Networked I/O for Virtual Machines

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1 Networked I/O for Virtual Machines Approaches and Challenges Muli Ben-Yehuda, Ben-Ami Yassour, Orit Wasserman IBM Haifa Research Lab Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 1/17

2 Table of Contents Virtualization Networked I/O for virtual machines Approaches Pass-through device access IOMMUs Challenges Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 2/17

3 Virtualization For foundations, see [Popek74]. This talk deals mainly with the open-source hypervisors Xen [Barham03] and KVM [Kivity07]. Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 3/17

4 Network I/O is tough High packet rate (1GE 10GE) Data must often be copied on receive High bandwidth, high throughput, low latency Figure 1: Xen network CPU utilization vs. Linux [Santos07] Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 4/17

5 Virtual Machine I/O Virtual machines use three models for I/O Emulation Para-virtualized drivers Pass-through access Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 5/17

6 Emulation Hypervisor emulates real I/O devices [Sugerman01] Virtual machine uses its standard drivers Hypervisor traps device accesses (MMIO, PIO) Hypervisor emulates interrupts and DMA Interface limited to low-level, real device interface! Which is not a good fit for software emulation = High compatibility but low performance. Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 6/17

7 Para-virtualization Hypervisor and VM cooperate for more efficient I/O [Barham03] Hypervisor specific drivers installed in the VM Network device level or higher up the stack = Low compatibility but better performance [Santos08]. Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 7/17

8 Pass-through Give VM direct access to a hardware device Without any software intermediaries between the virtual machine and the device Examples: Legacy adapters [Ben-Yehuda06] Self-virtualizing adapters [Liu06], [Willman07] = Best performance but at a price.. Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 8/17

9 Pass-through security Untrusted VM programs a device, without any supervision. Device is DMA capable (all modern devices are). Which means the domain can program the device to overwrite any memory location.... including where the hypervisor lives... game over. Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 9/17

10 Pass-through memory addressing VM is not aware of host physical memory. VM is only aware of its own guest physical memory. Device DMAs need to end at the right place (host, not guest physical memory). VM programs device with guest physical addresses DMAs end up at the wrong place! Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 10/17

11 IOMMU to the rescue IOMMU think MMU for I/O devices separate address spaces, protection from malicious devices! IOMMUs enable pass-through access for para-virtualized and fully-virtualized VMs. Intra-VM vs. Inter-VM protection [Willman08] But: IOMMUs have costs too [Ben-Yehuda07] Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 11/17

12 Pass-through network throughput Msg size < 1024: throughput as much as 45% less. Msg size >= 1024: throughput barely affected. Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 12/17

13 Pass-through network CPU utilization Pass-through CPU utilization is up to 40% 60% more! Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 13/17

14 Live VM migration host a host b VM Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 14/17

15 Tying it all together How can we get the same performance as bare metal? Throughput and CPU utilization... on 10GbE How can we get the performance of bare-metal with the benefits of virtual drivers? (e.g., live migration) A hybrid approach? [Willman07] Custom-made devices? [Liu07] Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 15/17

16 Bibliography Barham03: Xen and the Art of Virtualization, SOSP 03 Ben-Yehuda06: Utilizing IOMMUs for Virtualization in Linux and Xen, OLS 06 Ben-Yehuda07: The Price of Safety: Evaluating IOMMU Performance, OLS 07 Liu06: High Performance VMM-Bypass I/O in Virtual Machines, USENIX 06 Liu07: Nomad: migrating OS-bypass networks in virtual machines, VEE 07 Kivity07: kvm: The Kernel-Based Virtual Machine for Linux, OLS 07 Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 16/17

17 Bibliography cont. Popek74: Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third Generation Architectures, CACM 17(7), 74 Santos08: Bridging the Gap between Software and Hardware Techniques for I/O Virtualization, USENIX 08 Sugerman01: Virtualizing I/O Devices on VMware Workstation s Hosted Virtual Machine Monitor, USENIX 01 Willman07: Concurrent Direct Network Access for Virtual Machine Monitors, HPCA 07 Willman08: Protection Strategies for Direct Access to Virtualized I/O Devices, USENIX 08 Networked I/O for Virtual Machines p. 17/17

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