Oregon Association of Vocational Special Needs Personnel

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1 Oregon Association of Vocational Special Needs Personnel Brain Development and Traumainformed Services for Emerging Adults Hood River, OR February 21, Conference: Making Connections Julie M. Rosenzweig, Claudia Sellmaier, Eileen Brennan, and Pauline Jivanjee Portland State University

2 This presentation is based on materials prepared for the Promoting Positive Pathways to Adulthood Training Series. Module 6--Providing Individualized and Developmentally Appropriate Services: Neuroscience and Trauma-Informed Care Presentation content by: Julie M. Rosenzweig, Claudia Sellmaier, Eileen M. Brennan, and Pauline Jivanjee Thanks to: Julie M. Rosenzweig, PhD., Professor of Social Work, Portland State University Lacy Kendrick Burk, M.S., Partner, Change Matrix; Former Executive Director, Youth M.O.V.E National. Members of the Pathways Transition Training Collaborative 2

3 Acknowledgments/Funders The development of the contents of this presentation were supported by funding from the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research, United States Department of Education, and the Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, United States Department of Health and Human Services (NIDRR grant H133B140039). The content does not represent the views or policies of the funding agencies. In addition, you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

4 Today s Objectives Participants will learn to apply knowledge of: 1.Brain development and functioning during emerging adulthood. 2.The neurobiology of traumatic stress. 3.Services based on individual needs and trauma informed care. 4

5 Scenario We first want to introduce Katie and her family. Please consider the information provided in this scenario throughout the presentation. We will spend some time in the end discussing your ideas about working with Katie. 5

6 What are the major processes of brain development and functioning from 14-29? 6

7 Development during emerging adulthood Opportunity for integration Reconciling narratives of past with present toward an anticipated future Creating a coherence across story lines: Self-in-relationship Self in environments (family, community, culture) Achievements in independence, education, work, and intimacy. 7

8 Bio-developmental framework 8

9 The mind-brain-body connection Experience wires the brain-- Neurons that fire together, wire together. Carla Shatz Epigenetics-- Environment and experience can alter the expression of our genes. Copyright: Johan Swanepoel Stock Images 9

10 Plasticity Proliferation & Pruning Myelination Adaptation 10

11 Left and right different and connected 11

12 Two halves of the whole Right-hemisphere on-line at birth, dominant attachment processes emotional regulation, empathy, social connections non-linear body sense images, themes, patterns Left-hemisphere: logical cause/effect reasoning verbal processing (language) sequential plans and structures the interpreter CORPUS CALLOSUM Connective body between hemispheres, 200 million nerve fibers Transfers information between left and right (inter-hemispheric communication) 12

13 Amygdala almond Located inside temporal lobes Major affective activities Survival, fear: freeze, flight, fight Receives information first, tells you how you feel Sex differences Depression PTSD Aggression 13

14 Hippocampus seahorse Temporal lobes Learning and memory Converts short term to permanent memory Bathed in cortisol under severe stress Toxic stressors or persistent mood symptoms reduces volume Significantly affected by alcohol use during adolescence Affected by estrogen 14

15 Memory systems EXPLICIT MEMORY Hippocampus, left brain primary Middle of second year Factual Autobiographical: sense of self & time Encoding requires conscious attention Awareness of remembering Creates narratives Sense of self in the past IMPLICIT MEMORY Amygdala, right brain primary Present at birth Pre-verbal Mental models Encodes emotions, behavioral patterns, learned habits, perceptions Encoded without conscious attention Recall void of conscious remembering Activates strong feelings/body sensations 15

16 Prefrontal cortex (PFC) Last area of myelination Highly interconnected with emotion-focused structures Rule-based, goal directed (attention) Executive functions: planning, reasoning, problem solving Delays/inhibits immediate reaction to stimuli & forecasts consequences Affect regulation, response flexibility Working memory 16

17 What are the ways in which trauma affects the developing brain? Picture by Laura Seitz, Deseret News 17

18 Video clip Lacy Kendrick Burk Lacy Kendrick Burk on traumatic experiences--2 minute clip [6:25-8:08; oftentimes systems are set up.aren t traumatized again.] 18

19 Emotional processing 19 19

20 Bruce McEwen 20

21 Adaptation to threat: Real or perceived 21

22 Brain response to trauma Sustained state of emotional activation Brain resources for cognitive and social skills less activated Changed brain architecture 22

23 Traumatic stress in the developing brains of youth Hyper-vigilance & activation may lead to aggression, violence Traumatic stress may be mistaken for attentional deficits May be the tipping-point for mental health disorders Reactivation avoidance may result in self-medication, underperformance in school, truancy, increase risk-taking, eating disorders, etc. Victim identity may become central to emerging consolidated identity May present with chronic physical complaints Impaired attachment skills Inability to see self in future 23

24 How can our services be trauma-informed? 24

25 Buffers: Personal and contextual Resilient capacity Quality of attachments Social support Level of safety/threat in environment, immediate ecology Culturally-specific context & meaning 25

26 Video Clip Julie Rosenzweig Julie Rosenzweig on trauma informed care- -5 minute clip [13:44-18:59; A high percentage of youth so that they can be prepared for adult life.] 26

27 The trauma-informed care perspective Paradigm shift: What happened to you? no longer, What s wrong with you? Practice of universal precaution Trauma-informed organizations, programs, and services avoid retraumatization (SAMSHA). 27

28 Individual interventions to address trauma and discrimination Interventions to strengthen positive racial, ethnic, and cultural identity are recommended, that: Provide a safe environment for young people to share their concerns. Are compatible with their families language, goals, and values. Provide opportunities to build strong racial/ethnic identity. Promote bicultural competence, and Support competence building for multiple contexts. 28

29 Practice guidelines Provide a safe space, physically, socially, and psychologically Establish a trusting and caring relationship Act from a standpoint of What has happened to you? not What is wrong with you? Provide a variety of means to process experiences that are stuck in the emotional brain Work to increase emotional control and enable individuals to set boundaries Provide situations that allow young people to experience that they can be in control and that they are capable. Work on tools for emotional regulation, conflict resolution, and communication skills. 29

30 Q & A Q & A Scenario discussion 30

31 Thank you! Portland Oregon, Home of Pathways RTC Eileen Brennan, Co-Principal Investigator: Pauline Jivanjee, Co-Principal Investigator: Claudia Sellmaier, Graduate Research Assistant: Slides and resources are available at our project website: 31

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