Debt Instruments Set 3

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1 Debt Instruments Set 3 Backus/February 9, 1998 Quantifying Interest Rate Risk 0. Overview Examples Price and Yield Duration Risk Management Convexity Value-at-Risk Active Investment Strategies

2 Debt Instruments Examples Example 1: Bell Atlantic { Long or short (oating rate) debt? { Level and slope of yield curve { Liquidity management { Risk exposure { Accounting methods

3 Debt Instruments Examples (continued) Example 2: Banc One { Measurement of interest-sensitivity { Regulatory reporting { Liquidity management { Risk management and nancial engineering { Accounting methods

4 Debt Instruments Examples (continued) Example 3: Salomon Smith Barney Proprietary Trading { Making money: Spotting good deals Taking calculated risks { Risk assessment How much risk does the rm face? How much risk does a specic trader or position add? { Risk management Should some or all of the risk be hedged?

5 Debt Instruments Examples (continued) Example 4: Bond Funds { Mission: Target specic markets? Target specic maturities? Index or active investing? { Risk reporting to customers { Risk management

6 Debt Instruments Examples (continued) Example 5: Dedicated Portfolios { Purpose: fund xed liabilities { Example: dened-benet pensions { Objective: minimize cost { Approach tied to accounting of liabilities

7 Debt Instruments Price and Yield Price and yield are inversely related: p(y) = c 1 (1 + y=2) + c 2 (1 + y=2) c n (1 + y=2) n Five Year Bond Prices of Bonds Two Year Bond Yield to Maturity (Percent Per Year) Long bonds are more sensitive to yield changes than short bonds

8 Debt Instruments DV01 Our task is to produce numbers that quantify our sense that the price-yield relation is \steeper" for long bonds Measure 1 is the DV01: \Dollar Value of an 01" (aka Present Value of a Basis Point or PVBP) Denition: DV01 is the decline in price associated with a one basis point increase in yield: DV01 =, Slope of Price-Yield Relation 0:01% =, dp dy 0:0001 Calculation: (a) compute yield associated with (invoice) price (b) compute price associated with yield plus 0.01% (c) DV01 is dierence between prices in (a) and (b)

9 Debt Instruments DV01 (continued) Example 1 (2-year 10% bond, spot rates at 10%) { Initial values: p = 100, y = 0:1000 { At y =0:1001 (one bp higher), p =99:9823 { DV01 = 100, 99:9823 = 0:0177 Example 2 (5-year 10% bond, spot rates at 10%) { Initial values: p = 100, y = 0:1000 { At y =0:1001 (one bp higher), p =99:9614 { DV01 = 100, 99:9614 = 0:0386 { More sensitive than the 2-year bond Example 3 (2-year zero, spot rates at 10%) { Initial price: p = 100=1:05 4 =82:2702 { At y =0:1001 (one bp higher), p =82:2546 { DV01 = 82:2702, 82:2546 = 0:0157 Example 4 (10-year zero, spot rates at 10%) { Initial price: p = 100=1:05 20 =37:6889 { DV01 = 37:6889, 37:6531 = 0:0359

10 Debt Instruments DV01 (continued) What you need to reproduce Bloomberg's calculation Price-yield relation with fractional rst period: p(y) = c 1 (1 + y=2) w + c 2 (1 + y=2) w c n (1 + y=2) w+n,1 Example 5 (Citicorp 7 1/8s revisited) Recall: settlement 6/16/95, matures 3/15/04, n = 18, p (invoice price) = 103:056, w = 0:494 { Compute yield as before: y =6:929% { Price at y = 6:939% (+1 bp) is p = 102:991 { DV01 = 103:056, 102:991 = 0:065

11 Debt Instruments DV01 (continued) Similar methods work for portfolios: v = x 1 p 1 (y 1 )+x 2 p 2 (y 2 )++x m p m (y m ) = mx j=1 x j p j (y j ) The DV01 of a portfolio is the sum of the DV01's of the individual positions: dv dy 0:0001 = mx j=1 x j dp j dy j 0:0001 DV01 of Portfolio = Sum of DV01's of Positions (Mathematically: the derivative of the sum is the sum of the derivatives. The math isn't as precise as it looks, since the yields may dier across securities. The idea is that we raise all of them by one basis point.) Example 6: one 2-year bond and three 5-year bonds (examples 1 and 2) DV01 = 1 0: :0386 = 0:1335

12 Debt Instruments Duration Measure 2 of interest-sensitivity: duration Denition: duration is the percentage decline in price associated with a one percent increase in the yield: D =, Slope of Price-Yield Relation =, dp=dy p Price Formula (with semiannual compounding): D dp=dy p X =, (1 + y=2),1 n (j=2) w j j=1 with w j = (1 + y=2),j c j : p Remarks: { Weight w j is fraction of value due to the jth payment { Sum is weighted average life of payments

13 Debt Instruments Duration (continued) Example 1 (2-year 10% bond, spot rates at 10%) Intermediate calculations: Payment (j) Cash Flow (c j ) Value Weight (w j ) Duration: D = (1 + :10=2),1 (0:5 0: :0 0: :5 0: :0 0:86384) = 1:77 years If y rises 100 basis points, price falls 1.77%.

14 Debt Instruments Duration (continued) Example 2 (5-year 10% bond, spot rates at 10%) D = 3:86. Example 3 (2-year zero, spot rates at 10%) Duration for an n-period zero is D = (1 + :10=2),1 (n=2) Note the connection between duration and maturity. Here n = 4 and D = 1:90. Example 4 (10-year zero, spot rates at 10%) D = (1 +:10=2),1 (20=2) = 9:51.

15 Debt Instruments Duration (continued) What you need to reproduce Bloomberg's calculation Duration formula becomes (semiannual compounding) D dp=dy p X =, (1 + y=2),1 n [(w + j, 1)=2] w j j=1 with w j = (1 + y=2),w,j+1 c j : p Example 5 (Citicorp 7 1/8s revisited again) Recall: settlement 6/16/95, matures 3/15/04, n = 18, p (invoice price) = 103:056, w = 0:494, y = 6:929% Answer: D = 6:338 years (less than maturity of 8.75 years) Remark: there's a formula for D, but it's ugly

16 Debt Instruments Duration (continued) Similar methods work for portfolios: v = x 1 p 1 (y 1 )+x 2 p 2 (y 2 )++x m p m (y m ) = mx j=1 x j p j (y j ) The duration of the portfolio is the value-weighted average of the durations of the individual positions: dv=dy v = = mx mx j=1 j=1 x j dp j =dy j v w j dp j =dy j p j with w j = x j p j v (As with the DV01, the math isn't as precise as it looks, since the yields may dier across securities. The idea is that we raise all of them by the same amount.) Remark: weight w j is fraction of value due to the jth position

17 Debt Instruments Duration (continued) Example 6: one 2-year bond and three 5-year bonds (examples 1 and 2) { Since prices are equal, value weights are 1/4 and 3/4 { D =0:25 1:77+0:75 3:86 = 3:38 Example 7: combination of 2- and 10-year zeros with duration equal to the 5-year par bond { This kind of position is known as a barbell, since the cash ows have two widely spaced lumps (picture a histogram of the cash ows) { If we invest fraction w in the 2-year, the duration is D = w 1:90 + (1, w) 9:51 = 3:86 Answer: w = 0:742.

18 Debt Instruments Duration (continued) Duration comes in many avors: Our denition is generally called \modied duration" The textbook standard is Macaulay's duration { Diers from ours in lacking the (1 + y=2),1 term: X D =, n (j=2) w j j=1 { Leads to a closer link between duration and maturity (for zeros, they're the same) { Nevertheless, duration is a measure of sensitivity; its link with maturity is interesting but incidental { Frederick Macaulay studied bonds in the 1930s Fisher-Weil duration: compute weights with spot rates { Makes a lot of sense { Used in many risk-management systems (RiskMetrics, for example) { Rarely makes much dierence with bonds

19 Debt Instruments Duration (continued) Bottom line: duration is an approximation (ditto DV01) 160 { Based on parallel shifts of the yield curve (presumes all yields change the same amount) { Holds over short time intervals (otherwise maturity and the price-yield relation change) { Holds for small yield changes: dp dy =,D p ) p, p 0 =,D p 0 (y, y 0 ) 140 Five Year Bond 120 Prices of Bonds Linear Approximation Yield to Maturity (Percent Per Year)

20 Debt Instruments Convexity Convexity measures curvature in the price-yield relation Common usage: \callable bonds have negative convexity" (the price-yield relation is concave to the origin) Denition (semiannual, full rst period): C d2 p=dy 2 p X = (1 + y=2),2 n [j(j +1)=4] w j j=1 with w j = (1 + y=2),j c j p Example 1 (2-year 10% bond, spot rates at 10%) C = 4:12. Example 3 (2-year zero, spot rates at 10%) Convexity for an n-period zero is C = (1 + :10=2),2 [n(n +1)=4]; or 4.53 when n = 4.

21 Debt Instruments Convexity (continued) Bloomberg calculations (fractional rst period w) X C = (1 + y=2),2 n [(j, 1+w)(j + w)=4] w j j=1 with w j = (1 + y=2),j+1,w c j p (Bloomberg divides this number by 100.) Example 5 (Citicorp 7 1/8s again) Answer: C = 51:3 (0.513 on Bloomberg)

22 Debt Instruments Statistical Measures of Interest Sensitivity Measure risk with standard deviations and correlations of price changes Fixed income applications { Standard deviations and correlations of yield changes { Use duration to translate into price changes Statistical properties of monthly yield changes 1-Year 3-Year 5-Year 7-Year 10-Year A. Standard Deviations of Yield Changes (Percent) B. Correlations of Yield Changes 1-Year Year Year Year Source: McCulloch and Kwon, US treasuries,

23 Debt Instruments Statistical Measures (continued) Examples of yield curve shifts (spot rates) February Maturity in Years August August Yield (Annual Percentage) Remark: not just parallel shifts!

24 Debt Instruments Statistical Measures (continued) Typical components of yield curve shifts First Component Maturity in Years Second Component Contributions of Principal Components to Yield Changes Remarks: { Component 1: Roughly parallel, but less at long end { Component 2: Twist accounts for 10-15% of variance { Both indicate weaknesses in duration (ditto DV01)

25 Debt Instruments Statistical Measures (continued) Industry Practice: JP Morgan's RiskMetrics Daily estimates of standard deviations and correlations (This is critical: volatility varies dramatically over time) Twenty-plus countries, hundreds of markets Yield \volatilities" based on proportional changes: log (y t =y t,1 ) y t, y t,1 y t,1 Maturities include 1 day; 1 week; 1, 3, and 6 months Others handled by interpolation Documentation available on the Web (useful but not simple) Similar methods in use at most major banks

26 Debt Instruments Cash-Flow Matching Financial institutions typically face risk to the values of both assets and liabilities One approach is to buy assets whose cash ows exactly match those of the liabilities We say they are immunized: no change in interest rates can change the relative value of assets and liabilities

27 Debt Instruments Cash-Flow Matching (continued) Example: Balduzzi Insurance and Pension Corporation Liabilities: projected pensions of retired NYU employees Time (Yrs) Payment Potential investments: Bond Coupon (%) Mat (Yrs) Price (Ask) Yield (%) A B C D E F Objective: nd cheapest way to cover the cash ows

28 Debt Instruments Cash-Flow Matching (continued) This is an example of linear programming (something you might see some day, but not from me) The problem can be laid out formally with a little eort { Bond i (a choice of A, B, C, D, E, or F) has cash ows c ti (say) at time t { Consider a purchase of x i units of each asset i Total cost is Cost = x a p a + x b p b + +x f p f = X i x i p i These choices generate cash ows at date t of Cash Flow att = X i x i c ti { The problem is to choose quantities x i that have the lowest costs yet cover the required cash ows (the pension liabilities) { We may also disallow short sales (x i < 0) or enter dierent bid and ask prices

29 Debt Instruments Cash-Flow Matching (continued) Solution can be found using (say) Excel Guess 1: buy zeros in the appropriate amounts Cost = 20 96: : : :856 = 6691:91: Can we do better? { In a frictionless, arbitrage-free world: no! Cash ows have the same value regardless of the asset { Here: F looks cheap Buy as much as possible and make up the dierence with zeros: Bond Price Units A B C D E F Cost is , which is cheaper.

30 Debt Instruments Cash-Flow Matching (continued) Remarks: { This is an example of dedicated portfolio { Linear programs are often used to nd portfolios { In practice, cheapest often leads to junk { Cash-ow matching exactly covers cash ows, no risk from interest rate movements { In theory, portfolio is static: \Head to the Bahamas and relax" (Elton)

31 Debt Instruments Duration Matching Another approach to managing risk: match durations Example: Foresi Bank of Mahopac (FBM) Balance sheet Assets 25.0 Liabilities 20.0 Shareholders' Equity 5.0 Assets: duration D A =1:00 Liabilities: year notes with duration 1.77, 10.0 commercial paper with duration 0.48 ) D L = 1:12 Should FBM change its liability mix? { Dollar sensitivity is Change in Asset Value =,D A 25:0 y Change in Asset Value =,D L 20:0 y { If we want to equate the two, we need D L = D A 25=20 = 1:25 { Consider a change to fraction w in 2-year notes: D L = w 0:48 + (1, w) 1:77 Answer: w = 0:40.

32 Debt Instruments Duration Matching (continued) Remarks: { Less restrictive than cash-ow matching { Not bullet-proof against non-parallel shifts in yields { Durations change as maturities and yields change: strategy requires dynamic updating (no Bahamas)

33 Debt Instruments Active Investment Strategies Two basic strategies: { Bet on the level of yields { Bet on the shape of the yield curve (yield spreads) Betting on yields { If you expect yields to fall, shorten duration { If you expect yields to rise, lengthen duration { Modications typically made with treasuries or futures (lower transactions costs than, say, corporates) { Forecasting yield changes is notoriously dicult { Requires a combination of analytics, macroeconomics, and psychology of traders and policymakers { Henry Kaufman made two great calls in the 1980s

34 Debt Instruments Active Investment Strategies (continued) Betting on yield spreads { Scenario: Spot rates at at 10% { We expect the yield curve to steepen, but have no view on the level of yields. Specically, we expect the 10-year spot rate to rise relative to the 2-year. { Strategy: buy the 2-year, short the 10-year, in proportions with no exposure to overall yield changes Using DV01 to construct a spread trade: { We showed earlier that a one basis point rise in yield reduces the price of the 2-year zero by and the 10-year zero by (examples 3 and 4). { Intuitively, we buy more of the 2-year than we sell of the 10-year: x 2 =, 0:0359 x 10 0:0157 =,2:29 (the minus sign tells us one is a short position) { Mathematically: v 0:0001 = (x 2 DV x 10 DV01 10 )y; = 0 for equal changes in yields of both maturities.

35 Debt Instruments Active Investment Strategies (continued) Using duration to construct a spread trade { The only dierence is that duration measures percentage price sensitivity, and to eliminate exposure to parallel yield shifts we need to construct a portfolio with zero dollar sensitivity. { The durations of the 2-year and 10-year zeros are 1.90 and { Dollar sensitivity is duration times price { To eliminate overall price sensitivity, set v = (x 2 p 2 D 2 + x 10 p 10 D 10 )y; = 0; which implies x 2 =, p 10D 10 =, 37:69 9:51 x 10 p 2 D 2 82:27 1:90 =,2:29 Same answer: both DV01 and duration are based on the slope of the price-yield relation.

36 Debt Instruments Interview with Henry Kaufman Biographical sketch { Started Salomon's bond research group { Legendary interest rate forecaster { Picked rate rise in 1981, when most thought the \Volcker shock" of 1979 was over { Now runs boutique Investment strategy { Study macroeconomic fundamentals (chart room) { Adjust duration depending on view { Adjustment through sale and purchase of treasuries { Some foreign bonds { No derivatives (except occasional currency hedge) Thoughts on modern risk analytics { What's \market value"? { RiskMetrics-like methods look backwards, but history can be a poor guide to the future in nancial markets

37 Debt Instruments 3-37 Summary Bond prices fall when yields rise Prices of long bonds fall more DV01 and duration measure sensitivity to generalized changes in yields parallel shifts Cash-ow matching eliminates all exposure to interest rate movements Duration matching eliminates exposure to equal movements in yields of dierent maturities Statistical risk measures allow for dierent yield changes across the maturity spectrum Active investment strategies include bets on the level and slope of the yield curve

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