# Outline. CSc 466/566. Computer Security. 8 : Cryptography Digital Signatures. Digital Signatures. Digital Signatures... Christian Collberg

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1 Outline CSc 466/566 Computer Security 8 : Cryptography Digital Signatures Version: 2012/02/27 16:07:05 Department of Computer Science University of Arizona Copyright c 2012 Christian Collberg Christian Collberg 1/36 Introduction 2/36 Digital Signatures Digital Signatures... In this lecture we are going to talk about cryptographic hash functions (checksums) and digital signatures. We want to be able to 1 Detect tampering: is the message we received the same as the message that was sent? 2 Authenticate: did the message come from who we think it came from? More specifically, we want to ensure: 1 Nonforgeability: Eve should not be able to create a message that appears to come from Alice. 2 Nonmutability: Eve should not be able to take a valid signature for one message from Alice, and apply it to another one. 3 Nonrepudiation: Alice should not be able to claim she didn t sign a document that she did sign. Introduction 3/36 Introduction 4/36

2 Digital Signatures... Digital Signatures... This works because for many public key ciphers In the non-digital world, Alice would sign the document. We can do the same with digital signatures. 1 Alice encrypts her document M with her private key S A, thereby creating a signature S Alice (M). 2 Alice sends M and the signature S Alice (M) to Bob. 3 Bob decrypts the document using Alice s public key, thereby verifying her signature. D SB (E PB (M)) = M E PB (D SB (M)) = M i.e. we can reverse the encryption/decryption operations. That is, Bob can apply the decryption function to a message with his private key S B, yielding the signature sig: sig D SB (M) Then, anyone else can apply the encryption function to sig to get the message back. Only Bob (who has his secret key) could have generated the signature: E PB (sig) = M Introduction 5/36 Introduction 6/36 Digital Signatures... Outline Bob Alice M sig D SB (M) M,sig M? = E PB (sig) Bob sent M? S B P B Introduction 7/36 RSA Signature Scheme 8/36

3 RSA Signature Scheme RSA Encryption: Algorithm 1 Alice encrypts her document M with her private key S A, thereby creating a signature S Alice (M). 2 Alice sends M and the signature S Alice (M) to Bob. 3 Bob decrypts the document using Alice s public key, thereby verifying her signature. Bob (Key generation): 1 Generate two large random primes p and q. 2 Compute n = pq. 3 Select a small odd integer e relatively prime with φ(n). 4 Compute φ(n) = (p 1)(q 1). 5 Compute d = e 1 mod φ(n). P B = (e, n) is Bob s RSA public key. S B = (d, n) is Bob RSA private key. Alice (encrypt and send a message M to Bob): 1 Get Bob s public key P B = (e, n). 2 Compute C = M e mod n. Bob (decrypt a message C received from Alice): 1 Compute M = C d mod n. RSA Signature Scheme 9/36 RSA Signature Scheme 10/36 RSA Signature Scheme: Algorithm RSA Signature Scheme: Correctness Bob (Key generation): As before. P B = (e, n) is Bob s RSA public key. S B = (d, n) is Bob RSA private key. Bob (sign a secret message M): 1 Compute S = M d mod n. 2 Send M, S to Alice. Alice (verify signature S received from Bob): 1 Receive M, S from Alice. 2 Verify that M? = S e mod n. RSA Signature Scheme 11/36 We have: P B = (e, n) is Bob s RSA public key. S B = (d, n) is Bob RSA private key. S = M d mod n. d = e 1 mod φ(n) de = 1 mod φ(n). Theorem (Corollary to Euler s theorem) Let x be any positive integer that s relatively prime to the integer n > 0, and let k be any positive integer, then x k mod n = x k mod φ(n) mod n Alice wants to verify that M? = S e mod n. S e mod n = M de mod n = M de mod φ(n) mod n = M 1 mod n = M RSA Signature Scheme 12/36

4 RSA signature: Nonforgeability RSA signature: Nonmutability Nonforgeability: Eve should not be able to create a message that appears to come from Alice. To forge a message M from Alice, Eve would have to produce M d mod n without knowing Alice s private key d. This is equivalent to being able to break RSA encryption. RSA Signature Scheme 13/36 Nonmutability: Eve should not be able to take a valid signature for one message from Alice, and apply it to another message. RSA does not achieve nonmutability. Assume Eve has two valid signatures from Alice, on two messages M 1 and M 2 : S 1 S 2 = M d 1 mod n = M d 2 mod n Eve can then produce a new signature S 1 S 2 = (M1 d mod n) (Md 2 mod n) = (M 1 M 2 ) d mod n This is a valid signature for the message M 1 M 2! Not usually a problem since we normally sign hashes. RSA Signature Scheme 14/36 Outline Elgamal: Encryption Algorithm Bob (Key generation): 1 Pick a prime p. 2 Find a generator g for Z p. 3 Pick a random number x between 1 and p 2. 4 Compute y = g x mod p. P B = (p, g, y) is Bob s RSA public key. S B = x is Bob RSA private key. Alice (encrypt and send a message M to Bob): 1 Get Bob s public key P B = (p, g, y). 2 Pick a random number k between 1 and p 2. 3 Compute the ciphertext C = (a, b): a = g k mod p b = My k mod p Bob (decrypt a message C = (a,b) received from Alice): 1 Compute M = b(a x ) 1 mod p. Elgamal Signature Scheme 15/36 Elgamal Signature Scheme 16/36

5 Elgamal: Signature Algorithm Elgamal Signature Algorithm: Correctness Alice (Key generation): As before. 1 Pick a prime p. 2 Find a generator g for Z p. 3 Pick a random number x between 1 and p 2. 4 Compute y = g x mod p. P A = (p, g, y) is Alice s RSA public key. S A = x is Alice RSA private key. Alice (sign message M and send to Bob): 1 Pick a random number k. 2 Compute the signature S = (a, b): a = g k mod p b = k 1 (M xa) mod (p 1) Bob (verify the signature S = (a,b) received from Alice): 1 Verify y a a b mod p? = g M mod p. Elgamal Signature Scheme 17/36 We have: y = g x mod p a = g k mod p b = k 1 (M xa) mod (p 1) Show that y a a b mod p = g M mod p. y a a b mod p = (g x mod p) a ((g k mod p) ( k 1 (M xa) mod (p 1)) mod = g xa g kk 1 (M xa) mod (p 1) mod p = g xa g (M xa) mod (p 1) mod p = g xa g M xa mod p = g xa+m xa mod p = g M mod p Elgamal Signature Scheme 18/36 Elgamal Signature Algorithm: Security Outline We have: y = g x mod p a = g k mod p b = k 1 (M xa) mod (p 1) k is random b is random! To the adversary, b looks completely random. The adversary must compute k from a = g k mod p compute discrete log! If Alice reuses k The adversary can compute the secret key. Elgamal Signature Scheme 19/36 Cryptographic Hash Functions 20/36

6 Cryptographic Hash Functions Signature Protocol Public key algorithms are too slow to sign large documents. A better protocol is to use a one way hash function also known as a cryptographic hash function (CHF). CHFs are checksums or compression functions: they take an arbitrary block of data and generate a unique, short, fixed-size, bitstring. > echo h e l l o sha1sum f572d396fae fb2ce00f72e94f2258f > echo h e l l a sha1sum 1519 ca327399f9d699afb0f8a3b7e1ea9d1edd0c > echo can t b e l i e v e i t s not butter! sha1sum 34 e780e19b07b003b7cf1babba8ef7399b7f81dd 1 Bob computes a one-way hash of his document. 2 Bob encrypts the hash with his private key, thereby signing it. 3 Bob sends the encrypted hash and the document to Alice. 4 Alice decrypts the hash Bob sent him, and compares it against a hash she computes herself of the document. If they are the same, the signature is valid. hash D PB (sig) sig h(m) E SB (hash)? = h(m) Cryptographic Hash Functions 21/36 Cryptographic Hash Functions 22/36 Signature Protocol... Cryptographic Hash Functions... Bob M hash h(m) S E SB (hash) M,S D PB (S)? = h(m) Bob sent M? S B Advantage: the signature is short; defends against MITM attack. P B Alice CHFs should be 1 deterministic 2 one-way 3 collision-resistant i.e., easy to compute, but hard to invert. I.e. given message M, it s easy to compute y h(m); given a value y it s hard to compute an M such that y = h(m). This is what we mean by CHFs being one-way. Cryptographic Hash Functions 23/36 Cryptographic Hash Functions 24/36

7 Weak vs. Strong Collision Resistance Merkle-Damgøard Construction CHFs also have the property to be collision resistant. Weak collision resistance: Assume you have a message M with hash value h(m). Then it should be hard to find a different message M such that h(m) = h(m ). Strong collision resistance: It should be hard to find two different message M 1 and M 2 such that h(m 1 ) = h(m 2 ). Strong collisions resistance is hard to prove. Hash functions are often built on a compression function C(X,Y ): Y X is (a piece of) the message we re hashing. Y and Y is the hash value we re computing. X C length(x)=m length(y )=length(y )=n Y Cryptographic Hash Functions 25/36 Cryptographic Hash Functions 26/36 Merkle-Damgøard Construction... M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 M 5 v = d 0 d 1 C C C C C d 2 d 3 d 5 = d d 4 Outline For long messages M we break it into pieces M 1,...,M k, each of size m. Our initial hash value is an initialization vector v. We then compress one M i at a time, chaining it together on the previous hash value. Cryptographic Hash Functions 27/36 Birthday attacks 28/36

8 The Birthday Problem The Birthday Problem Given a group of n people, what is the probability that two share a birthday? Examine the probability that no two share a birthday: (let B i be person i s birthday) n = 1 : 1 n = 2 : 364/365 n = 3 : probability that B 3 differs from both B 1 and B 2 and that none of the first two share a birthday: 363/ /365 n = 4 :, probability that B 4 differs from all of B and that none of the first three share a birthday: 362/365 (363/ /365) and so on... This generalizes to 365! 365 n (365 n)! It takes only 23 people to give greater than.5 probability that two people share a birthday in a domain with cardinality 365. For a domain with cardinality c,.5 probability is reached with approximately 1.2 c numbers. So what does this have to do with checksums? Birthday attacks 29/36 Birthday attacks 30/36 The Birthday Problem... Birthday Attacks Assume our hash function H has b-bit output. Number of possible hash values is 2 b. Attack: 1 Eve generates large number of messages m 1, m 2, She computes their hash values H(m 1 ), H(m 2 ), She waits for two messages m i and m j such that H(m i ) = H(m j ). Eve needs to generate 2 b inputs to find a collision, right? Wrong! By the birthday paradox, it is likely that two messages will have the same hash value! Security is 2 b/2 not 2 b. Thus, a hash-function with 256-bit output has 128-bit security. Little Billy wants to be the sole beneficiary of Grandma s will He prepares two message templates, like the one Charlie made, one being a field trip permission slip, and the other being a will in which Grandma bequeaths everything to her sweet grandson. Little Billy finds a pair of messages, one generated from each template, with equal checksums Little Billy has Grandma sign the field trip permission slip Little Billy now has a signature that checks out against the will he created Profit!! Birthday attacks 31/36 Birthday attacks 32/36

9 Outline Summary Digital signatures make a message tamper-proof and give us authentication and nonrepudiation They only show that it was signed by a specific key, however It s cheaper to sign a checksum of the message rather than the whole message Cryptographic checksums are necessary to do this securely Summary 33/36 Summary 34/36 Readings and References Acknowledgments Chapter 8.1.7, 8.2.1, in Introduction to Computer Security, by Goodrich and Tamassia. Additional material and exercises have also been collected from these sources: 1 Matthew Landis, 620 Fall 2003 Cryptographic Checksums and Digital Signatures. 2 RFC1321 (MD5), Summary 35/36 Summary 36/36

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