# TIME IS RIGHT FOR SOLAR PANELS

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3 min max KEY WEST N ave min max LOS ANGELES N ave min max NEWARK, NJ/NEW YORK N/40.78 N ave min max SEATTLE N ave min max TUCSON, AZ N ave min max To translate this data into practical numbers, assume a typical 3 kw installation, as described above, installed at an inclination of 41 facing directly south, close to Newark, NJ. The installation consists of 15 panels. Each panel has a net area of 1.25m² for a total of 18.8m². The total conversion efficiency is 15% for high quality modern panels. Then we get the following results: Ave annual 12.7 kwh/day Total :4,635kwh/year min 11.8 kwh/day; max 13.2 kwh/day Ave January 9.3 kwh/day Total:288kwh/Jan min 7.3 kwh/day; max 11.5 kwh/day Ave July 15.2 kwh/day Total:471kwh/July min 13.8 kwh/day; max 17.4 kwh/day For other locations, multiply these numbers by the ratio of the output at the new location to that of Newark in the first table. For larger installations, multiply the above results by the ratio of the new number of panels to 15. For example, for an installation of 30 panels (6kw) muliply the above results by (30 15)=2.0. The ideal angle of inclination is equal to the latitude of the location. Small deviations are not significant. If the solar panels are installed at an angle 15 greater (for example 55 instead of 40 in New Jersey), the power generated in winter will be 9% more, in summer 10% less, or a 5% reduction over the whole year. If the angle is 15 less (25 instead of 40 ). in winter the output power will reduced by 10%, in summer increased by 5%, for an overall average annual reduction of 4%. The highest power output is obtained when the panels face directly south (Azimuth=180 ). If they face more easterly, more power will be generated in the morning, less in the afternoon, The same is true if they face more to the west, more power will be generated in the afternoon, less in the morning. Costs for Azimuth 180±25 the reduction in ave annual ouput power is less than 5%; for Azimuth 135 or 225 (SE or SW) the reduction is 17%; for Azimuth 90 or 270, that is facing East or West, the reduction in output power is 26%. For northern New Jersey, with current power cost of 16.7c/kwh, the reduced electric bill translates into an

5 currently being used in large solar power farms, on roofs of large commercial buildings, in open fields, in deserts. Solar roof tiles are also being developed, but it is not known how successful they will be, or what will be their longevity and efficiency. Note: It is more efficient to heat hot water, for example for swimming pools, in direct solar water heaters. Do not wait for lower cost future solar cell developments. Already now, hardware and construction labor costs account for more than 50% of the total cost of a roof-top installation. Present incentives cover almost 50% of the cost, but they will be phased out within the next couple of years. DO NOT WAIT! * Definitions and units. SREC = Solar Renewable Energy Credit. Certificates, issued for 1,000kwh generated. are traded on the open market. DC - Direct current, electricity provided by a battery, the current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal. Incandescent light bulbs will work on AC or DC. AC - Alternating current, the direction of current flow changes 60 times a second in north America, 50 times a second in most other countries. All motors and domestic appliances require AC. Watt - unit of power. 1 watt=1 volt x 1 ampere. kw = 1000 watts, Mw = 1000kw. kwh - unit of energy = 1kw of power provided during 1 hour. You pay for electricity by the kwh measured on your power meter. Solar cell efficiency = ratio of output DC power to solar insolation, ranges from 14% to 17% in modern monocrystalline silicon cells. Converson efficiency = ratio of output AC power to solar insolation = (solar cell efficiency)x(inverter efficiency), typically about 15% in present highest quality solar panels. Reference: The insolation data is extracted from /sum2/14734.txt This article is extracted from in which there are links to other references.

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