CS/CE 2336 Computer Science II

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1 CS/CE 2336 Computer Science II UT D Session 23 Database Programming with Java Adapted from D. Liang s Introduction to Java Programming, 8 th Ed. and other sources 2

2 Database Recap Application Users Application Programs Database Management System (DBMS) System Users database e.g., Access, MySQL, Oracle, and MS SQL Server 3 Why Java for Database Programming Java is platform independent Platform-independent database applications can be developed using SQL and Java for any relational database systems The support for accessing database systems from Java is built into Java API Database applications using all Java code with a common interface can be easily created Java is ubiquitous Write once, run everywhere Taught in almost every university either as the first programming language or as the second programming language JDBC Java Database Connectivity 4

3 Pure Java SQL-level interface JDBC Goals Simple yet high performance Leverage existing database technology RDBMS Provide multiple functionalities via multiple methods 5 JDBC Architecture Java Applications/ Applets JDBC API Oracle JDBC Driver JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver Oracle ODBC Driver Microsoft ODBC Driver Local or remote ORACLE DB Microsoft Access Database ODBC: Open Database Connectivity (1990 s) Applications written in Java invoke JDBC API JDBC loads a driver, connects to a database Can have more than one drivers -> using more than one databases Can change database engines without changing application code! 6

4 JDBC Interfaces Driver Loading drivers Connection Connection Establishing connections Statement Statement Statement Statement ResultSet ResultSet ResultSet ResultSet Creating and executing statements Processing ResultSet 7 Developing JDBC Programs Loading drivers Establishing connections Creating and executing statements Processing ResultSet Statement to load a driver: Class.forName("JDBCDriverClass"); A driver is a class. For example: Database Driver Class Source Access sun.jdbc.odbc.jdbcodbcdriver Already in JDK MySQL com.mysql.jdbc.driver Website Oracle oracle.jdbc.driver.oracledriver Website The JDBC-ODBC driver for Access is bundled in JDK. MySQL driver class is in mysqljdbc.jar Oracle driver class is in classes12.jar To use the MySQL and Oracle drivers, you have to add mysqljdbc.jar and classes12.jar in the classpath using the following DOS command on Windows: classpath=%classpath%;c:\book\mysqljdbc.jar;c:\book\classes12.jar 8

5 Developing JDBC Programs Loading drivers Establishing connections Creating and executing statements Processing ResultSet Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(databaseURL); Database URL Pattern Access jdbc:odbc:datasource MySQL jdbc:mysql://hostname/dbname Oracle Examples: See Supplement IV.D for creating an ODBC data source For Access: Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection ("jdbc:odbc:examplemdbdatasource"); For MySQL: Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection ("jdbc:mysql://localhost/test"); For Oracle: Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection "scott", "tiger"); 9 Developing JDBC Programs Loading drivers Establishing connections Creating and executing statements Processing ResultSet Creating statement: Statement statement = connection.createstatement(); Executing statement (for update, delete, insert): statement.executeupdate ("create table Temp (col1 char(5), col2 char(5))"); Executing statement (for select): // Select the columns from the Student table ResultSet resultset = statement.executequery ("select firstname, mi, lastname from Student where lastname " + " = 'Smith'"); 10

6 Developing JDBC Programs Loading drivers Establishing connections Creating and executing statements Processing ResultSet Executing statement (for select): // Select the columns from the Student table ResultSet resultset = stmt.executequery ("select firstname, mi, lastname from Student where lastname " + " = 'Smith'"); Processing ResultSet (for select): // Iterate through the result and print the student names while (resultset.next()) System.out.println(resultSet.getString(1) + " " + resultset.getstring(2) + ". " + resultset.getstring(3)); 11 import java.sql.*; public class SimpleJdbc { public static void main(string[] args) throws SQLException, ClassNotFoundException { // Load the JDBC driver Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"); System.out.println("Driver loaded"); // Establish a connection Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection ("jdbc:mysql://localhost/test"); System.out.println("Database connected"); Simple JDBC Example // Create a statement Statement statement = connection.createstatement(); // Execute a statement ResultSet resultset = statement.executequery ("select firstname, mi, lastname from Student where lastname " + " = 'Smith'"); // Iterate through the result and print the student names while (resultset.next()) System.out.println(resultSet.getString(1) + "\t" + resultset.getstring(2) + "\t" + resultset.getstring(3)); // Close the connection connection.close(); } } 12

7 Connection Interfaces Once a connection to a particular database is established, SQL statements (e.g. queries) from a program can be sent to the database To facilitate sending statements to a database for execution and receiving execution results from the database JDBC provides following interfaces Statement PreparedStatement CallableStatement 13 Connection Interfaces cont d Statement createstatement() A new Statement object is returned PreparedStatement preparestatement(string sql) Create a new PreparedStatement object CallableStatement preparecall(string sql) Create a new CallableStatement object 14

8 Processing Statements Diagram 15 PrepareStatement Interface The PreparedStatement interface is designed to execute dynamic SQL statements and SQLstored procedures with IN parameters These SQL statements and stored procedures are precompiled for efficient use when repeatedly executed Statement pstmt = connection.preparestatement ("insert into Student (firstname, mi, lastname) + values (?,?,?)"); 16

9 Methods for Processing SQL Statements The methods for executing SQL statements are execute, executequery, and executeupdate, Each of these accepts a string containing a SQL statement as an argument The string is passed to the database for execution The execute method should be used if the execution produces multiple result sets, multiple update counts, or a combination of result sets and update counts 17 Methods for Processing SQL Statements cont d The executequery method should be used if the execution produces a single result set, such as the SQL select statement The executeupdate method should be used if the statement results in a single update count or no update count, such as a SQL INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE, or DDL statements 18

10 Summary of Methods for Processing SQL Statements ResultSet executequery(string) Execute a SQL statement that returns a single ResultSet int executeupdate(string) Execute a SQL statement that returns the number of rows changed INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE or DDL statements boolean execute(string) Execute a SQL statement that may return multiple results 19 ResultSet A ResultSet object provides access to a table resulting from executing a Statement The table rows are retrieved in sequence A ResultSet object maintains a pointer to the current row of data The 'next' method moves the cursor to the next row Only one ResultSet object per Statement can be opened at one time 20

11 Retrieving Database Metadata Database metadata is the information that describes database itself JDBC provides DatabaseMetaData interface for obtaining database wide information ResultSetMetaData interface for obtaining the information on the specific ResultSet 21 Retrieving Database Metadata The DatabaseMetaData interface provides more than 100 methods for getting database metadata concerning the database as a whole These methods can be divided into three groups for retrieving general information for finding database capabilities, and for getting object descriptions 22

12 Database Metadata General information The general information includes the URL, username, product name, product version, driver name, driver version, available functions, available data types and so on. Database capabilities The examples of the database capabilities are whether the database supports the GROUP BY operator, the ALTER TABLE command with add column option, supports entrylevel or full ANSI92 SQL grammar. Object descriptions the examples of the database objects are tables, views, and procedures. DatabaseMetaData dbmetadata = connection.getmetadata(); System.out.println("database URL: " + dbmetadata.geturl()); System.out.println("database username: " + dbmetadata.getusername()); System.out.println("database product name: " + dbmetadata.getdatabaseproductname()); System.out.println("database product version: " + dbmetadata.getdatabaseproductversion()); System.out.println("JDBC driver name: " + dbmetadata.getdrivername()); System.out.println("JDBC driver version: " + dbmetadata.getdriverversion()); System.out.println("JDBC driver major version: " + new Integer(dbMetaData.getDriverMajorVersion())); System.out.println("JDBC driver minor version: " + new Integer(dbMetaData.getDriverMinorVersion())); System.out.println("Max number of connections: " + new Integer(dbMetaData.getMaxConnections())); System.out.println("MaxTableNameLentgh: " + new Integer(dbMetaData.getMaxTableNameLength())); System.out.println("MaxColumnsInTable: " + new Integer(dbMetaData.getMaxColumnsInTable())); connection.close(); 23Metadata Example 24

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