# Boundary between CCM and DCM in DC/DC PWM Converters

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Boundary between CCM and DCM in DC/DC PWM Converters ELENA NICULESCU and E. P. IANCU Dept. of Electronics and Instrumentation, and Automation University of Craiova ROMANIA Abstract: - It is presented a modality to compute the boundary between the discontinuous (DCM) and continuous (CCM) operating modes in the DC/DC fourth-order PWM converters with parasitic resistances. To reach this goal, an averaged model of the converter has been used. The boundary between DCM and CCM, considered to be the critical load resistance R crit, or, equivalently, the critical value of the inductor conduction parameter k ctrit, is found as the positive root of a second-degree equation with unknown R crit or k ctrit. The algorithm carried out and implemented with MATLAB environment allows studying the effect of the parasitic resistances and the coupling of inductors over the boundary R crit or k tcrit, the steady-state properties and the external characteristics of the converter. The simulation results show that the parasitic resistances and the inductor coupling change the boundary between the discontinuous and continuous conduction modes of a fourth-order PWM converter. Key-Words: - DC/DC fourth-order PWM converters, boundary between CCM and DCM 1 Introduction In the elementary PWM converters (buck, boost, buck-boost), which are second-order converters, the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) appears at the moment when the diode current becomes zero. This will occur at a specific operating point (duty ratio D and load resistance R). The current through the inductor becomes discontinuous and would stay discontinuous for the third switched interval D T s. Here, the boundary between CCM and DCM is defined by the critical value of the inductor conduction parameter (k crit ) or by the critical value of the load resistance (R crit ). Considering the converter to be ideal, this boundary has been calculated as the positive root of a second-degree equation [1. Including the parasitic resistances of the circuit, the degree of the equation with the unknown R crit or k crit remains unchanged [. A fourth-order converter consists of two inductors, two capacitors, and a single switch realized by transistor and diode combination, such as the non isolated Cuk, Sepic and Zeta converters and the ripple-free input-current PWM boost converter. In these converters, the two inductors conduct some constant current I, even for the third switched interval D T s. In this third switched interval D T s, the sum i 1 +i of two inductors currents that traverses the diode is zero [ [ 5. Using the individual inductor voltage and current waveforms and the volt-secondbalance law on the inductors, for the assumed 100% efficiency, the boundary between CCM and DCM has been easily found as the positive root of a second-degree equation, for a non-isolated Cuk converter with DCM and a ripple-free input-current boost converter with DCM [, [ 4. Boundary between CCM and DCM It is known that the boundary between CCM and DCM is established by the specific value of the parameter D, namely D =1-D, regardless of the order (two or four) of PWM switching converters. So, a PWM converter operates with CCM when D >1-D and with DCM when D <1-D [1, [. For the elementary or second-order PWM converters (buck, boost, buck-boost) no parasitic included, the boundary between CCM and DCM is given either as the critical value of the inductor conduction parameter k, written k crit, or as the critical value of the load resistance R, written R crit. It is natural to express the boundary in terms of the load resistance R, rather than the dimensionless parameter k. The parameter k is defined as Lf R k = s = nom (1) R R

2 where is a design parameter called nominal load resistance of the converter and f s is the constant switching frequency. Considering (1) for k crit, the load boundary R crit results as Ripple-free Input-current Boost D 1 ( D) 1 R crit =. () kcrit Similarly, the boundary between CCM and DCM for the fourth-order converters (non-isolated Cuk, Sepic, Zeta and ripple-free input-current boost converters etc.) is given either as the critical value of conduction parameter k tcrit (k t= L e f s /R) through an equivalent inductor L e (L e =L 1 //L ) or as the critical value of the load resistance R crit [-[5. Like the second-order converters with ideal circuit components, these critical values have been found as the positive root of a second-degree equation with unknown k tcrit or R crit. The expressions of k tcrit as functions on duty ratio and dc voltage conversion ratio are shown in Table 1, for a non-isolated Cuk PWM converter and a ripple-free input-current boost PWM converter [, [4. The dc voltage conversion ratio of the converter with DCM is written. Table 1: k tcrit for a non-isolated Cuk PWM converter and a ripple-free input-current boost converter (no parasitic case) Converter k tcrit = f ( D) k = f ( ) Cuk Ripple-free Input-current Boost ( 1 D) ( 1 D) D tcrit 1 ( 1 + ) MD 1 The functions R crit = f (D) and R crit = f ( ) are given in Table, for the same ideal converters [, 4. Table : R crit for a non-isolated Cuk PWM converter and a ripple-free input-current boost converter (no parasitic case) Converter R crit = f ( D) R crit = f ( ) Cuk ( 1 + M ) ( 1 D) D Equation of the Boundary between CCM and DCM for Nonideal Converters Despite its complexity, the state-space averaging (SSA) method is the most popular approach used for the modelling of the dc-dc switching converters. This method allows including all the parasitic resistances of the circuit even in the initial stage and supplies both the static and dynamic models of the converter. The following parasitic resistances of the converter (written p i with i = 1, 6 ) have been considered here: the loss resistance of the inductors (r 1 and r ), the equivalent-series resistance of the capacitors (r and r 4 ), the conducting-state resistance of the transistor (r 5 ) and the diode (r 6 ). Using the SSA method, a fourth-degree equation in unknown D has been carried out for the fourthorder converters with parasitic included [8: 4 m4 D + m D + md + m1d + m0 = 0. () In order to obtain the equation (), the matrices A and B that describe the averaged steady-state model of the fourth-order PWM converter with DCM have been set in the form: A = Ae + DA B = Be + DB where Ae = DA1 + D A = [ ae( m, n) Be = DB1 + D B = [ be( m) A = A A = [ a( m, n) B = B B = [ b( m) D = 1 D with m = n = 1, 4. Generally, the coefficients m i with i = 1, 4, from the equation (), are functions on the load resistance R. At the boundary between the two operating modes, D =1-D and R becomes R crit. In order to distinguish this last element, the components of the matrices A e and A, which are functions on R, have been split in two terms: one term is independent of R and another that is function on R. For example, it writes: ae ( m, n) = ae0( m, n) + r1 ( m, n) f1( R)

3 ( m, n) a ( m, n) r ( m, n) f ( R) a = 0 +. Replacing D with 1-D and R with R crit into the equation (), a second-degree equation in unknown R crit results for the fourth-order PWM converter with parasitic included, like as for the second-order PWM converters [: n Rcrit + n1r + n0 = 0. (4) crit The coefficients n, n 1 and n 0 from the equation (4) are functions of the duty ratio D, all the parameters and parasitic resistances of the circuit, the switching frequency and the coupling coefficient k c of the inductors: R crit =f (D, L 1, L, C 1, C, p i, f s, k c ). The general form of the coefficients from the equation (4), as well as those from the equation (), allows studying four PWM converter configurations, namely: the non isolated Cuk, Sepic and Zeta converters, and the ripple-free input current boost converter. A second-degree equation in unknown k tcrit is obtained if the equation () is introduced into (4): n 0 k tcrit 1 nom tcrit nom = + n R k + n R 0. (5) Like as R crit, the coefficients of this last equation depend on the duty ratio D, all the parameters and parasitic resistances of the circuit, the switching frequency and the coupling coefficient k c of the inductors: k tcrit =f (D, L 1, L, C 1, C, p i, f s, k c ). The same second-degree equation with the unknown R crit or k tcrit can be obtained by equaling the expressions of M C and, deduced from the averaged steady-state models corresponding to DCM and CCM, and replacing D with 1-D in. The dc characteristics of the converter as the average values of the currents that traverse the inductors, the voltage drops across the capacitors and the dc voltage conversion ratio (M=V O /V I ) of converter are obtained through the SSA method, for both DCM and CCM. The two dc voltage conversion ratio M C for CCM and for DCM have the same value (M C = ) on the boundary between CCM and DCM. Consequently, plotting the external characteristics of the converter for both continuous and discontinuous operating modes, that is M C =f (D, R) and =f (D, R), the boundary R crit between CCM and DCM could be found as the intersection of these two external characteristic families of converter: R crit = R. The value k Mc = tcrit can be MD calculated with the formula (). But this way of determination of the boundary between DCM and CCM is not recommended because this is a graphical method that cannot prove a satisfactory accuracy. 4 Simulation results MATLAB environment offers a very simple implementation of this algorithm carried out for establishing the boundary between DCM and CCM in the fourth-order PWM converter. The analytical way for establishing R crit or k tcrit in the fourth-order PWM converters with parasitic resistances has been studied on a ripple-free inputcurrent boost converter with the specifications: L 1 =5.1 µh, L =0.7 µh, C 1 =18 µf, C =1000 µf and f s =00 khz [4. The following parasitics have been considered here: r 1 =r =r 4 =r 5 =r 6 =0.1 Ω and r =0.01 Ω. For this converter, the effect of the inductor coupling and the parasitic resistances of the circuit over R crit can be seen in Figures 1 and. In Fig. 1, the function R crit =f (D, k c ) is plotted for several values of D and k c, for an ideal converter (p i =0). As it can be seen from this figure, the increasing of the value of k c causes the decreasing of R crit for all the values of D. Fig. 1: Plots of R crit as function on the duty ratio and the coupling coefficient of inductors The function R crit =f (D, k c, p i ) is plotted in Fig. for the same values of D and k c as in Fig. 1. For the converter with parasitics, the effect of the value of k c over R crit is changed in function on the value of the duty ratio. So, the increasing of the value of the coupling coefficient causes the increasing of R crit at small values of D and the decreasing of R crit at big values of D. As k c and D tend to 1, R crit tends to zero.

4 Fig. : Plots of R crit as function on the duty ratio, the coupling coefficient of inductors and the parasitic resistances of converter The effect of the coupling coefficient k c of the inductors and the parasitic resistances of the circuit over k tcrit is shown in Fig. and 4. Here, the function k tcrit =f (D, k c ) is plotted for the same values of D and k c as for R crit, and for the two cases: no parasitic included (Fig. ) and parasitic included (Fig. 4). As it can be seen from Fig., k tcrit is a continuous function on the duty ratio D for all the values of the coupling coefficient k c from k c =0 (separate inductors) to k c =0.87. This function has a maximum at D=0.5 that decreases with the increasing of k c in the ideal converter case. The parasitic resistances of the circuit cause to move and to decrease the maximum of the function k tcrit with the increasing of k c from zero to 0.8 (Fig. 4). This maximum increases again if k c surpasses 0.8. So, k tcrit.max =0.17 at D=0.5 for k c =0 (separate inductors), k tcrit.max =0.107 at D=0.5 for k c =0.8 and k tcrit.max =0.155 at D=0.7 for k c =0.87. All these results differ from that obtained for an ideal converter. Using the formula given by the Table 1 for a ripple-free input-current boost converter, it finds k tcrit.max =0.148 at D=0.. Hence, if k t is greater than 0.148, then the converter operates in the continuous conduction mode for all D. The simulation results disable this general conclusion. After establishing R crit, the steady-state model of converter with coupled or separate inductors and all the parasitic included and its external characteristics M = f ( R / ) can be computed and plotted for both DCM (R>R crit ) and CCM (R<R crit ) [6. Fig. : Plots of k tcrit as function on the duty ratio and the coupling coefficient of inductors Fig. 4: Plots of k tcrit as function on the duty ratio, the coupling coefficient of inductors and the parasitic resistances of converter 5 Conclusion The order of the equation of the boundary between DCM and CCM, with unknown R crit or k tcrit, is an invariant of the PWM converters. It is two, regardless of the order of converter (two or four), coupled or separate inductors and the including or non-including of the parasitics. Both the parasitic resistances and the inductor coupling change the boundary between the discontinuous and continuous conduction modes of a fourth-order PWM converter. The algorithm carried out for establishing the boundary between DCM and CCM in a fourth-order PWM converter and implemented with MATLAB environment allows studying the effect of the parasitic resistances and the coupling of inductors over the boundary R crit or k tcrit, the steady-state

5 properties and the external characteristics of converter. References [1 S. Cuk and M. D. Middlebrook, A General Unified Approach to Modelling Switching DCto-DC Converters in Discontinuous Conduction Mode, PESC 77 Record, 1977, pp.6-57 [ E. Niculescu and A. Cirstea, Computation of Averaged Characteristic Coefficients for Elementary PWM Converters, COM.P.EL. 98 Proceedings, IEEE Catalog 98TH858, 1998, pp [ S. Cuk, Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode in the optimum topology switching converter, PESC 78 Record, 1978, pp [4 J. Wang, W.G. Dunford and K. Mauch, Analysis of a Ripple-Free Input-Current Boost Converter with Discontinuous Conduction Characteristics, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1997, pp [5 R. W. Erickson, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, Chapman & Hall (ed.), International Thomson Publishing, 1997 [6 E. Niculescu and E. P. Iancu, Modeling and Analysis of the DC/DC Fourth-Order PWM Converters, COM.P.EL. 000 Proceedings, IEEE Catalog 00TH855, 000, pp [7 E. Niculescu and E. P. Iancu, State Sensitivity of the Fourth-Order PWM Converters, CIFA 000 Proceedings, 000, pp [8 E. Niculescu and E. P. Iancu, Decay Interval of the Inductor Currents in PWM Converters, Annals of the University of Craiova, Year 4, No. 4, 000, pp

### Power supplies. EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E

Power supplies EE328 Power Electronics Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE Ege University, Dept. of E&E EE328 POWER ELECTRONICS Outline of lecture Introduction to power supplies Modelling a power transformer

### Implementation of A Novel Switch-Mode DC-To-AC Inverter with Non- Linear Robust Control Using MATLAB

Implementation of A Novel Switch-Mode DC-To-AC Inverter with Non- Linear Robust Control Using MATLAB Mr. Damodhar Reddy Asst.Prof K. PavanKumar Goud Asst.Prof K. Pradeep Kumar Reddy Asst.Prof Department

### Design of Four Input Buck-Boost DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy Application

Design of Four Input Buck-Boost DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy Application A.Thiyagarajan Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Karpagam Institute of Technology

### Analysis and Experimentation of Interleaved Boost Converter with Ripple Steering for Power Factor Correction

Analysis and Experimentation of Interleaved Boost Converter with Ripple Steering for Power Factor Correction A. Inba Rexy, R. Seyezhai Abstract Through the fast growing technologies, design of power factor

### Power Electronic Circuits

Power Electronic Circuits Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. İbrahim OKUMUŞ Karadeniz Technical University Engineering Faculty Department of Electrical And Electronics 1 DC to DC CONVERTER (CHOPPER) General Buck converter

### DC-DC Converter Basics

Page 1 of 16 Free Downloads / Design Tips / Java Calculators / App. Notes / Tutorials / Newsletter / Discussion / Components Database / Library / Power Links / Software / Technical Articles / On-Line Textbook

### Design of an Auxiliary Power Distribution Network for an Electric Vehicle

Design of an Auxiliary Power Distribution Network for an Electric Vehicle William Chen, Simon Round and Richard Duke Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of Canterbury, Christchurch,

### SIMULATION AND ASSESSMENT OF SINGLE PHASE SEMI-Z-SOURCE INVERTER (S-ZSI)

International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb, 2016, pp.30-34, Article ID: IJEET_07_01_003 Available online at http:// http://www.iaeme.com/ijeet/issues.asp?jtype=ijeet&vtype=7&itype=1

### Chapter 6: Converter circuits

Chapter 6. Converter Circuits 6.. Circuit manipulations 6.2. A short list of converters 6.3. Transformer isolation 6.4. Converter evaluation and design 6.5. Summary of key points Where do the boost, buck-boost,

### THE flyback-current-fed push pull dc dc converter [1], [2]

1056 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, OL. 14, NO. 6, NOEMBER 1999 A New Flyback-Current-Fed Push Pull DC DC Converter Domingo A. Ruiz-Caballero, Student Member, IEEE, and Ivo Barbi, Senior Member,

### The Flyback Converter

The Flyback Converter Lecture notes ECEN4517! Derivation of the flyback converter: a transformer-isolated version of the buck-boost converter! Typical waveforms, and derivation of M(D) = V/! Flyback transformer

### Chapter 17 The Ideal Rectifier

Chapter 17 The Ideal Rectifier 17.1 Properties of the ideal rectifier 17.2 Realization of a near-ideal rectifier 17.3 Single-phase converter systems employing ideal rectifiers 17.4 RMS values of rectifier

### Comparative Studies of DC/DC Converters for Solar Panel MPPT

DC/DC CONVERTERS FOR SOLAR PANEL Comparative Studies of DC/DC Converters for Solar Panel MPPT Chandani Sharma 1 and Dr. Anamika Jain 2 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Graphic Era

### A Step up DC-DC Converter with Coupled Inductor for Grid Applications

A Step up DC-DC Converter with Coupled Inductor for Grid Applications P.Akshara 1, G.Suganya 2, E.Keerthana 3, V.Venkateshwari 4 PG Scholars, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vivekanandha

### Parametric variation analysis of CUK converter for constant voltage applications

ISSN (Print) : 232 3765 (An ISO 3297: 27 Certified Organization) Vol. 3, Issue 2, February 214 Parametric variation analysis of CUK converter for constant voltage applications Rheesabh Dwivedi 1, Vinay

### Welcome to this presentation on Switch Mode Drivers, part of OSRAM Opto Semiconductors LED Fundamentals series. In this presentation we will look at:

Welcome to this presentation on Switch Mode Drivers, part of OSRAM Opto Semiconductors LED Fundamentals series. In this presentation we will look at: How switch mode drivers work, switch mode driver topologies,

### HIGH STEP-UP CONVERTER WITH DIODE CAPACITOR TECHNIQUE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY APPLICATIONS

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING & Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Management (ICETEM14) TECHNOLOGY (IJEET) ISSN 0976 6545(Print) ISSN 0976

### Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder

Robert W. Erickson University of Colorado, Boulder 1 1.1. Introduction to power processing 1.2. Some applications of power electronics 1.3. Elements of power electronics Summary of the course 2 1.1 Introduction

### Inductor Design FILTER INDUCTOR DESIGN CONSTRAINTS 14.1

14 Inductor Design This chapter treats the design of magnetic elements such as filter inductors, using the method. With this method, the maximum flux density is specified in advance, and the element is

### Design, Analysis, and Implementation of Solar Power Optimizer for DC Distribution System

Design, Analysis, and Implementation of Solar Power Optimizer for DC Distribution System Thatipamula Venkatesh M.Tech, Power System Control and Automation, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,

### A NEW TWO SWITCH TOPOLOGY BUCK BOOST CONVERTOR IN UNIVERSAL INPUT PFC APPLICATION

A NEW TWO SWITCH TOPOLOGY BUCK BOOST CONVERTOR IN UNIVERSAL INPUT PFC APPLICATION Ranjana Khandare 1, Deepak Rathod 1 and *Asutosh K Pandey 2 1 Department of Electrical Engineering 2 Department of Engineering

### Hybrid Power System with A Two-Input Power Converter

Hybrid Power System with A Two-Input Power Converter Y. L. Juan and H. Y. Yang Department of Electrical Engineering National Changhua University of Education Jin-De Campus, Address: No.1, Jin-De Road,

### Design and implementation of a modified DC- DC converter suitable for renewable energy application

Le 3 ème Séminaire International sur les Nouvelles et Design and implementation of a modified DC- DC converter suitable for renewable energy application Tareq ALNEJAILI and Said DRID senior member IEEE

### Design and Simulation of Soft Switched Converter Fed DC Servo Drive

International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-237, Volume-1, Issue-5, November 211 Design and Simulation of Soft Switched Converter Fed DC Servo Drive Bal Mukund Sharma, A.

### DC To DC Converter in Maximum Power Point Tracker

DC To DC Converter in Maximum Power Point Tracker V.C. Kotak 1, Preti Tyagi 2 Associate Professor, Dept of Electronics Engineering, Shah &Anchor Kutchhi Engineering College, Mumbai, India 1 Research Scholar

### DC-DC STEP-UP/DOWN CONVERTER USED TO DESIGN A SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY PART A:

DC-DC STEP-UP/DOWN CONVERTER USED TO DESIGN A SWITCHING POWER SUPPY PART A: Mathematical Theory of DC-DC Step-Up/Down Converter controlled by MC34063 or μa78s40 Switching Regulator Control Circuits Adriana

### Keywords: input noise, output noise, step down converters, buck converters, MAX1653EVKit

Maxim > Design Support > Technical Documents > Tutorials > Power-Supply Circuits > APP 986 Keywords: input noise, output noise, step down converters, buck converters, MAX1653EVKit TUTORIAL 986 Input and

### Implementation of High Step-Up Solar Power Optimizer for DC Micro Grid Application

Implementation of High tepup olar Power Optimizer for C Micro Grid Application hihming Chen, KeRen Hu, TsorngJuu Liang, and YiHsun Hsieh Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center epartment of Electrical

### APPLICATION OF SLIDING CONTROL METHOD TO AN ARC WELDING MACHINE AND COMPARING ITS PERFORMANCE WITH THAT OF CONVENTIONAL PI METHOD

APPLICATION OF SLIDING CONTROL METHOD TO AN ARC WELDING MACHINE AND COMPARING ITS PERFORMANCE WITH THAT OF CONVENTIONAL PI METHOD *Ahmet KARAARSLAN **Đres ĐSKENDER e-mail: akaraarslan@gazi.edu.tr e-mail:

### DC-DC high gain converter applied to renewable energy with new proposed to MPPT search

European Association for the Development of Renewable Energies, Environment and Power Quality (EA4EPQ) International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ 12) Santiago de Compostela

### REALISATION OF DC-DC CONVERTER USING SWITCHED CAPACITOR CIRCUIT TO ACHIEVE HIGH DC LINE TO LOAD VOLTAGE RATIO

REALISATION OF DC-DC CONVERTER USING SWITCHED CAPACITOR CIRCUIT TO ACHIEVE HIGH DC LINE TO LOAD VOLTAGE RATIO Mallanagowda.N 1, Rajashekher Koyyeda 2 1, 2 M.Tech Power Electronics, Assistant Professor,

### Comparison of an Efficient Buck Converter Configuration for the DC Power Distribution Of Future Green Data Centers

Comparison of an Efficient Buck Converter Configuration for the DC Power Distribution Of Future Green Data Centers Sindhu Shetty 1, I. V. Prasanna 2, S. K. Panda 3 UG student, Dept. of EEE, National Institute

### Voltage Gain Enhanced Step-Up Converter Based Switched Mode Power Supply

Voltage Gain Enhanced Step-Up Converter Based Switched Mode Power Supply P.R Arya 1, Vidhya.N.Elayath, Saritha Sathyan 3 1 (Dept. of EEE, Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering, Kolenchery, Ernakulum,

### Chapter 20 Quasi-Resonant Converters

Chapter 0 Quasi-Resonant Converters Introduction 0.1 The zero-current-switching quasi-resonant switch cell 0.1.1 Waveforms of the half-wave ZCS quasi-resonant switch cell 0.1. The average terminal waveforms

### DC/DC BUCK Converter for Renewable Energy Applications Mr.C..Rajeshkumar M.E Power Electronic and Drives,

DC/DC BUCK Converter for Renewable Energy Applications Mr.C..Rajeshkumar M.E Power Electronic and Drives, Mr.C.Anandaraj Assistant Professor -EEE Thiruvalluvar college of Engineering And technology, Ponnur

### Voltage Gain Enhancement of Step-Up Dc/Dc Converter by Switched-Capacitor and Coupled Inductor Techniques for Distributed Generation

Voltage Gain Enhancement of Step-Up Dc/Dc Converter by Switched-Capacitor and Coupled Inductor Techniques for Distributed Generation Shiva Kumar M.Tech (Power Electronics) Department of EEE Ballari Institute

### HIGH FREQUENCY POWER CONVERTERS. Authors: Rudy Severns, Springtime Enterprises Hal Wittlinger, Intersil Semiconductor

No. AN9208 April 994 Application Note HIGH FREQUENCY POWER CONVERTERS Authors: Rudy Severns, Springtime Enterprises Hal Wittlinger, Intersil Semiconductor Introduction Computers and telecom equipment are

### Design a Phase Interleaving PFC Buck Boost Converter to Improve the Power Factor

International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research ISSN 2351-8014 Vol. 11 No. 2 Nov. 2014, pp. 445-449 2014 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals http://www.ijisr.issr-journals.org/

### Fast analytical techniques for electrical and electronic circuits. Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology

Fast analytical techniques for electrical and electronic circuits Vatché Vorpérian Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

### Distribution Generation System

Analysis of Solar Power Optimizer for DC Distribution Generation System Srinivas Dobbala 1, K. Chandra Mouli 2 1 Student, Department of EEE, Vaageswari College of Engineering, Karimnagar, Telangana, India

### Bridgeless PFC Implementation Using One Cycle Control Technique

Bridgeless PFC Implementation Using One Cycle Control Technique Bing Lu Center for Power Electronics Systems Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 674 Whittemore Hall Blacksburg, VA 24061

### Analysis of Dynamic Circuits in MATLAB

Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Vol. 4 (2015), No. 3 64 Analysis of Dynamic Circuits in MATLAB Iveta Tomčíková 1) 1) Technical University in Košice/Department of Theoretical and Industrial Electrical

### Closed Loop Control of Transformerless Interleaved High Step-Down Conversion Ratio DC-DC Converter

Closed Loop Control of Transformerless Interleaved High Step-Down Conversion Ratio DC-DC Converter Salna.V.A 1, Supadma.R 2, Nithin.S.Nair 3 PG Student [PE], Dept. of EEE, Sree Narayana Gurukulam College

### High Intensify Interleaved Converter for Renewable Energy Resources

High Intensify Interleaved Converter for Renewable Energy Resources K. Muthiah 1, S.Manivel 2, Gowthaman.N 3 1 PG Scholar, Jay Shriram Group of Institutions,Tirupur 2 Assistant Professor, Jay Shriram Group

### An Overview of Converters for Photo Voltaic Power Generating Systems

An Overview of Converters for Photo Voltaic Power Generating Systems Manimekalai.P Professor/EEE Selvam college of Technology Namakkal, India 637 003 Harikumar.R Phd,Professor/ECE Bannari Amman Institute

### Selecting IHLP Composite Inductors for Non-Isolated Converters Utilizing Vishay s Application Sheet

VISHAY DALE www.vishay.com Magnetics Selecting IHLP Composite Inductors for Non-Isolated Converters INTRODUCTION This application note will provide information to assist in the specification of IHLP composite

### Chapter 11 Current Programmed Control

Chapter 11 Current Programmed Control Buck converter v g i s Q 1 D 1 L i L C v R The peak transistor current replaces the duty cycle as the converter control input. Measure switch current R f i s Clock

### Modeling of High efficiency high step-up DC/DC converter with voltage multiplier module

I J C T A, 8(4), 2015, pp 1463-1472 International Science Press Modeling of High efficiency high step-up DC/DC converter with voltage multiplier module S Nagaraj*, L Rajaji**, K Shanthini*** Abstract:

### I conversion ratio M (M = V,,,/ Vi,) is a function of duty ratio

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 6, NO. I. JANUARY 99 5 Switching Converters with Wide C Conversion Range ragan MaksimoviC, Member, IEEE, and Slobodan Cuk, M iwlw. IEEE Abstract-In dc-to-dc

### Wide PV Input High Step-Up Converter

International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) Volume III, Issue VI, June 16 ISSN 2321 275 Wide PV Input High Step-Up Converter Manjunath M.Tech 4 Th SEM Reva Institute of Technology

### A HIGH GAIN HYBRID DC-DC BOOST-FORWARD CONVERTER FOR SOLAR PANEL APPLICATIONS. Nicklas Jack Havens

A HIGH GAIN HYBRID DC-DC BOOST-FORWARD CONVERTER FOR SOLAR PANEL APPLICATIONS by Nicklas Jack Havens A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in

### 98% Efficient Single-Stage AC/DC Converter Topologies

16 POWER CONVERTERS www.teslaco.com 98% Efficient Single-Stage AC/DC Converter Topologies A new Hybrid Switching Method is introduced in this article which for the first time makes possible AC/DC power

### Design of Monolithic Step-Up DC-DC Converters with On-Chip Inductors

Design of Monolithic Step-Up DC-DC Converters with On-Chip Inductors by Ayaz Hasan A Thesis presented to The University of Guelph In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Master of Applied

### Application of network analyzer in measuring the performance functions of power supply

J Indian Inst Sci, July Aug 2006, 86, 315 325 Indian Institute of Science Application of network analyzer in measuring the performance functions of power supply B SWAMINATHAN* AND V RAMANARAYANAN Power

### TRANSFORMER DESIGN FOR CHARGING DEFIBRILLATOR CAPACITORS. By Kirby Creel Senior Design Engineer Datatronics

By Kirby Creel Senior Design Engineer Datatronics Generating high voltage by means of flyback topology is a common approach. Using the generated voltage to charge a capacitor for a high energy pulse are

### AN2389 Application note

Application note An MCU-based low cost non-inverting buck-boost converter for battery chargers Introduction As the demand for rechargeable batteries increases, so does the demand for battery chargers.

### Design of Solar Power Optimizer And Eliminating Leakage Current In Multi-Level Inverter For PV Systems

Design of Solar Power Optimizer And Eliminating Leakage Current In Multi-Level Inverter For PV Systems A. Asaph 1, Dr. P. Selvan 2 1 PG Scholar, 2 Head of the Department, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College,

### High Step-Up Single-Stage SCI Dc-Dc Converter Using Pulse Width Modulation

High Step-Up Single-Stage SCI Dc-Dc Converter Using Pulse Width Modulation R. Dhamodharan 1, B. Paramaeswara Reddy 2 PG Scholar, Karpaga Vinayaga College of Engineering & Technology, Chennai, India 1 Professor,

### Design A High Performance Buck or Boost Converter With Si9165

Design A High Performance Buck or Boost Converter With Si9165 AN723 AN723 by Kin Shum INTRODUCTION The Si9165 is a controller IC designed for dc-to-dc conversion applications with 2.7- to 6- input voltage.

### Project Report. EE452: Power Electronics. Forward Converter. Group Members. Absar-ul-Hassan Isfar Tariq

Project Report EE452: Power Electronics Forward Converter Group Members Absar-ul-Hassan 13100072 Isfar Tariq 13100152 Muhammad Kumail Haider 13100183 Umer Iftikhar 13100097 Introduction A forward converter

### High Power Factor Boost Converter with Bridgeless Rectifier

IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) e-issn: 2278-1676 Volume 4, Issue 3 (Jan. - Feb. 2013), PP 33-38 High Power Factor Boost Converter with Bridgeless Rectifier Kavithamani

### Chapter 19 Resonant Conversion

Chapter 9 Resonant Conversion Introduction 9. Sinusoidal analysis of resonant converters 9. Examples Series resonant converter Parallel resonant converter 9.3 Exact characteristics of the series and parallel

### Chapter 4. LLC Resonant Converter

Chapter 4 LLC Resonant Converter 4.1 Introduction In previous chapters, the trends and technical challenges for front end DC/DC converter were discussed. High power density, high efficiency and high power

### Filter Inductor Design

A variety of factors constrain the design of a magnetic device. The peak flux density must not saturate the core. The peak ac flux density should also be sufficiently small, such that core losses are acceptably

### *P.N.V. REVAN KUMAR,**B. DASTAGIRI REDDY, ***V. NAGABHASKAR REDDY

Analysis Of Non-Linear Robust Control Strategies Of Switch Mode Dc To Ac Inverter With Reactive Load *P.N.V. REVAN KUMAR,**B. DASTAGIRI REDDY, ***V. NAGABHASKAR REDDY *P.G.Student Dept. of EEE, RGMCET,

### U-97 APPLICATION NOTE MODELLING, ANALYSIS AND COMPENSATION OF THE CURRENT-MODE CONVERTER 3-43. Abstract

APPLICATION NOTE MODELLING, ANALYSIS AND COMPENSATION OF THE CURRENT-MODE CONVERTER U-97 Abstract As current-mode conversion increases in popularity, several peculiarities associated with fixed-frequency,

### An Isolated Multiport DC-DC Converter for Different Renewable Energy Sources

An Isolated Multiport DC-DC Converter for Different Renewable Energy Sources K.Pradeepkumar 1, J.Sudesh Johny 2 PG Student [Power Electronics & Drives], Dept. of EEE, Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College,

### CONVERSION OF MULTI INPUTS TO MULTI OUTPUTS USING SWITCHED CAPACITOR

International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research (IJEEER) ISSN 2250-155X Vol. 3, Issue 4, Oct 2013, 43-50 TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. CONVERSION OF MULTI INPUTS TO MULTI OUTPUTS USING SWITCHED

### A MULTILEVEL INVERTER FOR SYNCHRONIZING THE GRID WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES BY IMPLEMENTING BATTERY CUM DC-DC CONERTER

A MULTILEVEL INVERTER FOR SYNCHRONIZING THE GRID WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES BY IMPLEMENTING BATTERY CUM DC-DC CONERTER 1 KARUNYA CHRISTOBAL LYDIA. S, 2 SHANMUGASUNDARI. A, 3 ANANDHI.Y 1,2,3 Electrical

### An Efficient AC/DC Converter with Power Factor Correction

An Efficient AC/DC Converter with Power Factor Correction Suja C Rajappan 1, K. Sarabose 2, Neetha John 3 1,3 PG Scholar, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering & Technology, L&T Bypass Road, Coimbatore-62,

### Chapter 1 dc-dc and regulation theory. Chapter 2 Small-signal theory

Switch-Mode Power Supplies SPICE Simulations and Practical Designs OrCAD/PSpice Simulation Libraries and Design Templates Christophe Basso 2007 Revision 0.3 May 2007 The present Word file describes the

### 9 Basic dc to dc converter circuits

Lectures 9-12, Page 1 9 Basic dc to dc converter circuits Converter circuits are widely used to convert one dc voltage to another. The use of switching circuits allows high voltage ratios without the power

### Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

### Three Level DC-to-AC Power Inverter for Power Grid Operation

Three Level DC-to-AC Power Inverter for Power Grid Operation K. H. EDELMOSER Institute of Electrical Drives and Machines Technical University Vienna Gusshausstr. 7-9, A-14 Wien AUSTRIA Abstract: - In case

### Which is the best PFC stage for a 1kW application?

Which is the best PFC stage for a 1kW application? Comparison of different PFC stage topologies under an identical design philosophy Ulf Schwalbe/ Marko Scherf ISLE Steuerungstechnik und Leistungselektronik

### ISPS2014 Workshop Energy to Smart Grids Presenting results of ENIAC project: E2SG (Energy to Smart Grid)

ISPS2014 Workshop Energy to Smart Grids Presenting results of ENIAC project: E2SG (Energy to Smart Grid) Bidirectional isolating AC/DC converter for coupling DC grids with the AC mains based on a modular

### National Semiconductor Power Products - Seminar 3 (LED Lighting)

National Semiconductor Power Products - Seminar 3 (LED Lighting) Dr. Iain Mosely Converter Technology Ltd. Slide 1 Overview Background on LEDs Power Electronics for Driving LEDs LED Driver Specific Solutions

### International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2013): 6.14 Impact Factor (2014): 5.

The Derivative of a Switched Coupled Inductor DC DC Step-Up Converter by Using a Voltage Lift Network with Closed Loop Control for Micro Source Applications Sangeetha K 1, Akhil A. Balakrishnan 2 1 PG

### A Zero-Voltage Switching Two-Inductor Boost Converter With an Auxiliary Transformer

A Zero-Voltage Switching Two-Inductor Boost Converter With an Auxiliary Transformer Quan Li and Peter Wolfs Central Queensland University Rockhampton Mail Center, QLD 47, Australia Abstract-The two-inductor

### Closed Loop Controlled AC-AC Converter for Induction Heating By Mr. D. Kirubakaran & Dr. S. Rama Reddy

Volume 25, Number 2 - April 2009 through June 2009 Closed Loop Controlled AC-AC Converter for Induction Heating By Mr. D. Kirubakaran & Dr. S. Rama Reddy Peer-Refereed Article Applied Papers Keyword Search

### Fig. 2 shows a simple step waveform in which switching time of power devices are not considered and assuming the switch is ideal.

CHAPTER 3: ANAYSIS OF THREE-EE INERTER In this chapter an analysis of three-level converter is presented by considering the output voltage waveform in order to determine the switching angle of power devices.

### ~ Abstract of the PhD Thesis ~

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Eng. Ovidiu Aurel Pop ~ Abstract of the PhD Thesis ~ Theoretical and Experimental Research about Improving of the Switching

### A bidirectional DC-DC converter for renewable energy systems

BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES TECHNICAL SCIENCES Vol. 57, No. 4, 2009 A bidirectional DC-DC converter for renewable energy systems S. JALBRZYKOWSKI, and T. CITKO Faculty of Electrical Engineering,

### Building a dspic SMPS system

Building a dspic SMPS system 2006 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Building a dspic SMPS System Slide 1 Welcome to the Building a SMPS dspic System Web seminar Page 1 Session Agenda

### Design, Simulation and Analysis of Microcontroller based DC-DC Boost Converter using Proteus Design Suite

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Electrical & Electronics, AETAEE Design, Simulation and Analysis of Microcontroller based DC-DC Boost Converter using Proteus Design Suite S. Sheik Mohammed a, D.Devaraj

### Simulation and Analysis of Power Factor Correction in Electric Control System for Metal Halide High Intensity Discharge Lamps

Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering. ISSN 2231-1297, Volume 4, Number 2 (2014), pp. 185-192 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/aeee.htm Simulation and Analysis of Power

### High Voltage DC Power Supply Topology for Pulsed Load Applications with Converter Switching Synchronized to Load Pulses

High Voltage DC Power Supply Topology for Pulsed Load Applications with Converter Switching Synchronized to Load Pulses Abstract - High voltage power supplies for radar applications are investigated, which

### T.FRANCIS, D.NARASIMHARAO

Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 48-96 wwwijeracom ol, Issue 3, May-Jun 0, pp40-46 A Soft-Switching DC/DC Converter With High oltage Gain for Renewable Energy Application TFRANCIS M-Tech Scholar, Power electronics

### Bi-directional Power System for Laptop Computers

Bi-directional Power System for Laptop Computers Terry L. Cleveland Staff Applications Engineer Microchip Technology Inc. Terry.Cleveland@Microchip.com Abstract- Today the typical laptop computer uses

### Creating a Usable Power Supply from a Solar Panel

Creating a Usable Power Supply from a Solar Panel An exploration in DC- DC converters By Kathleen Ellis Advised by Dr. Derin Sherman Department of Physics, Cornell College November 21, 2012 Introduction

### Module 4. AC to AC Voltage Converters. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1

Module 4 AC to AC Voltage Converters Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 1 Lesson 26 AC to AC Voltage Converters Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur 2 This lesson provides the reader the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

### Current Ripple Factor of a Buck Converter

Application Note Edwin Wang AN1 April 14 Current Ripple Factor of a Buck Converter Abstract Inductor and capacitor forms a low-pass filter in a buck converter. The corner frequency the C filter is always

### Chapter 14: Inductor design

Chapter 14 Inductor Design 14.1 Filter inductor design constraints 14.2 A step-by-step design procedure 14.3 Multiple-winding magnetics design using the K g method 14.4 Examples 14.5 Summary of key points

### Lecture 24. Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works)

Lecture 24 Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works) Copyright 2014 by Mark Horowitz 1 Roadmap: How Does This Work? 2 Processor Board 3 More Detailed Roadmap

### T provide +5-V output from a nominal -48-V input

484 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 3. NO. 4, OCTOBER I988 Transformerless DC-to-DC Converters with Large Conversion Ratios R. D. MIDDLEBROOK, FELLOW, IEEE Abstract-A new switching dc-to-dc

### INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) DSPIC BASED DIGITIZED FEEDBACK LOOP FOR DC-DC CONVERTER

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 ISSN 0976 6464(Print)

### Chapter 8: Converter Transfer Functions

Chapter 8. Converter Transfer Functions 8.1. Review of Bode plots 8.1.1. Single pole response 8.1.2. Single zero response 8.1.3. Right half-plane zero 8.1.4. Frequency inversion 8.1.5. Combinations 8.1.6.

### Solar Energy Conversion using MIAC. by Tharowat Mohamed Ali, May 2011

Solar Energy Conversion using MIAC by Tharowat Mohamed Ali, May 2011 Abstract This work introduces an approach to the design of a boost converter for a photovoltaic (PV) system using the MIAC. The converter