Walker-Warburg and 1 holoprosencephaly) leaving three microphthalmia cases and one anophthalmia case. In 2001 the rate reverted to 1.30/10,000. The review shows how important it is to be able to get back to each individual case. 14

23 Table 4. Anophthalmia/Microphthalmia (A/M) Alberta (Rates per total births) A/M + coloboma Eye PLUS Eye MCA Chromosome Syndrome Total Rates (95%CI) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Total Eye PLUS = A/M + cataract or aniridia/persistent yperplastic primary vitreous Eye MCA = A/M + multiple congenital anomalies (includes holoprosencephaly) Table 5. Syndromes and Associations with Microphthalmia Alberta Amniotic Band CHARGE Linear Sebaceous Cohen-Gorlin Lenz Nager Hallermann-Streiff Complex 1 deficiency VATER Meckel-Gruber Aicardi Walker-Warburg Ichthyosis Table 6. Alberta birth prevalence rates (live and stillbirths) of all cases, isolated cases and Cases with associated anomalies (10,000 total births) Number of cases for Rate per 10,000 total births combined years All reported cases (isolated and with associated anomalies) Isolated cases and cases with other eye anomalies combined Cases associated with HPE, MCA, chromosome anomalies, syndromes Total births (live + still): 427,960 L = live births S = stillbirths HPE = holoprosenephaly MCA = multiple congenital anomalies 15

24 Figure 12. Rate per 1,000 births of anophthalmia/microphthalmia in Alberta, 1980 to Rate per 1,000 Total Births Year Anophthalmia Microphthalmia SUMMARY ACASS reviews anomalies that have been entered into the database on a regular basis. As is evident from the review of anophthalmia and microphthalmia, a detailed study of some individual items helps in the assessment and maintenance of the data quality. With intensive review, some cases might be re-assigned, re-coded or discarded altogether from the database. This continuing review might explain some discepancies in the data from early reports. Over the past few years, ACASS has been coding anomalies using both the ICD-9/BPA and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health version of ICD-10 coding systems. ACASS has now adopted the ICD-10 classification system and future reports will reflect this change in coding. Earlier data will continue to be stored using the ICD-9/BPA coding scheme. The use of multiple diagnostic coding standards will create challenges for the interpretation of congenital anomaly rates over time. However, ACASS staff are wellpositioned to assist in such interpretations. Additional work is still needed to create meaningful geographic information. The change from 17 regional health authorities to nine means ACASS will need to develop alternative approaches to the geographic analysis of congenital anomaly rates to ensure areas with perceived high rates can be investigated. 16

25 APPENDICES Appendix A1 Section XIV ( ), anomaly rates per 1,000 total births Appendix A2 Selected anomalies with rates of live births and stillbirths compared with total rates including terminations of pregnancy (ToP) Appendix A3 Numbers of cases, anomalies and anomalies per case Appendix A4 Termination of pregnancy (ToP) not registered with Alberta Vital Statistics (gestation <20 weeks or birth weight <500g) 17

26 Appendix A1. Section XIV ( ), Anomaly Rates per 1,000 Total Births Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal ANENCEPHALY AND SIMILAR NUMBER ANOMALIES (740) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anencephaly (7400) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Craniorachischisis (7401) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Iniencephaly (7402) NUMBER RATE 0.00 Lower C 0.00 Upper CI 0.01 SPINA BIFIDA (741) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI with Hydrocephaly (7410) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI without Hydrocephaly (7419) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

27 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal OTHER CONGENITAL ANOMALIES NUMBER OF NERVOUS SYSTEM (742) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Encephalocele (7420) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Microcephaly (7421) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Reduction Deformities of Brain (7422) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Congenital Hydrocephaly (7423) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of Brain NUMBER (7424) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of NUMBER Spinal Cord (7425) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies NUMBER of Nervous System (7428) RATE Lower CI Upper CI

28 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Unspecified Anomalies of Brain, Spinal NUMBER Cord and Nervous System (7429) RATE Low er CI Upper CI CONGENITAL ANOMALIES NUMBER OF EYE (743) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anophthalmos (7430) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Microphthalmos (7431) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Buphthalmos (7432) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Cataract and Lens Anomalies (7433) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Coloboma and Other Anomalies of NUMBER Anterior Segments (7434) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Posterior NUMBER Segments (7435) RATE Lower CI Upper CI

29 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Anomalies of Eyelids, Lacrimal NUMBER System and Orbit (7436) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies NUMBER of Eye (7438) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Unspecified Anomalies of Eye (7439) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF NUMBER EAR, FACE AND NECK (744) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Ear Causing Hearing NUMBER Impairment (7440) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Accessory Auricle (7441) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies NUMBER of Ear (7442) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Unspecified Anomalies of Ear (7443)... NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

30 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Branchial Cleft, Cyst or Fistula; NUMBER Preauricular Sinus (7444) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Webbing of Neck (7445) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of NUMBER Face and Neck (7448) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Unspecified Anomalies of NUMBER Face and Neck (7449) RATE 0.02 Lower CI 0.01 Upper CI 0.03 BULBUS CORDIS ANOMALIES AND NUMBER ANOMALIES OF CARDIAC SEPTAL RATE CLOSURE (745) Lower CI Upper CI Common Truncus (7450) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Transposition of Great Vessels (7451) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Tetralogy of Fallot (7452) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

31 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Common Ventricle (7453) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Ventricular Septal Defect (7454) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Ostium Secundum Type Atrial NUMBER Septal Defect (7455) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Endocardial Cushion Defects (7456) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Cor Biloculare (7457) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other (7458) NUMBER RATE 0.01 Lower CI 0.00 Upper CI 0.03 Unspecified Defect of NUMBER Septal Closure (7459) RATE 0.01 Lower CI 0.00 Upper CI 0.03 OTHER CONGENITAL ANOMALIES NUMBER OF THE HEART (746) RATE Lower CI Upper CI

32 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Anomalies of Pulmonary Valve (7460) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Tricuspid Atresia and Stenosis (7461) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Ebstein s Anomaly (7462) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Stenosis of Aortic Valve (7463) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Insufficiency of Aortic Valve (7464) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Mitral Stenosis (7465) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Mitral Insufficiency (7466) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Hypoplastic Left Heart NUMBER Syndrome (7467) RATE Lower CI Upper CI

33 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Other Specified Anomalies NUMBER of Heart (7468) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Unspecified Anomalies NUMBER of Heart (7469) RATE Lower CI Upper CI OTHER CONGENITAL ANOMALIES NUMBER OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (747) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Patent Ductus Arteriosus (7470) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Coarctation of the Aorta (7471) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Aorta (7472) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Pulmonary Artery (7473) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Great Veins (7474) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

34 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Absence or Hypoplasia of Umbilical NUMBER Artery (7475) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Anomalies of Peripheral NUMBER Vascular System (7476) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of NUMBER Circulatory System (7478) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Unspecified Anomalies of NUMBER Circulatory System (7479) RATE 0.01 Lower CI 0.00 Upper CI 0.02 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF NUMBER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (748) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Choanal Atresia (7480) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Anomalies of Nose (7481) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Web of Larynx (7482) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

35 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Other Anomalies of Larynx, Trachea NUMBER and Bronchus ( 7483) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Cystic Lung (7484) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Agenesis, Hypoplasia and Dysplasia NUMBER of Lung (7485) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Anomalies of Lung (7486) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of NUMBER Respiratory System (7488) RATE Lower CI Upper CI CLEFT PALATE AND CLEFT LIP NUMBER (749) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Cleft Palate (7490) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Cleft Lip (7491) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

36 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Cleft Palate with Cleft Lip (7492) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI OTHER CONGENITAL ANOMALIES NUMBER OF UPPER ALIMENTARY TRACT (750) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Anomalies of Tongue (7501) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of Mouth NUMBER and Pharynx (7502) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula, NUMBER Oesophageal Atresia & Stenosis (7503) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of NUMBER Oesophagus (7504) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis (7505) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Hiatus Hernia (7506) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

37 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Other Specified Anomalies of NUMBER Stomach (7507) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Unspecified Anomalies of Upper NUMBER Alimentary Tract (7509) RATE 0.00 Lower CI 0.00 Upper CI 0.01 OTHER CONGENITAL ANOMALIES NUMBER OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (751) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Meckel s Diverticulum (7510) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Atresia and Stenosis of Small NUMBER Intestine (7511) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Atresia and Stenosis of Large Intestine, NUMBER Rectum and Anal Canal (7512) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Hirschsprung s Disease and Other NUMBER Functional Disorders of Colon (7513) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Intestinal Fixation (7514) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI

38 Diagnostic Category and ICD-9/BPA Code Subtotal Subtotal Other Anomalies of Intestine (7515) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Gall Bladder, Bile Ducts NUMBER and Liver (7516) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Pancreas (7517) NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Other Specified Anomalies of NUMBER Digestive System (7518) RATE 0.00 Lower CI 0.00 Upper CI 0.01 Unspecified Anomalies of Digestive NUMBER System (7519) RATE 0.00 Lower CI 0.00 Upper CI 0.02 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF NUMBER GENITAL ORGANS (752) RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Ovaries (7520) * NUMBER RATE Lower CI Upper CI Anomalies of Fallopian Tubes and NUMBER Broad Ligaments (7521) * RATE Lower CI Upper CI

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