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1 Solar Power for Agriculture and Our Experiences at the Middlesex County EARTH Center Rutgers Cooperative Extension William T. Hlubik Agricultural and Resource Management Agent Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Middlesex County New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Rutgers University

2 Costs and Considerations Size of system Pitch and orientation of roof Roof strength Geographic location Federal or state programs to reduce costs

3 Orientation JANUARY 55 DEGRESS FEBRUARY 45 DEGREES MARCH 45 DEGREES APRIL 35 DEGREES MAY 25 DEGREES JUNE 15 DEGREES JULY 15 DEGREES AUGUST 25 DEGREES SEPTEMBER 35 DEGREES OCTOBER 45 DEGREES NOVEMBER 45 DEGREES DECEMBER 55 DEGREES

4 25 KW Mounted Solar energy is combined into one DC circuit and sent through conductors to the pad mounted inverter. 25 KW Mounted Photovoltaic System Inverter converts the DC energy e to AC power and sends it back to an analog watt hour meter located in the aluminum enclosure where the energy is metered for reporting to the utility for proper credits.

5 Farm System Scenario 1 24 kw system $200,000 total Galvanized Aluminum Support Costs $6 to $8 / watt

6 $1 per watt offset NJ BPU = $24,000 Energy Savings 2008 $ 6, SREC s at $400 to $600 = $15,000 TOTAL $45, % tax credit

7 How Solar Panels Work Solar cells -photovoltaic cells, convert sunlight into electricity (photo = light, voltaic = electricity). Originally, for use in space and were costly for wider use. Researchers have found ways to manufacture cheaper and more efficient panels -- becoming a widely used form of renewable energy.

8 Make up of a photovoltaic cell Two thin sheets of a semiconductor, usually silicon. Photons from the sun -- absorbed by the sheet release electrons to be freed. "Doping Doping", a process of adding impurities to the silicon, is used to increase the activity of free electrons. Doping with phosphorous = negative charge This sheet of silicon is called N-type ("n" " for negative). N-type doped d silicon is a much better conductor than pure silicon.

9 Make up of a photovoltaic cell Doping with boron creates P-type,, positively charged, silicon. Instead of having free electrons, P-type silicon has a shortage of electrons, or "holes", in its outer shell. When the two thin sheets of silicon are sandwiched together, an electric field is established between them. If a conductive pathway is introduced close to the electric field, there is an increase in the electric activity between the plates and some electrons cause a current to flow through the conductor pathway.

10 How Solar Panels Work

11 Advantages of Solar Low maintenance No CO or CO2 Local Energy source Higher property values (10% or more)

12 Overview of Middlesex County Solar Energy Project

13 Solar Power Specs 25 Kw System Mono Crystalline 20% Efficiency Highest Efficiency Crystalline Cell Manufactured by Sun Power in USA and Philippines part of Cypress Semi-Condutor

14 Solar Collectors 12 Racks on Metal Risers 10 Solar Panels per Rack 120 Solar Panels Movable Panels to Optimize i Solar Input

15 2 x 4 = 8 sq ft 10 Panels/ Rack = 80 sq ft 12 Racks x 10 Panels = 960 sq ft Solar Panel Area 960 sq ft

16

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18 Costs and Rebates System Costs $340,000 Consultants Fee $ 32,000 Total Costs $372,000 Rebate Amount $115,000 BPU Cost Balance $257,000

19 Energy Calculation at PV Watts Calculate energy produced by photovoltaic solar panels in a geographical area.

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23 Energy Costs Savings 25 Kw provides approx. 45% of electrical energy needs for our building Monthly savings of $300 to $500 Yearly savings of $4000 to $6,000 average $5,000 savings per year

24 SREC Energy Credits on Our System Solar Renewable Energy Credits State of NJ BPU provides 1 SREC for every 1,000 KW hours generated Our project generates approx credits x approx. $600 per credit = $18,300 $18,300 return / year Energy Credits

25 Total Savings Per Year $5,000 savings per year $18,300 $18,300 return/year Energy Credits $23,300 $23,300 or more total energy savings and return per year

26 System Payback $257,000 Total Costs $ 23,300 Savings / Return / Year 11 Years to Pay for System Costs at current energy rate

27 Additional Cost Savings 40% to 50% Savings by Mounting on Roof $13 / watt costs Pole Mount System $ 8 / watt costs for Roof Mounted System No engineering and site prep costs

28 Information on Other Solar Units Throughout New Jersey and the USA Go to Fat Spaniel

29 Copyright Fat Spaniel Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.

30

31 Site Construction for Solar Design Phase Clearing Site- remove 12 topsoil Install Polls and Racks Footings 36 wide x 60 deep Poles 8 diameter x 12 high

32 Site Preparation Video

33 Construction of Solar Project Install PVC Conduit Construct 10 x 12 Concrete Pad for electrical components Inverter, Dis-Connects, Combiner Boxes Lay 9 or more of DGA (dense graded aggregate)

34

35 Completion of Solar Project Mount Solar Panels to Racking System Install Electrical Components on Pad Lay 3 of Round River Stone Install Fencing Final Inspection Tie in Solar Panels to Existing System

36

37 Make the switch to Solar Power Clean Natural Source of Energy Reduces CO 2 Reduces dependence on foreign oil Energy Credits and Incentives from BPU Will Pay for itself in 10 to 20 years

38 Thank You! Questions?

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