1 Risk and Return in the Canadian Bond Market Beyond yield and duration. Ronald N. Kahn and Deepak Gulrajani (Reprinted with permission from The Journal of Portfolio Management ) RONALD N. KAHN is Director of Research at BARRA in Berkeley (CA 94704). DEEPAK GULRAJANI is Manager, Fixed Income Research Services, at BARRA in Berkeley (CA 94704). Bonds are exposed to many sources of risk. The term structure of interest rates can shift and twist in different ways. Issuers may default because of sectorwide problems or individual credit difficulties. Only a multifactor model can adequately capture bond risk exposure. Duration, the traditional bond risk assessment, is but a single number and measures only the risk arising from parallel term structure shifts. Fixed-income risk modeling plays a critical role in bond portfolio management, underlying index tracking, immunization, active strategy implementation, and performance measurement and analysis. Index tracking involves comparing the risk exposures of an investment portfolio and an index. Matching those exposures should lead to investment returns that accurately track index returns. Immunization involves comparing the risk exposures of a portfolio and a liability stream. Matching those exposures should immunize the portfolio s liability coverage against market changes. Active strategies involve deliberate risk exposures relative to an index, aimed at exceeding index returns. Performance measurement and analysis involves identifying active bets and studying their past performance, to measure bond manager skill.
2 The multifactor approach to fixed-income risk modeling provides far more power and intuition than the standard duration and convexity analysis. Duration assumes parallel term structure shifts, and does not allow for twists. l But the Canadian term structure does not exhibit parallel shifts, and, further, twists and even butterflies are important in this market. 2 Convexity does account to some extent for linear term structure shifts, but only in a muddled and convoluted way (see Kahn ). Active managers who wish to bet on term structure twists while hedging term structure shift risk require the additional precision of the multifactor approach. This article presents a specific multifactor risk model of the Canadian bond market. 3 First, it describes the particular features of the Canadian bond market. Second, it presents a valuation model to identify and measure the various sources of risk, including the term structure, and tax and liquidity factors. Third, it describes the analysis of the historical variance and covariance of excess returns to these factors, leading to the risk model. 4 Finally, it presents quantitative results pertaining to the market. THE CANADIAN BOND MARKET The Canadian market is of interest to both domestic and international investors. The Government market is quite liquid by global standards, with the Provincials increasingly providing added liquidity. An active derivatives market in futures and options complements the cash market. High interest rates, liquidity, and a stable currency strongly correlated with the U.S. dollar attract international investors. The Canadian market has been transformed over the last few years. Since 1990 the federal government has dramatically increased the issuance of bonds to finance the federal budget deficits. Exhibit 1 shows the amounts issued over the last five years.
3 EXHIBIT 1 CANADIAN GOVERNMENT BONDS AMOUNT ISSUED The provinces and provincial authorities have also actively tapped both the domestic and the Eurobond markets. The corporate sector is more thinly traded but does carry several good-quality names. Municipal issues are very popular with retail investors. The mortgage-backed securities market is relatively new, but has been expanding recently. Canadian government bonds (Canadas) account for more than 50% of the total domestic bonds, and are of most interest to international investors because of high liquidity and lack of default risk. Exhibit 2 shows the breakdown of Canadas by maturity. Most bonds are of short maturities, but over the last two years the government has lengthened the average term of its debt by issuing bonds with a thirty-year maturity. The total amount outstanding is C$163 billion ($U.S.136 billion) approximately, with the bulk of it issued over the last five years. EXHIBIT 2 CANADIAN GOVERNMENT BONDS MATURITY DISTRIBUTION Exhibit 3 shows the breakdown by coupon with most issues clustering around 9% to 11%. All the bonds are redeemable only at maturity with the exception of the 3.75% of March
4 EXHIBIT 3 CANADIAN GOVERNMENT BONDS COUPON DISTRIBUTION Beyond the cash market, an active derivatives market provides hedging capability and added liquidity to fixedincome investors. The Montreal Futures Exchange began trading the Canadian Government Bond Futures contract in September The contract is based on a notional underlying ten-year bond of 9% coupon. The contract size is C$100,000, with settlement by delivery of a bond with 6.5 to 10.0 years maturity and a minimum of C$750 million outstanding. International investors and arbitrageurs are active in this market. Options on the futures contract also exist, and over-the-counter options are also available on Canadas, although these are more thinly traded. At least three factors draw international investors to the Canadian bond market. First, Canada offers higher interest rates than most major fixed income markets. Second, overall market liquidity is relatively high. According to J.P. Morgan Securities, the Canadian market constitutes 3.3% of the capitalization of the entire world fixed-income market, but 6.4% of the capitalization of their index of actively traded global bond issues. Third, the Canadian market is highly correlated with the U.S. Treasury market, thus offering a higher yielding substitute for Treasuries. Between January 1986 and May 1992, local return correlation between the Canadian government bond market and the U.S. Treasury market was For comparison, the U.S. and Japanese fixed-income markets exhibited a return correlation of 0.48, and the U.S. and German fixed-income markets a return correlation of 0.50 over this period.
5 THE VALUATION MODEL A multifactor valuation model is designed to identify and value risk factors in the market. This model estimates bond prices as: PM n () t ( ) ( ) κ () cfn T PDB t,t = + T exp t T = PF t + n [ n ] with: () () κ n j ε () t (1) n () ε () t, (2) n,j j n t = x s t, (3) and PM n = bond n market price at time t; cf n (T) = bond n cash flow at time T; PDB(t,T) = price at t of default-free pure discount bond maturing at T; PF n = bond n fitted price at time t; ε n (t) = bond n price error at time t; κ n (t) = bond n total yield spread at time t; x n,j = bond n exposure to factor j; s j (t) = yield spread due to factor j at time t. The influences of the market as a whole are the term structure, represented here by the default-free pure discount bond prices PDB(t,T), and the marketwide factor yield spreads s j (t). The bond-specific exposures include the cash flows cf n (T) and the exposures x n,j. The final bond-specific component of this model is the price error ε n (t). This model clearly specifies how a bond s total exposure to the various factors determines its price. The fundamental pricing Equation (1) represents the term structure by a set of pure discount bond prices PDB(t,T). Equivalently, the model could also specify the term structure by a set of spot interest rates sr(t,t), with: ( ) sr t, T [ ( )] ( T t) log PDB t, T This uniquely defines the spot rate curve, given the pure discount bond prices. (4)
6 The estimated values [PDB(t,T), s j (t), ε n (t)] result from fitting this model to actual trading prices at time t. A full discussion of this procedure is described elsewhere, but the basic considerations are straightforward (see Kahn ). A well-specified model will parsimoniously identify t h e important and intuitive market factors, and closely fit market prices, while still forecasting relative value. A 100-factor model could exactly fit 100 market prices, but then the model would contain no new information beyond that contained in the 100 market prices. What is worse, as the number of factors increases, robust estimation becomes more difficult. Each factor estimate depends, on average, on a smaller number of prices, each subject to uncertainty and data errors. Of course as the number of factors decreases, the pricing errors will increase. Hopefully, these errors will identify relatively rich and cheap issues. Specifying the ideal model involves matching these trade-offs to the ultimate model goal. The final specified model of the Canadian government bond market involves nine term structure factors and two yield spreads. The term structure factors are the pure discount bonds with maturities of one, two, three, four, five, seven, ten, twenty, and thirty years. The spacing in maturity between these bonds increases with maturity. The greater number of bonds at the shorter maturities helps define this part of the term structure more finely. The model interpolates the spot rates between these maturities. The two yield spreads cover a coupon effect and a liquidity effect. This model exhibits mean pricing errors close to zero, with a pricing error standard deviation approximately $0.50, for a par of $ Exhibit 4 displays the distribution of pricing errors across all bonds. Pricing errors are uncorrelated with coupon and maturity. The model appears to help identify relatively rich and cheap issues.
7 EXHIBIT 4 PRICING ERROR DISTRIBUTION Now consider the estimated model parameters in more detail. Exhibit 5 shows the term structures estimated at the beginning of each year from 1988 to Rates have been in the 9%-11% range in the past but have recently dropped sharply, especially at the short end of the term structure. EXHIBIT 5 ANNUAL TERM STRUCTURES The wider range of spot rates at the short end of the term structure relative to the long end graphically illustrates the different volatilities associated with different parts of the term structure. The current term structure, with short rates dropping to below 7%, is at the steepest it has been in the last five years, rising from an inverted yield curve in Exhibit 6 displays the steepness of the Canadian government term structure from January 1988 to June Canadian interest rates are typically higher than U.S. interest rates, with the closely watched ten-year yield spread averaging 150 basis points. Exhibit 7 shows the Canada-U.S. Treasury spread for three-year and ten-year spot rates.
8 EXHIBIT 6 CANADA-U.S. SPREADS JANUARY 1988-JUNE 1992 EXHIBIT 7 TERM STRUCTURE STEEPNESS (TEN-YEAR --THREE YEAR) JANUARY 1988-JUNE 1992 The yield spread factors s j correspond to the non-term structure sources of risk and return identified by the model. The current model identifies two such factors: a current yield spread, which captures investors preference for return in the form of capital gains rather than current income, and a benchmark spread, which measures the value of the additional liquidity provided by on-the-run bonds. 7 These spreads, estimated from January 1988 to June 1992, are displayed in Exhibit 8. The current yield spread has been positive throughout this period, averaging 20 basis points. Benchmark bonds have at times traded richer by 5 to 20 basis points, although typically the spread has been 10 basis points.
9 EXHIBIT 8 YIELD SPREADS JANUARY 1988-JUNE 1992 THE RISK MODEL Bond prices change over time in response to three general phenomena: shortening bond maturities, shifting term structures, and changing yield spreads. Bonds are risky because the last two phenomena are uncertain. The core of a bond risk model is, therefore, an estimate of the variances and covariances of the term structure and the yield spread factor excess returns. We describe first how to estimate these marketwide factor excess returns, and then how to estimate bond specific risk. Term Structure Factor Returns Building the risk model requires a history of the behavior of all relevant market factors, which the valuation model provides. How exactly does this work? Consider first the term structure risk factors: the default-free pure discount bond prices. The price PDB(t,T) represents the price at time t of a certain $1.00 paid at time T. The return to this factor between t - t and t is the return to the strategy: Invest $1.00 at time t - t in the default-free pure discount bond PDB(t - t,t). This bond has a maturity of T - (t - t). Hold for a period t. Then sell the bond, now with a maturity T - t, for price PDB(t,T). The excess return to this factor follows by subtracting the riskfree rate of return. This risk-free rate is the return to the strategy: Invest $1.00 at time t - t in the default-free pure discount bond PDB(t - t,t) maturing at time t. This bond has a
10 maturity of t. Hold for a period t. Then redeem the bond, which has now matured. The fixed holding period t is a defining constant of the risk model. Yield Spread Factor Returns Now consider the returns associated with the yield spread factors. The excess return to factor j at time t is the return to the artificial strategy: Invest $1.00 at time t - t in a portfolio exposed only to factor j and to term structure risk. The portfolio duration is set to the average market duration over the risk model history. Hold for a period t, and roll down the term structure over this period. Sell the portfolio at time t. This strategy is artificial because it assumes a fixed term structure. The return to this strategy is the change in yield spread s j over the holding period, multiplied by the average bond market duration. Duration, the fractional change in price accompanying a change in yield, enters into this formula to convert a change in yield spread into a price return. Specific Return Beyond the general, marketwide sources of risk discussed, individual issues also face specific risk. Factors that influence only one particular issue, or for corporate bonds the issues of only one particular company, generate specific risk and return. In the context of the risk model, specific returns arise because the bond pricing error ε n (t) can change randomly over time. The specific return to bond n at time t is the return to the strategy: Invest $1.00 at time t - t in a portfolio long bond n, but with all marketwide sources of risk hedged. Hold for a period t, and then sell. The difference in pricing error will generate the specific return. ε n () t ε n( t t) PM ( t t) n. The distinction between marketwide sources of risk and specific risk is important, because investors can hedge
11 marketwide sources of risk through other instruments exposed to those same risk sources. By assumption, specific risk is uncorrelated with marketwide risk. 8 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER The analysis described so far will generate a history of term structure factor returns, yield spread factor returns, and specific returns. How do these combine to describe overall risk in the Canadian bond market? Can this quantitative approach provide insight into the important risk sources in this market? The historical variances and covariances of the factor returns making up the covariance matrix quantify the observed risk in the market. This matrix measures not only the volatility of each factor return, but also each factor s covariance with all the other factors. For a risk model with eleven factors (term structure plus yield spread factors), the covariance matrix will be an eleven-by-eleven symmetric matrix. This model identifies two different marketwide sources of Canadian government bond market risk: term structure risk and yield spread risk. 9 Hence the covariance matrix will consist of different blocks quantifying these risks. Two blocks will capture just term structure risk and yield spread risk. Two additional blocks will capture the covariances of term structure movements with yield spread movements. 10 To see how the covariance matrix approach can provide insight into market risk, consider this analysis of term structure risk in the Canadian market. The model describes the Canadian term structure by a set of nine pure discount bonds, with maturities of one, two, three, four, five, seven, ten, twenty, and thirty years. The term structure factor returns are simply the returns to these particular pure discount bonds, as described above. Of course, these factors exhibit considerable correlation, which the covariance matrix captures. And while these factors constitute nine sources of risk, a principal components analysis of the covariance matrix identifies three particular collective movements of the Canadian term structure that together account for 99.2% of the risk captured by all nine factors. 11 These three collective
12 movements should precisely and quantitatively complement the intuition of market participants. Exhibit 9 illustrates the most important collective term structure movement: a spot rate shift. This shift accounted for 89.2% of all modeled term structure risk in the Canadian bond market between January 1986 and May According to Exhibit 9, the Canadian term structure movements are characterized by a non-parallel shift, which includes all spot rates moving in the same direction, although the short maturity rates are more volatile than the long maturity rates. Exhibit 9 shows that this typical shift in the term structure has an annualized volatility of 148 basis points at the one-year maturity and 77 basis points at the thirty-year maturity. EXHIBIT 9 TERM STRUCTURE SHIFT ANNUAL STANDARD DEVIATION Exhibit 10 illustrates the next most important collective term structure movement: a spot rate twist. This twist accounted for another 7.8% of all modeled term structure risk over the same period. According to Exhibit 10, this twist involves short maturity rates and long maturity rates moving in opposite directions. Exhibit 10 shows that this typical twist has equal annualized volatilities of 57 basis points at both ends of the term structure, although in opposite directions.
13 EXHIBIT 10 TERM STRUCTURE TWIST ANNUAL STANDARD DEVIATION The shift and the twist together account for 97% of the modeled term structure risk in the Canadian bond market. To capture most of the remaining risk it is necessary to look at the third most important movement of the term structure, the butterfly, as illustrated in Exhibit 11. The butterfly captures an additional 2.2% of the risk, and is characterized by short and long rates moving in the same direction with similar volatilities and medium-term rates moving in the opposite direction with a third less volatility. The analysis underlying Exhibits 9, 10, and 11 provides far more power and intuition than the standard duration and convexity analysis. Exhibit 9 shows that the dominant factor in the Canadian bond market is a non-parallel term structure shift. Further, Exhibits 10 and 11 demonstrate the importance of secondary term structure movements in this market. The multifactor approach clearly separates these three intuitive factors. PORTFOLIO RISK CHARACTERIZATION Historical analysis captures the inherent riskiness of the factors of value present in the Canadian bond market. The riskiness of a particular bond portfolio depends upon its exposure to these sources of risk. The fraction of portfolio present value at each maturity measures the portfolio s exposure to term structure risk. Two portfolios with identical distributions of present value across the maturity spectrum face identical term structure risk. Traditionalists will note that these two portfolios have identical durations. Yet two portfolios can have identical durations without having identical distributions across the
14 entire set of maturities. Such portfolios will not face identical term structure risk. What about yield spread factor risk? The fraction of the portfolio exposed to each yield spread, multiplied by the duration of those bonds compared to bond market average duration, measures the portfolio s yield spread factor risk exposure. Beyond the marketwide factors of value that the model identifies, there also exist risk factors associated solely with individual issues. By definition, the specific risk for each issue is uncorrelated with all marketwide factor risk and with the specific risk of all other issues. Total risk follows from combining the risk exposures that characterize a given portfolio with the variances and covariances of the underlying risk factors that characterize the market, and adding in specific issue risk. This number is the predicted total variance of the portfolio excess return. CONCLUSION This article has examined the many risk factors operating in the Canadian bond market, and presented a multifactor risk model of this market. This multifactor approach provides a quantitative, accurate, and even intuitive framework for analyzing Canadian bond portfolio risk.
15 ENDNOTES 1 Twists of the term structure are defined as short and long interest rates moving in opposite directions. 2 A butterfly is defined as short and long interest rates moving in the same direction with medium-term rates moving in the opposite direction. 3 This model of the Canadian Government bond market was developed by BARRA. 4 Excess return is defined as the total retu rn minus the risk free return. 5 This bond was issued in the 1950s. 6 Steepness is defined as the difference between the ten-year and three-year spot rates. 7 The valuation model can be extended to incorporate provincial, corporate, and municipal bonds by estimating sector and quality yield spreads that account for the credit and liquidi ty of these sectors. 8 The specific risk of two different issues may be correlated, for example, if one province issued them both. 9 The risk of provincial, corporate. and municipal bonds can be incorporated similarly as sector yield spread risk blocks to extend the model to cover other sectors of the Canadian market. 10 These two blocks are symmetric. 11 While there exists considerable covariance between returns to adjacent term structure factors, the principal components are defined to have zero covariance. They result from diagonalizing the covariance matrix of factor returns. The nine risk factors map into nine principal components. However, for the Canadian bond market, the first three principal components account for over 99% of this risk. REFERENCES Kahn, Ronald N. Estimating the U.S. Treasury Term Structure of Interest Rates. In Frank J. Fabozzi (ed.), The Handbook of U.S. Treasury Government Agency Securities: Instruments, Strategies and Analysis, Revised Edition. Chicago, IL: Probus Publishing, Risk and Return in the U.S. Bond Market: A Multifactor Approach. In Frank J. Fabozzi (ed.), Advances and Innovations in the Bond and Mortgage Markets. Chicago, IL: Probus Publishing, 1989.
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91. A high yield bond fund states that through active management, the fund s return has outperformed an index of Treasury securities by 4% on average over the past five years. As a performance benchmark
Canadian Life Insurance Company Asset/Liability Management Summary Report as at: 31Jan08 interest rates as of: 29Feb08 Run: 2Apr08 20:07 Book Book Present Modified Effective Projected change in net present
Managing the Investment Portfolio GSBC Executive Development Institute April 26, 2015 Portfolio Purpose & Objectives Tale of Two Balance Sheets o Components of Core Balance Sheet Originated loans Retail
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1 ASSET LIABILITY MANAGEMENT Significance and Basic Methods Dr Philip Symes Introduction 2 Asset liability management (ALM) is the management of financial assets by a company to make returns. ALM is necessary
Theoretical and Applied Economics Volume XIX (2012), No. 10(575), pp. 5-14 Use of fixed income products within a company's portfolio Vasile DEDU The Bucharest University of Economic Studies email@example.com
Yield Book Advanced Topics The Yield Book Inc. Yield Book Advanced Topics Version 1-17-02 These materials and the information and methodologies described and incorporated herein are proprietary and confidential
Bonds Valuation and Measures of Sensitivity Maturity management is essential, especially if a risk profile is asymmetric, as is typically the case when interest rates are low. Hans-Jörg Naumer Global Head
1 Bond Price Arithmetic The purpose of this chapter is: To review the basics of the time value of money. This involves reviewing discounting guaranteed future cash flows at annual, semiannual and continuously
GUARDIAN CANADIAN BOND FUND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS DECEMBER 31, 2010 March 11, 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Chartered Accountants PO Box 82 Royal Trust Tower, Suite 3000 Toronto-Dominion Centre Toronto,
Global Banking and Markets Treasury Floating Rate Notes DATE: April 2012 Recommendation summary The USD 7trn money market should support significant FRN issuance from the Treasury. This would diversify
FIN 683 Professor Robert Hauswald Financial-Institutions Management Kogod School of Business, AU Solutions 1 Chapter 7: Bank Risks - Interest Rate Risks 6. A financial institution has the following market
Zero-Coupon Bonds (Pure Discount Bonds) The price of a zero-coupon bond that pays F dollars in n periods is F/(1 + r) n, where r is the interest rate per period. Can meet future obligations without reinvestment