# An Energy Efficient ATM System Using AES Processor

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2 Electrical Engineering Research (EER) Volume 1 Issue 2, April fingerprint is used as password which is encrypted by algorithm. This encrypted process is called Cryptography, the technique, way, process and science of hiding data that plays an important role to ensure information security. The encrypted data is decrypted by using same algorithm and matched with the stored data. If the data matched, the access will be granted otherwise access will be denied. Background ATM is the abbreviation of "Automated Teller Machine". This machine allows the account holder to have transactions with their own accounts without allowing them to access the entire bank's database. The idea of self-service in retail banking was developed through independent and simultaneous efforts in Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. In the USA, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing and building the first cash dispenser machine. The first cash dispensing device was used in Tokyo in direction and location of ridges make the identification. A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human. There are three types of fingerprint patterns. AES Algorithm The Rijndael algorithm referred to as the AES Algorithm, is a symmetric key block cipher that can process data blocks of 128 bits, using cipher keys with lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits. Fig.1 shows that AES has four stages which are required for every round except that the last round excludes the mix column phase and the first round has only key addition. The four stages of Rijndael algorithm (AES algorithm) are: Substitute bytes: This function uses an S-box to perform a byte-by-byte substitution of the block. For encryption and decryption, this function is indicated by SubBytes () and InvSubBytes () respectively. Shiftrows:This is a simple permutation. For encryption and decryption, this function is indicated by ShiftRows () and InvShiftRows () respectively. FIG. 1 A CONVENTIONAL ATM SYSTEM Mix Columns: This is a substitution that makes use of arithmetic over GF (2 8 ), with the irreducible polynomial m(x) = x 8 + x 4 + x 3 + x +1. For encryption and decryption, this function is indicated by MixColumns () and InvMixColumns () respectively. ATM first came into use in December 1972 in the UK. IBM 2984 was designed for request of Lloyds Bank. ATM is typically connected directly to their hosts or ATM Controller via either ADSL or dial-up modem over a telephone line or directly via a leased line. For transaction security all communication traffic between ATM and transaction process is encrypted by cryptography. Nowadays, most of ATM uses a Microsoft OS primarily Windows XP Professional or Windows XP Embedded or Linux. Fingerprint Fingerprint is a characteristic which is unique for each person. Every fingerprint contain unique identifiable piece of information. The uniqueness in each fingerprint is due to the peculiar genetic code of DNA in each person. Ridges and valleys are the parts of fingerprint that provide friction for the skin. The FIG. 2 AES ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTIONS 43

3 Electrical Engineering Research (EER) Volume 1 Issue 2, April 2013 Add round key: This function does a bitwise XOR operation of the current block with a portion of the expanded key. For both encryption and decryption this function is indicated by AddRoundKey (). For the AddRoundKey () stage, the inverse is achieved by XORing the same round key to the block, using the result: A A B = B. Design Considerations In this section, we present the design consideration of proposed ATM system to achieve highly secured and low power consumed ATM design. The two basic parts of this design are the biometric and cryptography. Fingerprint Design Low Power Design of AES Processor To get low power AES processor for minimizing the overall power consumption of the ATM system, we propose the S-box implementation in Galios Field (2 4 ) 2 instead of GF (2 8 ). S-box is the most costly transformation in AES, on the aspect of both time and area. Rijme one of the references suggested an alternative approach to calculate multiplicative inverses in S-Box. Since then, the relevant research has proved that the composite field GF(2 4 ) 2 based arithmetic provides the least gate count and the shortest critical path for calculating multiplicative inverse of a byte, which is the key step in S-Box. This conversion involves an isomorphic map function before and after inversion in each round. In our design we take 128-bit key for the AES processor, so it needs ten map functions for each block (128-bit) from finite field to composite field and ten inverse map functions for encryption. And the key generator, also has S-Boxes, is included, another ten mappings and ten inverse mappings are needed. Fig.5 shows the mapping of GF (2 4 ) 2. FIG. 3 FINGERPRINT IMAGE AND ITS PROCESSING STEPS Original Image: The image is captured using image sensor. Threshold Image: Only picking the pixel greater than the threshold pixel value. Median Filter: The Median Filter block replaces the central value of an M-by-N neighbourhood with its median value. Smoothed: Picking only the largest block. Projected Area: Giving boundary line of the smoothed image on original image. Rotate & Cropped: Aliening the major axis parallel with X axis taking only the fingertip part of the image. Edge of Ridge: Binary value of the fingertip part using canny edge method. FIG.5 MULTIPLICATIVE INVERSION MAPPING INGF(2 4 ) 2 To save the overhead caused by mapping, our design converts the whole AES algorithm from GF(2 8 ) to GF(2 4 ) 2, which needs only one forward mapping before the initial round and one backward mapping after the final round. Only one forward mapping is needed for the key schedule. Proposed System and Performance Proposed System FIG. 4 FINGERPRINT IMAGE PROCESSING STEPS The proposed system consists of a fingerprintcapturing device, which captures image of the client. Captured image is fed to the image-processing device within the ATM machine. The processed image is converted to 1024 bit of binary data which is the input data of the low power consumed high 44

4 Electrical Engineering Research (EER) Volume 1 Issue 2, April speedy AES processor. The AES processor encrypts the data with the help of 4 digit decimal key that is provided by the user as password. The data is encrypted and passed to the bank server through a communication link. At the bank side the received cipher message is decrypted with the same key. The original image is reproduced at this step. Then the decrypted image of fingerprint is matched with the previously stored image of the authentic customer for the specific request of the client. If the request is valid then an acknowledgement message is passed to the ATM machine through the same communication link. If the acknowledgement is Yes then client can withdraw money from the ATM machine. If acknowledgement is No an error message is shown on the screen of the ATM machine. In this paper we design an acknowledgement device which switches on a green light if the acknowledgement is Yes otherwise it turns to a red light. Fig.6 shows the proposed ATM system. which are mounted on a wooden box. The main function of this device is capturing the fingerprint and sending it to the processor for processing. FIG. 7 IMAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE The acknowledgement device provides the results if the matching processes are accurate. Fig. 8 shows the microcontroller based acknowledgement device. The acknowledgment device contains a red LED and a green LED. The communication link delivers the data to the main server. The processor sends the matching result serially into the microcontroller driven acknowledgment device through the serial port. If the stored image and the decrypted image match, the acknowledgment device turns on the green LED and the user can access to his or her account. On the other hand if the acknowledgement is negative, it turns on red LED. Consequently the access will be denied. Performance FIG. 8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DEVICE FIG. 6 PROPOSED ATM SYSTEM Hardware Implementation This proposed system has two hardwires; firstly an image acquisition device. Fig. 7 illustrates the image acquisition device. It consists of a prism and webcam The proposed system is one of the fastest and secured among the world s existing ATM systems. There are two reasons; firstly acquisition device captures image accurately. The error of the device is negligible. Secondly using AES with low power consumed high speedy AES processor makes the 45

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