No health without. public mental health. the case for action

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1 No health without public mental health the case for action Royal College of Psychiatrists Position statement PS4/2010

2 No health without public mental health The case for action Position Statement PS4/2010 October 2010 Royal College of Psychiatrists London Approved by Council: October 2010

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4 Contents Preface 4 Executive summary and recommendations 7 1 Epidemiology and impact of mental illness 11 2 Mental health and inequalities 18 3 Economic costs of mental illness 19 4 Mental health underlies physical health 21 5 Effects of positive mental health and well-being 22 6 Interventions to reduce mental illness and promote mental well-being 24 7 Cost effectiveness of prevention and promotion 31 8 Conclusions 33 References 34 Royal College of Psychiatrists 3

5 Preface In the past two decades there emerged evidence to suggest that over threequarters of psychiatric disorders develop below the age of 25. We also know that some childhood disorders will lead to ongoing problems in adulthood. It is important that psychiatrists and other mental health professionals be aware of strategies related to prevention at all levels, whether on the primary, secondary or tertiary level. As psychiatrists, we must take the lead in educating the public, patients and their carers about these issues. I welcome the proposed Public Health White Paper, which will have mental health strategy at its core. I am delighted and proud that the Royal College of Psychiatrists has led the way in developing a public mental health strategy in partnership with various stakeholders. I would like to thank all those who contributed to this, in particular Professor Kamaldeep Bhui, the College Lead on Public Health, and Dr Jonathan Campion, for their hard work in developing this Position Statement. Professor Dinesh Bhugra President of the Royal College of Psychiatrists 4

6 Public mental health focuses on wider prevention of mental illness and promotion of mental health across the life course. The Royal College of Psychiatrists believes that mental health is a central public health issue and that it should be a priority across all government departments. This position statement sets out the contribution that public mental health makes to a wide range of health and social outcomes for individuals and society.

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8 Executive summary and recommendations Mental health is a public health issue. Mental illness is the largest single source of burden of disease in the UK. No other health condition matches mental illness in the combined extent of prevalence, persistence and breadth of impact. 1 Mental illness is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. Mental illness has not only a human and social cost, but also an economic one, with wider costs in England amounting to 105 billion a year. 2 Despite the impact of mental illness across a broad range of functional, economic and social outcomes, and despite ample evidence that good mental health underlies all health, mental health is not prominent across public health actions and policy. Public health strategies concentrate on physical health and overlook the importance of both mental illness and mental well-being. Positioning mental health at the heart of public health policy is essential for the health and well-being of the nation. It will lead to healthy lifestyles and reduce health-risk behaviours, thereby both preventing physical illness and reducing the burden of mental illness. Most mental illness begins before adulthood and often continues through life. Improving mental health early in life will reduce inequalities, improve physical health, reduce health-risk behaviour and increase life expectancy, economic productivity, social functioning and quality of life. The benefits of protecting and promoting mental health are felt across generations and accrue over many years. Promotion and prevention is also important in adulthood and older years, with people in later life having specific mental health needs. Effective population mental health strategies will improve well-being, resilience to mental illness and other adversity, including physical illness. Targeted strategies will also prevent future inequalities and reduce existing inequalities. All sectors of society have a role to play in improving the mental and physical health of the population and doctors are an important group to facilitate this. 3 Many psychiatrists already adopt a public mental health approach in their work such as when assessing the needs and assets of their local populations, informing commissioners of the expected prevalence of specific disorders and anticipating levels of service provision, as well as opportunities for health promotion. Clinical engagement in commissioning for public mental health is essential to ensure that effectiveness, quality and safety are prioritised and waste of resources is avoided. Psychiatrists could have a key role as advocates and leaders for public mental health. All health professionals should be involved in informing local and national policies and actions and in local implementation of public health policy. Royal College of Psychiatrists 7

9 Position Statement PS4/2010 For all these reasons significant investment to promote public mental health is needed. As well as reducing associated personal and social costs, such investment will lead to significant economic savings which also have an important role in wider economic recovery. Significant costs arise from the lack of such investment. Cost-effective interventions exist to both prevent mental illness and to promote wider population mental health, initiatives that complement the treatment of mental illness. Effective public mental health action will reduce the present and future disease burden and cost of mental illnesses. Th e Ro y a l College o f Ps y c h i at r i s t s w o r k o n p u b l i c h e a lt h As a consequence of the College s commitment to public mental health, the College hosted five stakeholder seminars in 2009 covering public mental health across the lifespan. These were organised jointly with other partners, including the Department of Health, the NHS Confederation and the Faculty of Public Health. The conclusions from these seminars have been incorporated into this position statement. Subsequently, Professor Kamaldeep Bhui was appointed College Lead on Public Health and, with Dr Jonathan Campion, Ms Katie Gray, Dr Jo Nurse, Dr Laurence Mynors-Wallis and members of the College Policy Unit, particularly Dr Rowena Daw, produced this document. Recommendations in this position statement are drawn from the evidence base set out below and build on the public health seminars. Re c o m m e n d at i o n s Mental illness is the largest single source of burden of disease in the UK. It has an impact on every aspect of life, including physical health and risk behaviour. There are large personal, social and economic costs associated with mental illness. Cost-effective interventions exist to both prevent mental illness and promote wider population mental health. The Royal College of Psychiatrists urges the Government to prioritise public mental health as part of their public health policy. Key points and features that should be part of a public mental health strategy: There is no public health without public mental health. Investment is needed to promote public mental health. This will enhance population well-being and resilience against illness, promote recovery, and reduce stigma and the prevalence of mental illness. The Royal College of Psychiatrists strongly supports the findings of the Marmot Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post It recognises that inequality is a key determinant of illness, which then leads to even further inequality. Government policy and actions should effectively address inequalities to promote population mental health, prevent mental ill health and promote recovery. Physical health is inextricably linked to mental health. Poor mental health is associated with other priority public health conditions such as obesity, alcohol misuse and smoking, and with diseases such as cancer, 8

10 Executive summary and recommendations cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Poor physical health also increases the risk of mental illness. Interventions which apply across the life course need to be provided. Since the majority of mental illnesses have childhood antecedents, childhood interventions which protect health and well-being and promote resilience to adversity should be implemented. If mental health problems occur there should be early and appropriate intervention. Strategies to promote parental mental health and effectively treat parental mental illness are important since parental mental health has a direct influence on child mental health. Older people also require targeted approaches to promote mental health and prevent mental disorder, including dementia. Action is needed to promote awareness of the importance of mental health and well-being in older age as well as ways to safeguard it. Ageist attitudes need to be challenged and values promoted that recognise the contributions older people make to communities, valuing unpaid, voluntary work as we do economic productivity. An effective public health strategy requires both universal interventions, applied to the entire population, and interventions targeted at those people who are less likely to benefit from universal approaches and are at higher risk, including the most socially excluded groups. Such groups include children in care or subject to bullying and abuse, people of low socioeconomic status, those who are unemployed or homeless, those with addictions or intellectual disability, and other groups subject to discrimination, stigma or social exclusion. Health promotion interventions are particularly important for those recovering from mental illness or addiction problems. Those with poor mental health as well as poor physical health require effective targeted health promotion interventions. The prevention of alcohol-related problems and other addictions is an important component of promoting population health and well-being. The College supports the development of a minimum alcohol pricing policy and a cross-government, evidence-based addictions policy. Smoking is the largest single cause of preventable death and health inequality. It occurs at much higher rates in those with mental illness, with almost half of total tobacco consumption and smoking-related deaths occurring in those with mental disorder. Therefore, mental health needs to be mainstreamed within smoking prevention and cessation programmes. A suicide prevention strategy should remain a government priority and should include strategies to address and reduce the incidence of self-harm. Collaborative working is required across all government departments in view of the cross-government benefits of public mental health interventions across a range of portfolios, such as education, housing, employment, crime, social cohesion, culture, sports, environment and local government. Actions to combat stigma related to mental illness should be included in these strategies. Doctors can be important leaders in facilitating local and national implementation of public mental health strategies. Many psychiatrists Royal College of Psychiatrists 9

11 Position Statement PS4/ already adopt a public mental health approach in their work and influence national and local strategy. Psychiatrists should be supported in assessing the needs of their local population for health promotion. Psychiatrists should be engaged in the commissioning process and inform commissioners of the expected prevalence of specific disorders to anticipate levels of service provision and unmet need, and to help prioritise resource allocation. Support and training are required to facilitate this. Commissioners should take into account the effects of mental health and mental illness across the life course as well as the economic benefits of protecting and promoting mental health and well-being. Commissioners should consider the existing arrangements and adequacy of services for comorbid disorders and unexplained medical symptoms where cost-effective interventions could be provided. 10

12 1 Epidemiology and impact of mental illness In the UK, one in four people will experience mental illness in their lifetime, whereas one in six will experience mental illness at any one time. Mental illness is the single largest source of burden of disease in the UK. Im p a c t o f m e n ta l illness In 2004, 22.8% of the total burden of disease in the UK was attributable to mental disorder (including self-inflicted injury), compared with 16.2% for cardiovascular disease and 15.9% for cancer, as measured by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). a,4 Depression alone accounts for 7% of the disease burden, more than any other health condition. It is predicted that by 2030, neuropsychiatric conditions will account for the greatest overall increase in DALYs. 5 Population levels of different types of mental illness are presented in Box 1. Me n ta l Illness o v e r t h e life c o u r s e Half of all lifetime cases of diagnosable mental illness begin by age and three-quarters of lifetime mental illness arise by mid-twenties. However, 60 70% of children and adolescents who experience clinically significant mental health problems have not been offered evidence-based interventions at the earliest opportunity for maximal lifetime benefits. 17 Furthermore, in a UNICEF survey in 2007 the UK ranked at the bottom on children s well-being compared with North America and 18 European countries, 18 and ranked 24th out of 29 European countries in another survey in Unlike other health problems such as cancers and heart disease, most mental illness begins early and may persist over a lifetime, causing disability when those affected would normally be at their most productive. Approximately 11 million people of working age in the UK experience mental health problems and about 5.5 million have a common mental disorder. A significant proportion of the population experience subthreshold symptoms, a DALYs are a measure of the total length of time over which a specific illness is disabling to an individual over the course of their lifespan. One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of healthy life. Royal College of Psychiatrists 11

13 Position Statement PS4/2010 Box 1 Mental illness in England 10% of children and young people have a clinically recognised mental disorder: of 5- to 16-year-olds, 6% have conduct disorder, 6 18% subthreshold conduct disorder 7 and 4% an emotional disorder % of adults in England have at least one common mental disorder and a similar proportion has symptoms which do not fulfil full diagnostic criteria for common mental disorder postnatal depression affects 13% of women following childbirth 8 in the past year 0.4% of the population had psychosis and a further 5% subthreshold psychosis % of men and 3.4% of women have a personality disorder; 0.3% of adults have antisocial personality disorder 8 24% of adults have hazardous patterns of drinking, 6% have alcohol dependence, 3% illegal drugs dependence 10 and 21% tobacco dependence 11 25% of older people have depressive symptoms which require intervention: 11% have minor depression and 2% major depression; 12 the risk of depression increases with age 40% of those over 85 are affected 20 25% of people with dementia have major depression whereas 20 30% have minor or subthreshold depression dementia affects 5% of people aged over 65 and 20% of those aged over 80 in care homes, 40% of residents have depression, 50 80% dementia and 30% anxiety a third of people who care for an older person with dementia have depression which, although not meeting criteria for diagnosis of mental illness, have a significant impact on their lives. Ri s k fa c t o r s f o r m e n ta l illness The World Health Organization s (WHO s) Commission on the Social Determinants of Health highlighted the importance of social circumstances in influencing health and well-being and the structural factors at wider policy and economic levels that lead to health inequities. 20 A public health approach recognises the importance of addressing wider determinants across the life course to both prevent mental illness and promote well-being. Risk factors for mental illness in childhood can be grouped as child, parental and household factors. Regarding parental factors, alcohol, tobacco and drug use during pregnancy increase the likelihood of a wide range of poor outcomes that include long-term neurological and cognitive emotional development problems. 21 Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of child behavioural problems, 22 low birth weight is associated with impaired cognitive and language development, poor parental mental health with four- to five-fold increased risk of emotional/conduct disorder 17 and parental unemployment with two- to three-fold increased risk of emotional/conduct disorder in childhood. Child abuse and adverse childhood experiences result in several-fold increased risk of mental illness and substance misuse/dependence later in life. 23 Looked-after children, those with intellectual disability and young offenders are at particularly high risk. 12

14 Epidemiology and impact of mental illness Risk factors for poor mental health in adulthood include unemployment, 24 lower income, 8 debt, 25 violence, 26 stressful life events, 24 inadequate housing, 8 fuel poverty 27 and other adversity. Poor mental health is also associated with increased risk-taking behaviour and poor lifestyle choices. In particular, smoking is responsible for a large proportion of the excess mortality of people with mental illness. 28 Hi g h e r-r i s k g r o u p s Risk factors disproportionately affect the mental health of people from higher-risk and marginalised groups. Those at higher risk include lookedafter children, children who experienced abuse, Black and minority ethnic individuals, b,29 31 those with intellectual disability and homeless people. Prisoners have a twenty-fold higher risk of psychosis, 32 with 63% of male remand prisoners having antisocial personality disorder, 33 compared with 0.3% of the general population. 8 Such groups are also at a higher risk of stigma and discrimination. Targeted intervention for groups at higher risk of mental illness can prevent a widening of inequalities in comparison with the general population. Poor mental health underlies risk behaviours, including smoking, alcohol and drug misuse, higher-risk sexual behaviour, lack of exercise, unhealthy eating and obesity. Risk factors and behaviours cluster in particular groups. For instance, low income and economic deprivation is particularly associated with the 20 25% of people in the UK who are obese or continue to smoke. 34 This population also experiences the highest prevalence of anxiety and depression. 24 Clustering of health-risk behaviours in childhood is a particular problem that leads to greater lifetime risks of mental illness, as well as social, behavioural, financial, and general health problems. Co n s e q u e n c e s o f p o o r m e n ta l h e a lt h He a l t h a n d s o c i a l o u t c o m e s Mental ill health has a significant impact on a range of outcomes. In the case of children and young people, this includes poor educational achievement, and a greater risk of suicide and substance misuse, antisocial behaviour, offending and early pregnancy. 35 Poor mental health in childhood and adolescence is further associated with a broad range of poor health outcomes in adulthood, including higher rates of adult mental illness, as well as lower levels of employment, low earnings, marital problems and criminal activity. 36 In particular, conduct disorder is associated with increased risk of subsequent mental illness, including mania, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, 37 depression and anxiety, 7,35 suicidal behaviour, 35,38 and substance misuse. 35 Conduct disorder is associated with increased risk of personality disorder, with 40 70% of children with conduct disorder developing antisocial personality disorder as adults. 33 b Black and minority ethnic individuals have a three-fold increased risk of psychosis 29 (seven-fold increased risk in African Caribbeans 30 ) and a two- to three-fold increased risk of suicide. 31 Royal College of Psychiatrists 13

15 Position Statement PS4/2010 Reduced life expectancy and increased physical illness Individuals with mental illness experience increased levels of physical illness and reduced life expectancy (Box 2). Suicide and self-harm Suicide remains a significant cause of death and its prevention is a major public health issue. 49 Higher rates of suicide and self-harm occur in particular groups. For instance, increased rates of suicide have been found in those with severe mental illness (twelve-fold increase), 50 those with previous self-harm (thirty-fold increase) 50 and groups with high rates of mental illness such as prisoners (five-fold increase for male prisoners and twenty-fold increase for female prisoners). 51 Young men and some Black and minority ethnic groups (African Caribbean and African young men and middle-aged and older South Asian women) are also at higher risk. 31 Self-harming behaviour is highest among those with a mental disorder. It contributes to poor physical health and compounds social isolation. 49 The rate of self-harm, especially among young people, has risen significantly over the past decade and now accounts for at least hospital admissions per year in England. Al c o h o l m i s u s e Over a fifth of men (21%) and 14% of women in England drink more than twice the recommended guideline amounts of, respectively, 3 4 units daily and 2 3 units daily at least one day a week. 10,52 The risk of hazardous drinking increases following two or more stressful life events. 54 Box 2 Life expectancy and physical illness in individuals with mental illness 39 Depression is associated with 50%-increased mortality after controlling for confounders, with 67% increased mortality from cardiovascular disease, 50% increased mortality from cancer, two-fold increased mortality from respiratory disease and three-fold increased mortality from metabolic disease 40 Depression almost doubles the risk of later development of coronary heart disease after adjustment for traditional factors 41 Increased psychological distress is associated with 11%-increased risk of stroke after adjusting for confounders 42 Prospective population-based cohort studies also highlight that depression predicts colorectal cancer, 43 back pain 44 and irritable bowel syndrome 45 later in life People with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder die an average 25 years earlier than the general population, largely because of physical health problems. 46 A recent UK study found that of those living with schizophrenia in the community, men experience 20.5 years reduced life expectancy and women 16.4 years reduced life expectancy, although the study did not include those with comorbid substance misuse or the more severely unwell in long-stay hospital settings 47 Schizophrenia is associated increased death rates from cardiovascular disease (two-fold), respiratory disease (three-fold) and infectious disease (four-fold)

16 Epidemiology and impact of mental illness In adolescence, conduct disorder is associated with a four-fold greater risk of drinking alcohol at least twice a week, whereas emotional disorder is associated with almost two-fold higher risk of drinking at least twice a week. 6 Childhood sexual and physical abuse are significant factors for the development of alcohol problems in women. 55 A third of suicides in young people are associated with alcohol intoxication, whereas 65% of adult suicides are associated with excessive drinking. 54 Heavy drinking may be a factor in one in four cases of dementia. 56 Excessive consumption of alcohol is also associated with higher levels of depressive and affective problems, schizophrenia and personality disorders. 57 Sm o k i n g Smoking is the largest cause of preventable illness in the UK. Smokers in the general population die, on average, 10 years earlier than non-smokers: a half of smokers die 15 years earlier and a quarter die 23 years earlier than non-smokers. 58 In 2008, almost one in five deaths (83 900) in England were attributable to smoking. 11 Rates of smoking are much higher for individuals with mental disorder compared with the general population (21%): 70% for those in in-patient mental health units, 59 80% for those attending methadone maintenance treatment clinics 60 and 80% for prison inmates. 61 Almost half of total tobacco consumption is by those who have a mental disorder. 62,63 Smoking is an even more significant cause of morbidity and the largest cause of health inequality in these groups than for the general population, with almost half of the total number of deaths from tobacco by those with mental disorder. 64 As most smoking starts before adulthood, adolescents, especially those with emotional and behavioural disorder, are at much greater risk; six times higher smoking rates are found in those with conduct disorder and four times higher rates are found in those with emotional disorder. 6 Prevention and early intervention in adolescents with such disorders will also reduce the uptake of smoking. Ob e s i t y Mental illness, intellectual disability and physical disability increase the risk of obesity. 65,66 Obesity is more common in people with major depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. 67 Cr i m e Overall, children who had conduct disorder or sub-threshold conduct problems in childhood and adolescence and whose problems are not treated contribute disproportionately to all criminal activity. 68 Nearly half of children with early-onset conduct problems experience persistent, serious, life-course problems including also crime, violence, drug misuse and unemployment. 35 Moreover, these risks continue throughout adult life and are passed down through the generations so that a child of a mother with depression has a five-fold increased risk for conduct disorder 17 and an increased risk of mental illness as an adult. However, those with mental illness are much more likely to be a victim of crime than a perpetrator. Royal College of Psychiatrists 15

17 Position Statement PS4/2010 Vi o l e n c e People with a mental disorder are more likely to be a victim of violence than a perpetrator and more likely to be a victim than the general population. 69 The risk of violence is only significantly increased among those who misuse alcohol and drugs. 70 The population-attributable risk for violence associated with hazardous drinking is 46.8%; for drug use it is 36.8%; 26.4% for any personality disorder; 23.4% for alcohol dependence; 14.9% for antisocial personality disorder; 10.3% for any affective disorder; 1.2% for any psychiatric admission and 0.7% for psychosis. 71 Although the risk of violence is very small for those with psychosis, it is 40 times higher for those not engaged with mental health services than for those fully engaged. 72 Early intervention in people with psychosis reduces the risk of very serious offences such as homicide 73 as well as reducing the risk of suicide. 74 Un e m p l o y m e n t Unemployment is one of the most important causes of social exclusion among adults of working age. It is usually associated with low income, which has a key influence on social isolation and low self-esteem. Because of financial difficulties experienced, unemployment can have an adverse effect on diet and lead to unhealthy behaviours such as smoking and alcohol consumption. Prolonged unemployment is linked to worsening mental and physical health, including an increased risk of suicide and premature death. Mental illness is associated with increased risk of unemployment, with only 20% of specialist mental health service users either in paid work or fulltime education. 75 Common mental disorder is associated with a three-fold increased risk of unemployment 24 as well as a reduced level of well-being. 76 People in debt are more likely to experience depression and to die by suicide than those who are solvent. 25,77 Em p l o y m e n t Work provides a range of benefits such as increased income, social contact and a sense of purpose. 78 However, work can also have negative effects on mental health, particularly in the form of stress. 79 Working environments which increase the risk of stress are those with high demands and lack of control or support to manage such demands. Working in environments that are insecure, low paid and stressful is associated with increased risks of poor physical and mental health. 79 In the UK, approximately 11 million people of working age experience mental health problems and about 5.5 million have a common mental disorder. In 2008/2009, 11.4 million working days were lost in Britain due to work-related stress, depression or anxiety. 80 Patterns of employment both reflect and reinforce the social gradient and there is inequality of access to labour market opportunities. 81 Reducing sickness absence and promoting an early return to work following an episode of illness are important strategies as part of a public mental health policy. Dealing with presenteeism (going to work when unfit to work) and managing work environments so that they become healthier is also a significant challenge in a harsh economic climate where unemployment is a threat. People with mental illness have a lower rate of employment than other groups with disabilities yet they are more likely to want to be in 16

18 Epidemiology and impact of mental illness employment. 24,82 4 Discrimination in the workplace can drive the low employment rate among people with severe mental illness. 85,86 Employment for people with mental illness is important in promoting recovery and social inclusion and can have a positive effect on mental health, 78 although benefits depend on the nature and quality of work. Unpaid voluntary work in the community and carer work are often undervalued. This work, primarily undertaken by older people, needs to be fully recognised and valued for its significant contribution to society. Stigma and discrimination Stigma is cited by mental health service users above poverty, isolation and homelessness as a main source of social exclusion in both people with current and those with previous mental health problems. 87 The overall attitudes towards such people remain, in most respects, as profoundly negative as they were a decade ago despite the improvements in public awareness and knowledge about mental illness. 88 For some individuals, the problems are compounded by additional discrimination on the grounds of their ethnicity, cultural background or sexuality. 89,90 As many as nine out of ten people using mental health services say they experience discrimination in more than one area of life. 91 A label of having a mental illness makes it harder to get life, personal or holiday insurance and can affect access to leisure facilities and other community activities. 92 Negative attitudes to mental ill health can adversely affect policy development, usually through omission of relevant mental health issues. In the media, mental illness is typically represented in distorted stereotypes, which can foster fear and stigma among the general public. It also contributes to false and extremely damaging perceptions of the violence caused by people with mental health problems. 89 Social exclusion Individuals with mental health problems are often excluded from key areas of social life, such as consumption (exclusion from material resources), production (exclusion from socially valued productive occupation), social interaction (exclusion from social relations and neighbourhoods), political engagement (exclusion from civic participation), as well as health and health service engagement (service exclusion). 93 Exclusion thereby results in inequality, which is also a determinant of mental illness (see Chapter 2). For older people, impaired mobility and lack of transport can limit inclusion as can poorly designed buildings, poor town planning, ageist social attitudes and low expectations. Royal College of Psychiatrists 17

19 2 Mental health and inequalities The annual cost of social and economic inequality in England is billion, with those living in poorest neighbourhoods dying seven years earlier than people living in the richest neighbourhoods. 82 The country is facing significant financial austerity following the recession. Studies show that health tends to get worse during times of recession, with the poorest affected the most. In the UK, inequality between the rich and the poor is continuing to widen. Social and economic inequality is a major determinant of mental illness and underlies other risk factors. The greater the level of inequality, the worse the health outcomes. 82 Higher income inequality is linked to higher rates of mental illness, decreased rates of trust and social interaction, and increased hostility, violence and racism, as well as lower well-being scores. 94,95 Mental illness is also a factor contributing to inequality as it is consistently associated with deprivation, low income, unemployment, poor education, poorer physical health and increased health-risk behaviour. Parental unemployment is associated with a two- to three-fold greater risk of emotional or conduct disorder in children. 17 In the UK, one in six children now lives in a workless household, the highest proportion of any country in Europe. Child poverty in the UK has also grown in recent years 96 and children from households with the lowest 20% of incomes have a threefold increased risk of mental health problems than children from households with the highest 20% of incomes. 6 Poor mental health can affect anyone at any time across the lifespan, and critically, it can affect future generations, contributing further to cycles of inequality and ill health that run through some families. Inequality also has an impact on adult mental health, with men from households with the lowest 20% of incomes being almost three times more likely to have a common mental disorder than those with the top 20%. 8 Similarly, self-harm is 3.2 times more common in men and 2.5 times more common in women from households with the lowest 20% of incomes, whereas dependence on any drug is 4.6 times higher for men and 33 times more common in those from the lowest 20% of household income. 8 Health inequalities result in part from social inequalities, and the complex relationships between opportunity, individual and community characteristics. Since inequality is itself a major determinant of mental illness, interventions that directly address it will reduce mental illness and promote mental health. Such interventions also reduce inequality. Lifetime benefits for children extend to the child s future parenting abilities, thereby helping to break down intergenerational transmisson of inequalities. 18

20 3 Economic costs of mental illness Mental health problems cost England approximately 105 billion each year and represent the largest single cost to the NHS. Mental health problems have not only a human and social cost, but also an economic one, with wider costs in England amounting to billion a year. 2 Mental illness is the single largest cost to the National Health Service (NHS) at 10.4 billion (10.8% of the NHS budget). 97 In 2007, service costs in England, which include the NHS, social and informal care, amounted to 22.5 billion and these costs are projected to increase by 45%, to 32.6 billion by Annual cost of depression in England alone is 7.5 billion, of anxiety 8.9 billion, of schizophrenia 6.7 billion, of medically unexplained symptoms 18 billion and of dementia 17 billion. 14, A review of economic evaluations of mental illness in childhood and adolescence, such as emotional and behavioural disturbances or antisocial behaviour, found mean costs to UK society to range from to annually per child. 101 The costs of criminal activity related to conduct disorder in England and Wales alone amount to 22.5 billion each year, with a further annual cost of 37.5 billion attributable to subthreshold conduct disorder. 102 Lifetime costs of child conduct disorder in the UK for each 1-year cohort amount to 5.2 billion and for child subthreshold conduct disorder they amount to 23.6 billion. 1 The wider annual cost of violence and abuse is estimated at 40.1 billion a year, with annual cost of domestic violence at 15.4 billion and sexual violence 8.5 billion The cost of work-related mental ill health is around 30.3 billion per year, nearly two-thirds of which can be accounted for by lost productivity. 2 Mental illness is the leading cause of incapacity benefit payment: 43% of the 2.6 million people currently on long-term health-related benefits have a mental or behavioural disorder as their primary condition. 106 The total cost of alcohol misuse is estimated at billion a year. This includes costs of treating alcohol-related disorders and disease, crime and antisocial behaviour, loss of productivity in the workplace, and social support for people who misuse alcohol and their families. 107 Annual NHS cost of treating alcohol-related harm in England is 2.7 billion. Royal College of Psychiatrists 19

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