1 Introduction to Exchange Rates and the Foreign Exchange Market 2 1. Refer to the exchange rates given in the following table. Today One Year Ago June 25, 2010 June 25, 2009 Country Per $ Per Per Per $ Australia Canada Denmark Euro Hong Kong India Japan Mexico Sweden United Kingdom United States Source: U.S. Federal Reserve Board of Governors, H.10 release: Foreign Exchange Rates. a. Compute the U.S. dollar yen exchange rate, E $/, and the U.S. dollar Canadian dollar exchange rate, E $/C$, on June 25, 2010, and June 25, 2009 Answer: June 25, 2009: E $/ = 1 / (94.86) = $0.0105/ June 25, 2010: E $/ = 1 / (89.35) = $0.0112/ June 25, 2009: E $/C$ = 1 / (1.084) = $0.9225/C$ June 25, 2010: E $/C$ = 1 / (1.037) = $0.9643/C$ b. What happened to the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the Japanese yen and Canadian dollar between June 25, 2009 and June 25, 2010? Compute the percentage change in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to each currency using the U.S. dollar foreign currency exchange rates you computed in (a). Answer: Between June 25, 2009 and 2010, both the Canadian dollar and the Japanese yen appreciated relative to the U.S. dollar. The percentage appreciation in the foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar is: % E $/ ($ $0.0105) / $ = 6.17% % E $/ ($ $0.9225) / $ = 4.53% S-5
2 S-6 Solutions Chapter 2 Introduction to Exchange Rates & the Foreign Exchange Market c. Using the information in the table for June 25, 2010, compute the Danish krone Canadian dollar exchange rate, E krone/c$. Answer: E krone/c$ = (6.036 kr/$)/(1.037 C$/$) = kr/c$. d. Visit the Web site of the Board of governors of the Federal Reserve System at Click on Economic Research and Data and then Statistics: Releases and Historical Data. Download the H.10 release Foreign Exchange Rates (weekly data available). What has happened to the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the Canadian dollar, Japanese yen, and Danish krone since June 25, 2010? Answer: Answers will vary. e. Using the information from (d), what has happened to the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the British pound and the euro? Note: the H.10 release quotes these exchange rates as U.S.dollars per unit of foreign currency in line with longstanding market conventions. Answer: Answers will vary. 2. Consider the United States and the countries it trades with the most (measured in trade volume): Canada, Mexico, China, and Japan. For simplicity, assume these are the only four countries with which the United States trades. Trade shares and exchange rates for these four countries are as follows: Country (currency) Share of trade $ per FX in 2009 Dollar per FX in 2010 Canada (dollar) 36% Mexico (peso) 28% China (yuan) 20% Japan (yen) 16% a. Compute the percentage change from 2009 to 2010 in the four U.S. bilateral exchange rates (defined as U.S. dollars per units of foreign exchange, or FX) in the table provided. Answer: % E $/C$ = ( ) / = 4.53% % E $/pesos = ( ) / = 4.23% % E $/yuan = ( ) / = 0.61% % E $/ = ( / = 6.67% b. Use the trade shares as weights to compute the percentage change in the nominal effective exchange rate for the United States between 2009 and 2010 (in U.S. dollars per foreign currency basket). Answer: The trade-weighted percentage change in the exchange rate is: % E = 0.36(% E $/C$ ) (% E $/pesos ) (% E $/yuan ) +0.16(% E $/ ) % E = 0.36(4.53%) (4.23%) (0.61%) (6.67%) = 4.01% c. Based on your answer to (b), what happened to the value of the U.S. dollar against this basket between 2009 and 2010? How does this compare with the change in the value of the U.S. dollar relative to the Mexican peso? Explain your answer. Answer: The dollar depreciated by 4.01% against the basket of currencies. Visà-vis the peso, the dollar depreciated by 4.23%. 3. Go to the Web site for Federal Reserve Economic Data (FRED): stlouisfed.org/fred2/. Locate the monthly exchange rate data for the following:
3 Solutions Chapter 2 Introduction to Exchange Rates & the Foreign Exchange Market S-7 a. Canada (dollar), b. China (yuan), and c. Mexico (peso), and d. Thailand (baht), and b. Venezuela (bolivar), Look at the graphs and make a judgment as to whether each currency was fixed (peg or band), crawling (peg or band), or floating relative to the U.S. dollar during each time frame given. a. Canada (dollar), Answer: Floating exchange rate b. China (yuan), and Answer: : Fixed exchange rate : Gradual appreciation visà-vis the dollar. c. Mexico (peso), and Answer: : crawl; : floating (with some evidence of a managed float) d. Thailand (baht), and Answer: : fixed exchange rate; : floating e. Venezuela (bolivar), Answer: Fixed exchange rate (with occasional adjustments) 4. Describe the different ways in which the government may intervene in the foreign exchange market. Why does the government have the ability to intervene in this way whereas private actors do not? Answer: The government may participate in the forex market in a number of ways: capital controls, official market (with fixed rates), and intervention. The government has the ability to intervene in a way that private actors do not because (1) it can impose regulations on the foreign exchange market, and (2) it can implement large-scale transactions that influence exchange rates. 5. Suppose quotes for the dollar euro exchange rate, E $/, are as follows: in New York, $1.50 per euro; and in Tokyo, $1.55 per euro. Describe how investors use arbitrage to take advantage of the difference in exchange rates. Explain how this process will affect the dollar price of the euro in New York and Tokyo. Answer: Investors will buy euros in New York at a price of $1.50 each because this is relatively cheaper than the price in Tokyo. They will then sell these euros in Tokyo at a price of $1.55, earning a $0.05 profit on each euro. With the influx of buyers in New York, the price of euros in New York will increase. With the influx of traders selling euros in Toyko, the price of euros in Tokyo will decrease. This price adjustment continues until the exchange rates are equal in both markets. 6. Consider a Dutch investor with 1,000 euros to place in a bank deposit in either the Netherlands or Great Britain. The (one-year) interest rate on bank deposits is 2% in Britain and 4.04% in the Netherlands. The (one-year) forward euro pound exchange rate is euros per pound and the spot rate is 1.5 euros per pound. Answer the following questions, using the exact equations for UIP and CIP as necessary. a. What is the euro-denominated return on Dutch deposits for this investor? Answer: The investor s return on euro-denominated Dutch deposits is equal to 1, ( 1,000 ( )).
4 S-8 Solutions Chapter 2 Introduction to Exchange Rates & the Foreign Exchange Market b. What is the (riskless) euro-denominated return on British deposits for this investor using forward cover? Answer: The euro-denominated return on British deposits using forward cover is equal to 1,071 ( 1,000 (1.575 / 1.5) (1 0.02)). c. Is there an arbitrage opportunity here? Explain why or why not. Is this an equilibrium in the forward exchange rate market? Answer: Yes, there is an arbitrage opportunity. The euro-denominated return on British deposits is higher than that on Dutch deposits. The net return on each euro deposit in a Dutch bank is equal to 4.04% versus 7.1% ( (1.575 / 1.5) (1 0.02)) on a British deposit (using forward cover). This is not an equilibrium in the forward exchange market. The actions of traders seeking to exploit the arbitrage opportunity will cause the spot and forward rates to change. d. If the spot rate is 1.5 euros per pound, and interest rates are as stated previously, what is the equilibrium forward rate, according to CIP? Answer: CIP implies: F / E / (1 i ) / (1 i ) / per. e. Suppose the forward rate takes the value given by your answer to (d). Calculate the forward premium on the British pound for the Dutch investor (where exchange rates are in euros per pound). Is it positive or negative? Why do investors require this premium/discount in equilibrium? Answer: Forward premium (F / / E / 1) (1.53 / 1.50) %. The existence of a positive forward premium would imply that investors expect the euro to depreciate relative to the British pound. Therefore, when establishing forward contracts, the forward rate is higher than the current spot rate. f. If UIP holds, what is the expected depreciation of the euro against the pound over one year? Answer: According to the UIP approximation, E e / / E / i i 2.04%. Therefore, the euro is expected to depreciate by 2.04%. Using the exact UIP condition, we first need to convert the exchange rates into pound euro terms to calculate the depreciation in the euro. From UIP: E e / E / (1 i ) (1 i ) (1 / 1.5) (1 0.02) / ( ) per. Therefore, the depreciation in the euro is equal to 1.95% ( )/ g. Based on your answer to (f ), what is the expected euro pound exchange rate one year ahead? Answer: Using the exact UIP (not the approximation), we know that the following is true: E e / E / (1 i ) / (1 i ) / 1.02 ( 1.53 per. Using the approximation, E / decreases by 2.04% from to This implies the new spot rate, E / You are a financial adviser to a U.S. corporation that expects to receive a payment of 40 million Japanese yen in 180 days for goods exported to Japan. The current spot rate is 100 yen per U.S. dollar (E $/ ). You are concerned that the U.S. dollar is going to appreciate against the yen over the next six months. a. Assuming that the exchange rate remains unchanged, how much does your firm expect to receive in U.S. dollars? Answer: The firm expects to receive $400,000 ( 40,000,000 / 100). b. How much would your firm receive (in U.S. dollars) if the dollar appreciated to 110 yen per U.S. dollar (E $/ )? Answer: The firm would receive $363,636 ( 40,000,000 / 110).
5 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run 3 1. Suppose that two countries, Vietnam and Côte d Ivoire, produce coffee. The currency unit used in Vietnam is the dong (VND). Côte d Ivoire is a member of Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA), a currency union of West African countries that use the CFA franc (XOF). In Vietnam, coffee sells for 5,000 dong (VND) per pound of coffee. The exchange rate is 30 VND per 1 CFA franc, E VND/XOF 30. a. If the law of one price holds, what is the price of coffee in Côte d Ivoire, measured in CFA francs? Answer: According to LOOP, the price of coffee should be the same in both markets: coffee coffee P C P V /E VND/XOF 5,000/ b. Assume the price of coffee in Côte d Ivoire is actually 160 CFA francs per pound of coffee. Calculate the relative price of coffee in Côte d Ivoire versus Vietnam. Where will coffee traders buy coffee? Where will they sell coffee? How will these transactions affect the price of coffee in Vietnam? In Côte d Ivoire? Answer: The relative price of coffee in these two markets is: q coffee C/V (E V ND P C coffee)/p coffee VND XOF (30 160)/ Traders will buy coffee in Côte d Ivoire because it is cheaper there. Traders will sell coffee in Vietnam. This will lead to an increase in the price of coffee in Côte d Ivoire and a decrease in the price in Vietnam. 2. Consider each of the following goods and services. For each, identify whether the law of one price will hold, and state whether the relative price, qus/foreign, g is greater than, less than, or equal to 1. Explain your answer in terms of the assumptions we make when using the law of one price. a. Rice traded freely in the United States and Canada Answer: qus/foreign g 1 LOOP should hold in this case because its assumptions are met. b. Sugar traded in the United States and Mexico; the U.S. government imposes a quota on sugar imports into the United States Answer: qus/foreign g > 1 S-11
6 S-12 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run If the U.S. government imposes a quota on sugar, this will lead to an increase in the relative price of sugar in the United States through restricting competition. c. The McDonald s Big Mac sold in the United States and Japan Answer: qus/foreign g 1 The McDonald s Big Mac sold in the United States may sell for a different price compared with Japan because there are nontradable elements in the production of the Big Mac, such as labor and rent. d. Haircuts in the United States and the United Kingdom Answer: qus/foreign g 1 Because haircuts cannot be traded across the United States and the United Kingdom, consumers will not arbitrage away differences in the prices of haircuts in these two regions. 3. Use the table that follows to answer this question. Treat the country listed as the home country and the United States as the foreign country. Suppose the cost of the market basket in the United States is P US $190. Check to see whether purchasing power parity (PPP) holds for each of the countries listed, and determine whether we should expect a real appreciation or real depreciation for each country (relative to the United States) in the long run. Country Price of Is FX currency (currency Price of U.S. basket Real Is FX expected to measured market in FX exchange Does PP currency have Real in FX Per $, basket (P US times rate hold? overvalued or appreciation or units E FX/$ (in FX) E FX/$ ) q COUNTRY/US (yes/no) undervalued? depreciation? Brazil (real) India ,000 (rupee) Mexico ,800 (peso) South Africa (rand) Zimbabwe 101,347 4,000,000 (Z$) Answer: See the following table. Note that the United States is treated as the foreign country relative to each home country listed in the table. Country Price of Is FX currency (currency Price of U.S. basket Real Is FX expected to measured market in FX exchange Does PP currency have Real in FX Per $, basket (P US times rate hold? overvalued or appreciation or units E FX/$ (in FX) E FX/$ ) q COUNTRY/US (yes/no) undervalued? depreciation? Brazil No Real overvalued Real exchange rate (real) will depreciate India ,000 8, No Rupee overvalued Real exchange rate (rupee) will depreciate Mexico ,800 2, No Peso undervalued Real exchange rate (peso) will appreciate South Africa , No Rand undervalued Real exchange rate (rand) will appreciate Zimbabwe 101,347 4,000,000 19,225, No ZW$ undervalued Real exchange rate (Z$) will appreciate
7 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run S-13 In the previous table: PPP holds only when the real exchange rate q US/F 1. This implies that the baskets in the home country and the United States have the same price in a common currency. If q US/F 1, then the basket in the United States is more expensive than the basket in the home country. This implies the U.S. dollar is overvalued and the Home currency is undervalued. According to PPP, the Home country will experience a real appreciation (Mexico, South Africa, and Zimbabwe). If q US/F 1, then the basket in the home country is more expensive than the basket in the United States. This implies the U.S. dollar is undervalued and the Home currency is overvalued. According to PPP, the Home country will experience a real depreciation (Brazil and India). 4. Table 3-1 in the text shows the percentage undervaluation or overvaluation in the Big Mac, based on exchange rates in July Suppose purchasing power parity holds in the long run, so that these deviations would be expected to disappear. Suppose the local currency prices of the Big Mac remained unchanged. Exchange rates in January 4, 2010, were as follows (source: IMF): Country Per U.S. $ Australia (A$) 0.90 Brazil (real) 1.74 Canada (C$) 1.04 Denmark (krone) 5.17 Eurozone (euro) 0.69 India (rupee) Japan (yen) Mexico (peso) Sweden (krona) 7.14 Based on these data and Table 3-1, calculate the change in the exchange rate from July to January, and state whether the direction of change was consistent with the PPP-implied exchange rate using the Big Mac Index. How might you explain the failure of the Big Mac Index to correctly predict the change in the nominal exchange rate between July 2009 and January 2010?
8 S-14 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run Answer: (The complete table is included in the Excel workbook for this chapter in the solutions manual.) Exchange rate Big Mac prices (local currency per U.S. dollar) Exchange Percent Over (+) / rate actual change under ( ) Jan. 4, July 13, Actual, valuation 2010 (local 2009 In local In U.S. Implied July against currency Jan. 4, PPP correct currency dollars by PPP 13th dollar, % per U.S. $) 2010 or not? (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) United States $ Australia A$ % % Correct direction, but depreciation was way more than predicted. Brazil R$ % % PPP predicted depreciation, but currency actually appreciated. Canada C$ % % Correct direction, but appreciation was way more than PPP predicted. Denmark Kr % % PPP predicted [ic] depreciation, but currency actually appreciated. Euro area % % PPP predicted depreciation, but currency actually appreciated. Japan % % PPP predicted appreciation, but currency actually depreciated. Mexico Peso % % Correct direction, but appreciation was way less than PPP predicted. Sweden Kr % % PPP predicted [ic] depreciation, but currency actually appreciated.
9 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run S-15 We can see from the table that during this time, PPP correctly predicted the direction exchange rate movements for only three of these countries. The Big Max Index may fail to predict exchange rate movements because there are nontradable inputs used in the production of Big Macs, such as labor and rent. 5. You are given the following information. The current dollar pound exchange rate is $2 per British pound. A U.S. basket that costs $100 would cost $120 in the United Kingdom. For the next year, the Fed is predicted to keep U.S. inflation at 2% and the Bank of England is predicted to keep U.K. inflation at 3%. The speed of convergence to absolute PPP is 15% per year. a. What is the expected U.S. minus U.K. inflation differential for the coming year? Answer: The inflation differential is equal to 1% ( 2% 3%). b. What is the current U.S. real exchange rate, q UK/US, with the United Kingdom? Answer: The current real exchange rate is: q UK/US (E $/ P UK )/P US $120/$ c. How much is the dollar overvalued/undervalued? Answer: The British pound is undervalued by 20% and the U.S. dollar is overvalued by 20% ( / 1). d. What do you predict the U.S. real exchange rate with the United Kingdom will be in one year s time? Answer: We can use the information on convergence to compute the implied change in the U.S. real exchange rate. We know the speed of convergence to absolute PPP is 15%; that is, each year the exchange rate will adjust by 15% of what is needed to achieve the real exchange rate equal to 1 (assuming prices in each country remain unchanged). Today, the real exchange rate is equal to 1.2, implying a 0.2 decrease is needed to satisfy absolute PPP. Over the next year, 15% of this adjustment will occur, so the real exchange rate will decrease by Therefore, after one year, the U.S. real exchange rate, q UK/US, will equal e. What is the expected rate of real depreciation for the United States (versus the United Kingdom)? Answer: From (d), the real exchange rate will decrease by Therefore, the rate of real depreciation is equal to 2.5% ( ). This implies a real appreciation in the United States relative to the United Kingdom. f. What is the expected rate of nominal depreciation for the United States (versus the United Kingdom)? Answer: The expected rate of nominal depreciation can be calculated based on the inflation differential plus the expected real depreciation from (e). In this case, the inflation differential is 1% and the expected real appreciation is 2.5%, so the expected nominal depreciation is 3.5%. That is, we expect a 3.5% appreciation in the U.S. dollar relative to the British pound. g. What do you predict will be the dollar price of one pound a year from now? Answer: The current nominal exchange rate is $2 per pound and we expect a 3.5% appreciation in the dollar (from [f ]). Therefore, the expected exchange rate in one year is equal to $1.93 ( $2 ( ). 6. Describe how each of the following factors might explain why PPP is a better guide for exchange rate movements in the long run versus the short run: (1) transactions costs, (2) nontraded goods, (3) imperfect competition, and (4) price stickiness. As markets become increasingly integrated, do you suspect PPP will become a more useful guide in the future? Why or why not?
10 S-16 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run Answer: Each of these factors hinders trade more in the short run than in the long run. Specifically, each is a reason to expect that the condition of frictionless trade is not satisfied. For this reason, PPP is more likely to hold in the long run than in the short run. (1) Transactions costs. Over longer periods of time, producers generally face decreasing average costs (as fixed costs become variable costs in the long run). Therefore, the average cost associated with a given transaction should decrease. (2) Nontraded goods. Goods that are not traded among countries cannot be arbitraged. Since intercountry arbitrage is required for PPP, nontraded goods will prevent exchange rates from completely adjusting to PPP. Examples of nontraded goods include many services that require a physical presence on site to complete the work. There are many of these, ranging from plumbers to hairdressers. (3) Imperfect competition. Imperfect competition implies that producers of differentiated products have the ability to influence prices. In the short run, these firms may either collude to prevent price adjustment, or they may engage in dramatic changes in price (e.g., price wars) designed to capture market share. These collusion agreements and price wars generally are not long-lasting. (4) Price stickiness. In the short run, prices may be inflexible for several reasons. Firms may face menu costs, or fear that price adjustments will adversely affect market share. Firms also may have wage contracts that are set in nominal terms. However, in the long run, these costs associated with changing prices dissipate, either because menu costs decrease over time or because firms and workers renegotiate wage contracts in the long run. As markets become more integrated, PPP should become a better predictor of exchange rate movements. For PPP to hold, we have to assume frictionless trade. The more integrated markets are, the closer they are to achieving frictionless trade. 7. Consider two countries, Japan and Korea. In 1996, Japan experienced relatively slow output growth (1%), whereas Korea had relatively robust output growth (6%). Suppose the Bank of Japan allowed the money supply to grow by 2% each year, whereas the Bank of Korea chose to maintain relatively high money growth of 12% per year. For the following questions, use the simple monetary model (where L is constant). You will find it easiest to treat Korea as the home country and Japan as the foreign country. a. What is the inflation rate in Korea? In Japan? Answer: K K g K K 12% 6% 6% J J g J J 2% 1% 1% b. What is the expected rate of depreciation in the Korean won relative to the Japanese yen? Answer: % E e won/ ( K J ) 6% 1% 5%. You can check this by using the following expression from the monetary model: % E e won/ ( K g K ) ( J g J ). c. Suppose the Bank of Korea increases the money growth rate from 12% to 15%. If nothing in Japan changes, what is the new inflation rate in Korea? Answer: new K K g K 15% 6% 9%
11 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run S-17 d. Using time series diagrams, illustrate how this increase in the money growth rate affects the money supply, M K ; Korea s interest rate; prices, P K ; real money supply; and E won/ over time. (Plot each variable on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis.) Answer: See the following diagrams. Bank of Korea increases money growth rate Bank of Korea reduces the money growth rate to less than 7% M K M K % P K P K M K / P K M K / P K g g E won/y E won/y K2 J Note that E actually falls here because the won appreciates K1 J K1 J K2 J 0 T T
12 S-18 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run e. Suppose the Bank of Korea wants to maintain an exchange rate peg with the Japanese yen. What money growth rate would the Bank of Korea have to choose to keep the value of the won fixed relative to the yen? Answer: To keep the exchange rate constant, the Bank of Korea must lower its money growth rate. We can figure out exactly which money growth rate will keep the exchange rate fixed by using the fundamental equation for the simple monetary model (used above in [b]): % E e won/ ( K g K ) ( J g J ) The objective is to set % E e won/ 0: ( * K g K ) ( J g J ) Plug in the values given in the question and solve for * K : ( * K 6%) (2%. 1%) * K 7% Therefore, if the Bank of Korea sets its money growth rate to 7%, its exchange rate with Japan will remain unchanged. f. Suppose the Bank of Korea sought to implement policy that would cause the Korean won to appreciate relative to the Japanese yen. What ranges of the money growth rate (assuming positive values) would allow the Bank of Korea to achieve this objective? Answer: Using the same reasoning as previously, the objective is for the won to appreciate: % E e won/ 0 This can be achieved if the Bank of Korea allows the money supply to grow by less than 7% each year. The diagrams on the following page show how this would affect the variables in the model over time. 8. This question uses the general monetary model, in which L is no longer assumed constant and money demand is inversely related to the nominal interest rate. Consider the same scenario described in the beginning of the previous question. In addition, the bank deposits in Japan pay 3% interest; i 3%. a. Compute the interest rate paid on Korean deposits. Answer: Fisher effect: (i won i ) ( K J ) Solve for i won (6% 1%) 3% 8% b. Using the definition of the real interest rate (nominal interest rate adjusted for inflation), show that the real interest rate in Korea is equal to the real interest rate in Japan. (Note that the inflation rates you calculated in the previous question will apply here.) Answer: r i J 2% 1% 1% r won i won K 8% 6% 2% c. Suppose the Bank of Korea increases the money growth rate from 12% to 15% and the inflation rate rises proportionately (one for one) with this increase. If the nominal interest rate in Japan remains unchanged, what happens to the interest rate paid on Korean deposits? Answer: We know that the inflation rate in Korea will increase to 9%. We also know that the real interest rate will remain unchanged. Therefore: i won r won K 1% 9% 10%.
13 Solutions Chapter 3 Exchange Rates I: The Monetary Approach in the Long Run S-19 d. Using time series diagrams, illustrate how this increase in the money growth rate affects the money supply, M K ; Korea s interest rate; prices, P K ; real money supply; and E won/ over time. (Plot each variable on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis.) Answer: See the following diagrams. Bank of Korea increases money growth rate M K 2 1 P K i won M K / P K E won/y T T 9. Both advanced economies and developing countries have experienced a decrease in inflation since the 1980s (see Table 3-2 in the text). This question considers how the choice of policy regime has influenced this global disinflation. Use the monetary model to answer this question. a. The Swiss Central Bank currently targets its money growth rate to achieve policy objectives. Suppose Switzerland has output growth of 3% and money growth of 8% each year. What is Switzerland s inflation rate in this case? Describe how the Swiss Central Bank could achieve an inflation rate of 2% in the long run through the use of a nominal anchor. Answer: From the monetary approach: S S g S 8% 3% 5%. If the Swiss Central Bank wants to achieve an inflation target of 2%, it would need to reduce its money growth rate to 5%: * S S g S 2% 3% 5%.
Assignment 10 (Chapter 11) 1. Which of the following tends to cause the U.S. dollar to appreciate in value? a) An increase in U.S. prices above foreign prices b) Rapid economic growth in foreign countries
CHAPTER 22 International Corporate Finance 771 3. The fundamental relationships between international financial variables: a. Absolute and relative purchasing power parity, PPP b. Interest rate parity,
Chapter 2: The balance of payments and the foreign exchange market 1- Exchange rates and international transactions Currency Overview Asia 10:46 a.m. EDT 03/22/11 Last (bid) Prior Day Australian Dollar
Measuring long-run equilibrium exchange rates using standardized products with different specifications James Laurenceson & Kam Ki Tang*, Measuring long-run equilibrium exchange rates using standardized
The relationship between exchange rates, interest rates In this lecture we will learn how exchange rates accommodate equilibrium in financial markets. For this purpose we examine the relationship between
Exchange Rates: Application of Supply and Demand ECO 120: Global Macroeconomics 1 1.1 Goals Goals ˆ Specific goals: Learn how interpret exchange rates. Learn how to use supply and demand to interpret exchange
Study Questions (with Answers) Page 1 of 7 Study Questions (with Answers) Lecture 14 the Exchange Rate Part 1: Multiple Choice Select the best answer of those given. 1. Suppose the central bank of Mexico
Global Economy Chris Edmond Exchange Rates Revised: January 9, 2008 Exchange rates (currency prices) are a central element of most international transactions. When Heineken sells beer in the US, its euro
0136PE_Chapter_03 1/5/03 10:52 am Page 25 3 Currency classifications Francesca Taylor, Taylor Associates Introduction Broad classification of currencies Indications of currency classifications Major currencies
QUESTIONS CHAPTER 20 FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS Question 20.1 Suppose you want to buy a car. You either want to buy a Chevrolet for US$ 23,000, a Volkswagen for 15,900, a Honda for 2.2 million or a Hyundai
CHAPTER 16 EXCHANGE-RATE SYSTEMS MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. The exchange-rate system that best characterizes the present international monetary arrangement used by industrialized countries is: a. Freely
Understanding the Effects Of Currency Exchange Rates Lesson 5 OVERVIEW: The value of money is determined when people are willing to accept it in exchange for goods and services. Previous to using money,
A New Effective Exchange Rate Index for the Canadian Dollar Janone Ong, Financial Markets Department A new Canadian-dollar effective exchange rate index (CERI) has been created to replace the C 6 index
What Determines Exchange Rates? In the Short Run In the Long Run Selected Exchange Rates Selected Exchange Rates Determinants of the Exchange Rate in the Short Run In the short run, movements of currency
Study Questions 6 (Foreign Exchange Markets) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The currency used to buy imported goods is 1) A) the
Chapter 17 1. Inflation can be measured by the a. change in the consumer price index. b. percentage change in the consumer price index. c. percentage change in the price of a specific commodity. d. change
Thank You for Attention Explain how the foreign exchange market works. Examine the forces that determine exchange rates. Consider whether it is possible to predict future rates movements. Map the business
CHAPTER 6 INTERNATIONAL PARITY RELATIONSHIPS AND FORECASTING FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES SUGGESTED ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS QUESTIONS 1. Give a full definition of arbitrage.
EXCHANGE-RATE DETERMINATION LECTURE NOTES & EXERCISES based on Carbaugh Chapter 13 CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter seeks to explain the factors that underlie currency movements. These factors include market
Macroeconomics, 10e, Global Edition (Parkin) Chapter 26 The Exchange Rate and the Balance of Payments 1 The Foreign Exchange Market 1) The term "foreign currency" refers to foreign I. coins II. notes III.
The Foreign xchange Market Prof. Irina A. Telyukova UBC conomics 345 Fall 2008 Outline The foreign exchange market is the market where assets denominated in different currencies are traded against each
Seminar Global Foreign Exchange Markets Chapter 9 9- Learning Objectives To learn the fundamentals of foreign exchange To identify the major characteristics of the foreign-exchange market and how governments
C H A P T E R 1 8 Exchange Rate Determination I: Prices and the Real Exchange Rate Overview The nominal exchange rate is the rate at which the currencies of two countries can be exchanged, while the real
Chapter 1 Currency Exchange Rates 1. Since the value of the British pound in U.S. dollars has gone down, it has depreciated with respect to the U.S. dollar. Therefore, the British will have to spend more
This is Foreign Exchange Markets and Rates of Return, chapter 4 from the book Policy and Theory of International Finance (index.html) (v. 1.0). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0
A Primer on Exchange Rates and Exporting WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION EM041E A Primer on Exchange Rates and Exporting By Andrew J. Cassey and Pavan Dhanireddy Abstract Opportunities to begin exporting
CHAPTER 15 EXCHANGE-RATE ADJUSTMENTS AND THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. According to the absorption approach, the economic circumstances that best warrant a currency devaluation is
Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin October 22 Developments in the Trade-Weighted Index 1 Introduction This article provides some background on the history and methodology of the trade-weighted index (TWI)
Exchange rates represent the linkage between one country and its partners in the global economy. They affect the relative price of goods being traded (exports and imports), the valuation of assets, and
Global Investing: The Importance of Currency Returns and Currency Hedging There is a continuing trend for investors to reduce their home bias in equity allocation and increase the allocation to international
CHAPTER 5 THE MARKET FOR FOREIGN EXCHANGE SUGGESTED ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS QUESTIONS 1. Give a full definition of the market for foreign exchange. Answer: Broadly
WisdomTree ETFs BLOOMBERG U.S. DOLLAR BULLISH FUND USDU Over the past few years, investors have become increasingly sophisticated. Not only do they understand the benefits of expanding their holdings beyond
Chapter 11 International Economics II: International Finance The other major branch of international economics is international monetary economics, also known as international finance. Issues in international
Chapter 14 Foreign Exchange Markets and Exchange Rates International transactions have one common element that distinguishes them from domestic transactions: one of the participants must deal in a foreign
Test 4 Created: 3:05:28 PM CDT 1. The buyer of a call option has the choice to exercise, but the writer of the call option has: A. The choice to offset with a put option B. The obligation to deliver the
ECON 10020/20020 Principles of Macroeconomics Problem Set 6 Solutions Dennis C. Plott University of Notre Dame Department of Economics April 9, 2015 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Name: Dennis C. Plott
Winter 2007 Econ 102 The Open Economy 1. Be sure to read your copy of the Wall Street Journal every weekday, looking especially for items related to the material in this course. Find an article in this
The foreign exchange and derivatives markets in Hong Kong by the Banking Supervision Department The results of the latest triennial global survey of turnover in the markets for foreign exchange (FX) and
Arbitrage 1. Exchange rate arbitrage Exchange rate arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of inconsistent exchange rates in different markets by selling in one market and simultaneously buying in
CAN INVESTORS PROFIT FROM DEVALUATIONS? THE PERFORMANCE OF WORLD STOCK MARKETS AFTER DEVALUATIONS Introduction Bryan Taylor The recent devaluations in Asia have drawn attention to the risk investors face
MATHEMATICAL EXCURSIONS Math and the Tourist When you travel to a foreign country, besides different languages and customs, you may encounter a different currency, system of weights and measures, and temperature
SOLUTIONS TO TEXT PROBLEMS: Quick Quizzes 1. Net exports are the value of a nation s exports minus the value of its imports, also called the trade balance. Net capital outflow is the purchase of foreign
AN AUGMENTED TRADE-WEIGHTED INDEX OF THE AUSTRALIAN DOLLAR 1 Introduction Trade-weighted exchange rate indices provide a guide to a country s exchange rate against the currencies of its trading partners,
Foreign Exchange Market: Chapter 7 Chapter Objectives & Lecture Notes FINA 5500 Chapter Objectives: FINA 5500 Chapter 7 / FX Markets 1. To be able to interpret direct and indirect quotes in the spot market
Econ 4401 International Economics University of Minnesota Deniz Cicek Fall 2009 Assignment 3 Answer Key (Maximum Points: 100) Multiple-Choice Questions Each question is worth 3 points. Explanation is not
Exchange Rates Costas Arkolakis teaching fellow: Federico Esposito Economics 407, Yale January 2014 Outline De nitions: Nominal and Real Exchange Rate A Theory of Determination of the Real Exchange Rate
Exercise 1 Due: Preliminary figures (in billions of dollars) for 2004 taken from the 2005 Economic Report of the President showed that: Y = 11,728.0, C = 8,231.1, EX = 1,170.2, IM = 1,779.6, G = 2,183.8
nternational conomic Relations Prof. Murphy Chapter 12 Krugman and Obstfeld 2. quation 2 can be written as CA = (S p ) + (T G). Higher U.S. barriers to imports may have little or no impact upon private
Chapter 17 Fixed Exchange Rates and Foreign Exchange Intervention Slides prepared by Thomas Bishop Copyright 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Preview Balance sheets of central banks Intervention
Carry Strategies Don t get Carried away! Krishna Kumar Contact: email@example.com Summary Buying high yielding currency and shorting low-yielding currency has been a profitable strategy and has been
Page 1 of 7 Problem Set #1 - Answers International Transactions And Exchange Rates 1. On page 2 is the structure of the balance of payments accounts for a country, Wonkland, whose currency is the policio,
THE US DOLLAR, THE EURO, THE JAPANESE YEN AND THE CHINESE YUAN IN THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ORASTEAN Ramona Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Abstract: This paper exposes
APPENDIX 3 Investing in International Financial Markets http:// Visit http://money.cnn.com for current national and international market data and analyses. The trading of financial assets (such as stocks
Currency Derivatives Guide What are Futures? In finance, a futures contract (futures) is a standardised contract between two parties to buy or sell a specified asset of standardised quantity and quality
CHAPTER 2 1. WHY WE NEED FOREIGN EXCHANGE Almost every nation has its own national currency or monetary unit its dollar, its peso, its rupee used for making and receiving payments within its own borders.
Foreign Exchange Market INTERNATIONAL FINANCE Chapter 5 Encompasses: Conversion of purchasing power across currencies Bank deposits of foreign currency Credit denominated in foreign currency Foreign trade
Internet address: http://www.bls.gov/fls USDL: 04-2343 Technical information: (202) 691-5654 For Release: 10:00 A.M. EST Media contact: (202) 691-5902 Thursday, November 18, 2004 INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
Bo Sjö 2012-10-03 Practice Set and Solutions #1 What to do with this practice set? 1 Practice sets are handed out to help students master the material of the course and prepare for the final exam. These
Foreign exchange Jeffrey A. Frankel September 2005 To appear as an entry in the Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, Liberty Fund, Inc., edited by David Henderson. The foreign exchange market is the market
Theories of Exchange rate determination INTRODUCTION By definition, the Foreign Exchange Market is a market 1 in which different currencies can be exchanged at a specific rate called the foreign exchange
Foreign Exchange markets and international monetary arrangements Ruichang LU ( 卢 瑞 昌 ) Department of Finance Guanghua School of Management Peking University Some issues on the course arrangement Professor
Extra Practice Problems Instructions: The problems are similar to the ones on your previous problem sets. All interest rates and rates of inflation given in the problems are annualized (i.e., stated as
The Open Economy Gavin Cameron Tuesday 10 July 2001 Oxford University Business Economics Programme the exchange rate The nominal exchange rate is simply the price of one currency in terms of another pounds
Special Drawing Rights A Way out of Global Imbalances? Stefan Bender Special Drawing Rights Definition Special Drawing Rights (SDR) are the monetary unit of the reserve assets of the International Monetary
Indexes of the Foreign Exchange Value of the Dollar Mico Loretan, of the Board s Division of International Finance, prepared this article. Autria Mazda and Sarita Subramanian provided research assistance.
107 INFLATION, INTEREST RATE, AND EXCHANGE RATE: WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP? Maurice K. Shalishali, Columbus State University Johnny C. Ho, Columbus State University ABSTRACT A test of IFE (International
Economics 380: International Economics Fall 2000 Exam #2 100 Points Name (ID) YOU SHOULD HAVE 7 PAGES FOR THIS EXAM. EXAM WILL END AT 1:50. MAKE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON THE FIRST AND LAST PAGE OF THE EXAM.
Chapter 5 The Foreign Exchange Market Foreign Exchange Markets: Learning Objectives Examine the functions performed by the foreign exchange (FOREX) market, its participants, size, geographic and currency
Possible losses from changes in currency exchange rates are a risk of investing unhedged in foreign stocks. While a stock may perform well on the London Stock Exchange, if the British pound declines against
Chapter 68: HL extension exchange rate calculations (3.2) HL extensions Exchange rate calculation Supply and demand linear functions Price of goods in another currency Using currency data Calculate the
Chapter 17 Financing World Trade Learning Objectives Explain how foreign exchange rates are determined. Differentiate between floating and fixed exchange rate systems. Contrast the balance of trade and
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (Release No. 34-57693; File No. SR-Amex-2008-07) April 21, 2008 Self-Regulatory Organizations; American Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Order Granting Accelerated
The Foreign Exchange Market Role of the foreign exchange markets Foreign exchange (FX) basics» Terminology» Types of contracts Organization and institutional features» Actors - brokers, dealers» Segments
Chapter 1.2 Currencies Come in Pairs 0 GETTING STARTED You know the advantages of trading forex, and you are excited to start trading. Now you need to learn what this market is all about. How does it work?
Chapter 20. Output, the Interest Rate, and the Exchange Rate In Chapter 19, we treated the exchange rate as one of the policy instruments available to the government. But the exchange rate is not a policy
Do Currencies Have a Fair Value? May 2011 George Saravelos European FX Strategist IMPORTANT: PLEASE SEE CONFLICT DISCLOSURES AND ANALYST CERTIFICATION IMMEDIATELY AT THE END OF THE TEXT OF THIS REPORT.
International Financial Management Professor Michel A. Robe Practice questions: Set #1 What should you do with this set? To help students prepare for the exam and the case, several problem sets with solutions