D A N T E D R A M A T I S E D L I N F E R N O FOR RADIO D A N T E D R A M M A T I Z Z A T O

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1 D A N T E D R A M A T I S E D L I N F E R N O FOR RADIO D A N T E D R A M M A T I Z Z A T O

2 L INFERNO DRAMATISED FOR RADIO Dante composes L Inferno as he is conducted through that realm. We may occasionally hear the sound of a stylus on a slate, or scratching on paper and its rustling. Only Dante and Beatrice versify. The dramatisation is for English-speakers but contains as much of Dante s Italian as is appropriate. Some material comes from outside the Divine Comedy. The parallel-text layout makes the scenario look very large, but it can be read as quickly as any other. In my recently-completed stage version of the Divine Comedy s 3 parts, the Muses leaven the masculine mass and economise on actors by impersonating some male characters. They remain in the Radio Version, e.g. Buoso de Duera (Polyhymnia), though only Erato is named in the text. The Muses are the basis of the Chorus, to which is added a few male voices and, perhaps, instrumentalists. NO. OF LINES/PART-LINES ITALIAN + NO. OF LINES/PART-LINES ENGLISH DANTE 746, 831 VIRGIL 58, 1052 ADAMO OF BRESCIA -, 26 AGNELLO 1, - ALESSIO DEGLI INTERMINEI -, 6 BEATRICE 3, 45 BOCCA (URANIA) 1, 24 BRUNETTO 5, 33 BUOSO DE DUERA (POLYH.) -, 3 BUOSO DEGLI ABATI -, 1 CACCIANEMICO -, 12 CAPANEUS -, 11 CAPOCCHIO (EUTERPE) -, 16 CAV. DE CAVALCANTI -, 5 CHARON -, 9 CHIRON -, 3 CIACCO 1, 24 DEMONS 16, 24 BARBARICCIA BLACK DEMON DRAGHIGNAZZO GRAFFIACANE (MELPOMENE) MALACODA SCARMIGLIONE DIDO 2, 16 ERATO 2, 2 FARINATA 1, 32 FILIPPO ARGENTI 2, 1 FRANCESCA -, 31 FR. ALBERIGO -, 13 FR. CATALANO (TERPSIC.) -, 29 FR. LODERINGO (THALIA) -, 6 GRIFFOLINO -, 9 GUERRA 3, 2 GUIDO DA MONTEFELTRO. -, 59 HEAVENLY MESSENGER 2, 4 JAC. DA SANT ANDREA -, 2 LANO MACONI 1, 1 MINOS -, 3 NESSUS -, 16 NIMROD (EUTERPE) 1, - PAOLO 4, 10 PHLEGYAS 4, 1 PLUTUS 1, - POPE NICH. III (CLIO) -, 23 PUCCIO 1, - RUSTICUCCI 3, 35 SATAN -,? SINON -, 5 TEGGHIAIO 2, 3 TRUNK / P.DELLE VIGNE 3, 46 UGOLINO (MELPOMENE) -, 69 ULYSSES FLAME VOICE 1, 48 VANNI FUCCI 1, 26 UN-NAMED SPIRITS 15, 2

3 DURATION Full-length: 175 mins. Short version (omitting greyed-out sections): 141 mins. SECTION DURATION Inc. Music THE DARK WOOD & THE HILL BEATRICE C1 1 - C2 138 THE GATE OF HELL 3.20 C CHARON & SOULS 2.50 C LOOKING INTO THE ABYSS.30 C C4 22 THE UNBAPTISED 1.50 C THE GREAT: 4 POETS ERATO 1.30 C HEROES & HEROINES DIDO 2.10 C PHILOSOPHERS MINOS 2.30 C C5 24 THE LUSTFUL DIDO 2.00 C PAOLO & FRANCESCA 4.00 C CERBERUS 1.40 C CIACCO 3.10 C PLUTUS.40 C C7 12 CHURCHMEN & FORTUNE 3.25 C THE STYX 1.00 C THE FERRY: PHLEGYAS 2.50 C CITY OF DIS (MUSES), BEATRICE, HEAVENLY MESSENGER CAVALCANTE DE CAVALCANTI, FARINATA C C VIOLENCE ETC 5.40 C THE MINOTAUR 2.25 C THE CENTAURS CHIRON, NESSUS 2.15 C THE BLOODY STREAM 1.50 C HARPY WOOD TRUNK/PIER DELLE VIGNE, JACOMO DA SANT ANDREA LANO MACONI 5.45 C THE VIOLENT AGAINST GOD CAPANEUS 6.15 C BRUNETTO LATINI 5.00 C RUSTICUCCI, GUERRA &TEGGHIAIO 3.10 C GERYON 4.00 C C ST & 2 ND CHASM:PANDERS SEDUCERS FLATTERERS CACCIANEMICO, ALESSIO DEGLI INTERMINEI 4.00 C SIMONISTS POPE NICHOLAS III 3.20 C SEERS & SORCERERS: TEARS 1.30 C MANTUA & MANTO 4.30 C DEMONS BLACK, SCARMIGLIONE, BARBARICCIA, MALACODA 8.45 C C22 36 GRAFFIACANE, DRAGHIGNAZZO HYPOCRITES FRIAR CATALANO (TERPSICHORE) FRIAR LODERINGO (THALIA) THE WALL BEATRICE, VANNI FUCCI, AGNELLO BUOSO DEGLI ABATI, PUCCIO 4.30 C C C C26 40 LAMPS DIDO, ULYSSES FLAME, GUIDO DA MONTEFELTRO FLAME 9.30 C C THE SOWERS OF DISCORD 4.45 C C29 66 FALSIFIERS, LIARS GRIFFOLINO, CAPOCCHIO (EUTERPE), 5.00 C C ADAMO, SINON NIMROD EUTERPE 4.30 C C32 12 THE FROZEN COCYTUS 9.30 C C BOCCA D. ABATI (URANIA) BUOSO DE DUERA (POLYH.), FRIAR ALBERIGO VEXILLA REGIS: ASCENT & DAMN! SATAN 3.30 C RETURNED BEATRICE 3.00 C34 139

4 1 L INFERNO DRAMATISED FOR RADIO CHARACTER = or later = between 1283 and 1300?? = a guess PLACE./.LANGUAGE ETC given when the character is first heard MALE FEMALE optional words not in the Divine Comedy, or Kline rearranged THE DARK WOOD & THE HILL CANTO 1 DANTE ALIGHIERI AGE : 34 (ABOUT 2 MONTHS SHORT OF 35) PLACE./.LANGUAGE ETC (DURANTE) DANTE ALIGHIERI WAS BORN IN FLORENCE OF A PRO-PAPACY GUELPH FAMILY. THE DISHONESTY & CORRUPTION OF POPE BONIFACE VIII ALIGNED HIM WITH THE GHIBELLINE PRO-IMPERIALS. THE CENTURIES-LONG, EUROPEAN GUELPH./.GHIBELLINE SCHISM ORIGINATED IN GERMANY, SUPPOSEDLY WHEN ONE PRINCE DISPARAGED THE HUNTING-DOG OF ANOTHER. FLORENTINE FAMILIES WERE SPLIT, ALSO, INTO BLACKS & WHITES, ORIGINALLY BECAUSE OF A PRETTY PISTOIAN. IN 1302, FRENCH INTERVENTION LED TO THE EXILE OF DANTE & 14 OTHERS UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH. DANTE NEVER RETURNED. DANTE TELLS OF HIS JOURNEY AS SOMETHING DONE. INF C1 1-3 / TRANSLATION BY A.S.KLINE In the middle of the journey of our life, I came to myself, in a dark wood, where the direct way was lost. It is a hard thing to speak of, how wild, harsh and impenetrable that wood was, so that thinking of it recreates the fear. It is scarcely less bitter than death: but, in order to tell of the good that I found there, I must tell of the other things I saw. INF C1 1-3 / DANTE Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, ché la diritta via era smarrita. INF C1 4-6 / DANTE Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte che nel pensier rinova la paura! INF C1 7-9 / DANTE Tant' è amara che poco è più morte; ma per trattar del ben ch'i' vi trovai, dirò de l'altre cose ch'i' v'ho scorte. THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF DIFFERENT ENGLISH VERSIONS OF [C1 1-3]. DANTE TRIES PERHAPS HALF A DOZEN FROM THOSE BELOW, PAUSING BETWEEN EACH. HE STILL DOES NOT KNOW WHICH WAY TO GO.

5 INF C1 1-3 / LONGFELLOW Midway upon the journey of our life I found myself within a forest dark, For the straightforward pathway had been lost. INF C1 1-3 / PHILLIPS Just halfway through this journey of our life I reawoke to find myself inside a dark wood, way off course, the right road lost. INF C1 1-3 / MUSA Midway along the journey of our life I woke to find myself in some dark woods, for I had wandered off from the straight path. INF C1 1-3 / HEANEY In the middle of the journey of our life I found myself astray in a dark wood where the straight road had been lost sight of. INF C1 1-3 / SINGLETON Midway in the journey of our life I found myself in a dark wood, for the straight way was lost. INF C1 1-3 / ELLIS Halfway through our trek in life I found myself in this dark wood, miles away from the right road. INF C1 1-3 / BOTTRALL Midway in human life's allotted span, I found myself in a dark wood, where the straight path I sought in vain. INF C1 1-3 / CARY In the midway of this our mortal life I found me in a gloomy wood, astray Gone from the path direct: 2 INF C1 1-3 / CIARDI Midway in our life's journey, I went astray from the straight road and woke to find myself alone in a dark wood. INF C1 1-3 / BICKERSTETH At midpoint of the journey of our life I woke to find me astray in a dark wood, perplexed by paths with the straight way at strife. INF C1 1-3 / ZIMMERMAN In the middle of our life's way I found myself in a wood so dark That I couldn't tell where the straight path lay. INF C1 1-3 / UNKNOWN One night, when half my life behind me lay, I wandered from the straight lost path afar. Through the great dark was no releasing way; INF C1 1-3 / BINYON Midway life's journey I was made aware That I had strayed into a dark forest, And the right path appeared not anywhere. INF C1 1-3 / MANDELBAUM When I had journeyed half of our life's way, I found myself within a shadowed forest, for I had lost the path that does not stray. INF C1 1-3 / SISSON Halfway along the road we have to go I found myself obscured in a great forest, Bewildered, and I knew I had lost the way. INF C1 1-3 / COTTER Halfway through the journey we are living I found myself deep in a darkened forest, For I had lost all trace of the straight path. INF C1 1-3 / NORTON Midway upon the journey of our life I found myself in a dark wood, where the right way was lost. INF C1 1-3 / PINSKY Midway on our life s journey, I found myself in dark woods, the right roads lost. HE SETTLES ON THE PROSE VERSION OF A. S. KLINE: INF C1 1-3 / DANTE Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita mi ritrovai per una selva oscura, ché la diritta via era smarrita. INF C1 4-6/ DANTE Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte che nel pensier rinova la paura! INF C1 7-9 / DANTE Tant' è amara che poco è più morte; ma per trattar del ben ch'i' vi trovai, dirò de l'altre cose ch'i' v'ho scorte. INF C1 1-3 / KLINE In the middle of the journey of our life, I came to myself, in a dark wood, where the direct way was lost. It is a hard thing to speak of, how wild, harsh and impenetrable that wood was, so that thinking of it recreates the fear. It is scarcely less bitter than death: but, in order to tell of the good that I found there, I must tell of the other things I saw there.

6 3 NIGHT SOUNDS * * * * * * * * * * INF C1 9 Night sounds suggest a savage place. AS THE MUSIC SOUNDS, DANTE IS RETURNED TO THE MOMENT WHEN HE LOST HIS WAY, THE BEGINNING OF HIS JOURNEY. INF C / DANTE Io non so ben ridir com' i' v'intrai, tant' era pien di sonno a quel punto che la verace via abbandonai. INF C / DANTE Ma poi ch'i' fui al piè d'un colle giunto, là dove terminava quella valle che m'avea di paura il cor compunto, INF C / DANTE guardai in alto e vidi le sue spalle vestite già de' raggi del pianeta che mena dritto altrui per ogne calle. INF C / DANTE Allor fu la paura un poco queta, che nel lago del cor m'era durata la notte ch'i' passai con tanta pieta. INF C / DANTE E come quei che con lena affannata, uscito fuor del pelago a la riva, si volge a l'acqua perigliosa e guata, INF C / DANTE così l'animo mio, ch'ancor fuggiva, si volse a retro a rimirar lo passo che non lasciò già mai persona viva. INF C / DANTE Poi ch'èi posato un poco il corpo lasso, ripresi via per la piaggia diserta, sì che 'l piè fermo sempre era 'l più basso. INF C / KLINE I cannot rightly say how I entered it. I was so full of sleep, at that point where I abandoned the true way. But when I reached the foot of a hill, where the valley, that had pierced my heart with fear, came to an end, I looked up and saw its shoulders brightened with the rays of that sun that leads men rightly on every road. Then the fear, that had settled in the lake of my heart,through the night that I had spent so miserably, became a little calmer. And as a man, who, with panting breath, has escaped from the deep sea to the shore, turns back towards the perilous waters and stares, so my mind, still fugitive, turned back to see that pass again, that no living person ever left. After I had rested my tired body a while, I made my way again over empty ground, always bearing upwards to the right. INF C / DANTE And, Behold!, almost at the start of the slope, a light swift leopard with spotted coat LEOPARD (PANTHER): FLORENCE OR WORLDLY PLEASURE, LUST OR ENVY Ed ecco, quasi al cominciar de l'erta, una lonza leggera e presta molto, che di pel macolato era coverta; INF C / DANTE Ed ecco, quasi al cominciar de l'erta, una lonza leggera e presta molto, che di pel macolato era coverta; And, Behold!, almost at the start of the slope, a light swift leopard Florence with spotted coat

7 INF C / DANTE e non mi si partia dinanzi al volto, anzi 'mpediva tanto il mio cammino, ch'i' fui per ritornar più volte vòlto. INF C / DANTE Temp' era dal principio del mattino, e 'l sol montava 'n sù con quelle stelle ch'eran con lui quando l'amor divino It would not turn from before my face, and so obstructed my path, that I often turned, in order to return. The time was at the beginning of the morning, and the sun was mounting up with all those stars that were with him when Divine Love 4 INF C / DANTE mosse di prima quelle cose belle; sì ch'a bene sperar m'era cagione di quella fiera a la gaetta pelle first moved all delightful things, so that the hour of day, and the sweet season, gave me fair hopes of that creature with the bright pelt. INF C / DANTE l'ora del tempo e la dolce stagione; ma non sì che paura non mi desse la vista che m'apparve d'un leone. LION: THE ROYAL HOUSE OF FRANCE, AND AMBITION OR PRIDE. But not so fair that I could avoid fear at the sight of a lion, ambition, that appeared, and which seemed INF C / DANTE Questi parea che contra me venisse con la test' alta e con rabbiosa fame, sì che parea che l'aere ne tremesse. INF C / DANTE Ed una lupa, che di tutte brame sembiava carca ne la sua magrezza, e molte genti fé già viver grame, SHE-WOLF: THE PAPACY & AVARICE INF C / DANTE questa mi porse tanto di gravezza con la paura ch'uscia di sua vista, ch'io perdei la speranza de l'altezza. INF C / DANTE E qual è quei che volontieri acquista, e giugne 'l tempo che perder lo face, che 'n tutti suoi pensier piange e s'attrista; INF C / DANTE tal mi fece la bestia sanza pace, che, venendomi 'ncontro, a poco a poco mi ripigneva là dove 'l sol tace. to come at me, with raised head and rabid hunger, so that it seemed the air itself was appeared afraid; and a she-wolf, avarice, that looked full of craving in its leanness, and, before now, has made many men live in sadness. She brought me such heaviness of fear from the aspect of her face, that I lost all hope of ascending. And as one who is eager for gain, weeps, and is afflicted in his thoughts, if the moment arrives when he loses, so that creature, without rest, made me like him: and coming at me, little by little, drove me back to where the sun is silent. DANTE SEES VIRGIL. VIRGIL BC AGE : 51? PUBLIUS VERGILIUS MARO, VIRGILIO PLACE./.LANGUAGE ETC VIRGIL (PUBLIUS VERGILIUS MARO) (70 19 BC), THE ROMAN POET, WAS BORN IN ANDES, NEAR MANTUA. HE GUIDES DANTE FROM L INFERNO 1 TO IL PURGATORIO 30. HE IS THE TYPE OF HUMAN PHILOSOPHY, WHICH GUIDES THE MIND FROM UNWORTHINESS TO BLISS. ECLOGUE 4 GAVE HIM REPUTE AS A PROPHET OF CHRIST. HIS AENEID LINKED, FOR DANTE, THE GREEK WORLD OF HOMER & TROY WITH THE ROMAN EMPIRE. INF C / KLINE While I was returning to the depths, one appeared, in front of my eyes, who seemed hoarse from long silence.

8 5 INF C / KLINE INF C / DANTE When I saw him in the great emptiness I cried Quando vidi costui nel gran diserto, out to him: Have pity on me, whoever you are, Miserere di me, gridai a lui, whether a man, in truth, or a shadow! qual che tu sii, od ombra od omo certo! Miserere di me, gridai a lui, qual che tu sii, od ombra od omo certo! INF C / DANTE Rispuosemi: «Non omo, omo già fui, e li parenti miei furon lombardi, mantoani per patrïa ambedui. INF C / DANTE Nacqui sub Iulio, ancor che fosse tardi, e vissi a Roma sotto 'l buono Augusto nel tempo de li dèi falsi e bugiardi. INF C / DANTE Poeta fui, e cantai di quel giusto figliuol d'anchise che venne di Troia, poi che 'l superbo Ilïón fu combusto. INF C1 73 / KLINE I was a poet, and sang of Aeneas, INF C / DANTE out to him: Have pity on me, whoever you are, whether a man, in truth, or a shadow! INF C / KLINE He answered me: Not a man: but a man I once was, and my parents were Lombards, and both of them, by their native place, Mantuans. I was born sub Julio though late, and lived in Rome, under the good Augustus, in the age of false, deceitful gods. I was a poet, and sang of Aeneas, that virtuous son of Anchises, who came from Troy when proud Ilium was burned. DANTE notes: INF C1 73 / DANTE Poeta fui, e cantai di quel giusto VIRGIL DECLAIMS. AENEID 1 1 / KLINE I sing of arms and the man AENEID 1 1 / VIRGIL Arma virumque cano VIRGIL POINTS IN TWO DIRECTIONS. INF C / KLINE INF C / DANTE But you, why do you You turn back towards Ma tu perché ritorni a tanta noia? such pain. Why do you not climb the delightful perché non sali il dilettoso monte mountain, that is the origin and cause of all joy? ch'è principio e cagion di tutta gioia? INF C / DANTE Ma tu perché ritorni a tanta noia? perché non sali il dilettoso monte ch'è principio e cagion di tutta gioia? INF C / DANTE Or se' tu quel Virgilio e quella fonte che spandi di parlar sì largo fiume?, rispuos' io lui con vergognosa fronte. INF C / DANTE O de li altri poeti onore e lume, vagliami 'l lungo studio e 'l grande amore che m'ha fatto cercar lo tuo volume. But you, why do you You turn back towards such pain. Why do you not climb the delightful mountain, that is the origin and cause of all joy? INF C / KLINE I answered him, with a humble expression: Are you then that Virgil, and that fountain, that pours out so great a river of speech? O, glory and light to other poets, may that long study, and the great love, that made me scan your work, be worth something now.

9 INF C / DANTE Tu se' lo mio maestro e 'l mio autore, tu se' solo colui da cu' io tolsi lo bello stilo che m'ha fatto onore. You are my master, and my author: you alone are the one from whom I learnt the high style that has brought me honour. 6 DANTE POINTS UP TO WHERE HE SAW THE SHE-WOLF. INF C / DANTE Vedi la bestia per cu' io mi volsi; aiutami da lei, famoso saggio, ch'ella mi fa tremar le vene e i polsi. INF C / DANTE A te convien tenere altro vïaggio, rispuose, poi che lagrimar mi vide, se vuo' campar d'esto loco selvaggio; INF C / DANTE ché questa bestia, per la qual tu gride, non lascia altrui passar per la sua via, ma tanto lo 'mpedisce che l'uccide; INF C / DANTE e ha natura sì malvagia e ria, che mai non empie la bramosa voglia, e dopo 'l pasto ha più fame che pria. or INF C / KLINE See the creature that I turned back from: O, sage, famous in wisdom, save me from her, she that makes my veins and my pulse tremble. INF C / KLINE When he saw me weeping, he answered: You must go another road, if you wish to escape this savage place. This creature that distresses you allows no man to cross her path, but obstructs him, to destroy him; and she has so vicious and perverse a nature, that she never sates her greedy appetite, and after food is hungrier than before. INF C / DANTE Molti son li animali a cui s'ammoglia, e più saranno ancora, infin che 'l veltro verrà, che la farà morir con doglia. Many are the creatures she mates with, and there will be many more, until the Greyhound Can Grande della Scala comes who will make her die in pain. GREYHOUND: PROBABLY THE GREAT GHIBELLINE LEADER CAN GRANDE DELLA SCALA, BORN IN VERONA, BETWEEN FELTRO IN VENETIA & MONTEFELTRO IN ROMAGNA. DANTE S LATER PATRON, HE MAY HAVE BEEN REGARDED BY DANTE AS THE DELIVERER WHO WOULD RESTORE IMPERIAL POWER, REINSTITUTE ROMAN LAW, ELIMINATE AVARICE, BRING PEACE & ESTABLISH A REFORMED ORDER OF THINGS. INF C1 102 / KLINE della Scala comes who will make her die in pain. INF C / DANTE Questi non ciberà terra né peltro, ma sapïenza, amore e virtute, e sua nazion sarà tra feltro e feltro. DANTE notes: INF C1 102 / DANTE verrà, che la farà morir con doglia. INF C / KLINE He will not feed himself on land or wealth, but on wisdom, love and virtue, and his birthplace will lie between Feltro and Feltro. INF C / DANTE Di quella umile Italia fia salute per cui morì la vergine Cammilla, Eurialo e Turno e Niso di ferute. He will be the salvation of that lower Italy for which virgin Camilla died of wounds and Euryalus, Turnus and Nisus. CAMILLA: A VIRGIN WARRIOR, THE ROMAN VERSION OF AN AMAZON, WHOSE DEATH IS DESCRIBED IN AENEID 11. EURYALUS: THE CLOSE COMRADE OF NISUS IN THE AENEID, NOTED FOR HIS BEAUTY. HIS DEATH IS DESCRIBED IN AENEID 9. TURNUS: YOUNG KING OF THE RUTULIANS, AN ITALIAN PEOPLE WITH THEIR CAPITAL AT ARDEA, SOUTH OF ROME, NOT FAR FROM MODERN ANZIO. HIS DEATH AT THE HANDS OF AENEAS IS DESCRIBED IN AENEID 12 & CONCLUDES THE WORK. AENEAS MARRIED LAVINIA, TURNUS S INTENDED BRIDE. NISUS: SON OF HYRTACUS, COMRADE OF EURYALUS. HE DIES AVENGING HIS DEATH IN AENEID 9. INF C / DANTE Questi la caccerà per ogne villa, fin che l'avrà rimessa ne lo 'nferno, là onde 'nvidia prima dipartilla. He will chase the she-wolf through every city until he has returned her to Hell, from which envy first loosed her.

10 7 INF C1 109 / KLINE DANTE notes: INF C1 109 / DANTE He will chase the she-wolf through every city, Questi la caccerà per ogne villa, INF C / DANTE Ond' io per lo tuo me' penso e discerno che tu mi segui, e io sarò tua guida, e trarrotti di qui per loco etterno; INF C1 113 / KLINE to follow me, and I will be your guide, INF C / DANTE ove udirai le disperate strida, vedrai li antichi spiriti dolenti, ch'a la seconda morte ciascun grida; INF C / DANTE e vederai color che son contenti nel foco, perché speran di venire quando che sia a le beate genti. INF C / DANTE A le quai poi se tu vorrai salire, anima fia a ciò più di me degna: con lei ti lascerò nel mio partire; SPIRIT FITTER: BEATRICE INF C / DANTE ché quello imperador che là sù regna, perch' i' fu' ribellante a la sua legge, non vuol che 'n sua città per me si vegna. INF C / DANTE In tutte parti impera e quivi regge; quivi è la sua città e l'alto seggio: oh felice colui cu' ivi elegge! INF C / DANTE E io a lui: Poeta, io ti richeggio per quello Dio che tu non conoscesti, acciò ch'io fugga questo male e peggio, INF C / DANTE che tu mi meni là dov' or dicesti, sì ch'io veggia la porta di san Pietro e color cui tu fai cotanto mesti. INF C / KLINE It is best, as I think and understand, for you to follow me, and I will be your guide, and lead you from here through an eternal space DANTE notes: INF C1 113 / DANTE che tu mi segui, e io sarò tua guida, INF C / KLINE where you will hear the desperate shouts, will see the ancient spirits in pain, so that each one cries out for a second death: and then you will see others at peace in the flames, because they hope to come, whenever it may be, among the blessed. Then if you desire to climb to them, there will be a spirit fitter than I am, to guide you, and I will leave you with her when we part, since the Lord, who rules above, does not wish me to enter his city, because I was rebellious to his law. He is lord everywhere, but there he rules, and there is his city, and his high throne: O, happy is he, whom he chooses to go there! INF C / KLINE And I to him: Poet, I beg you, by the God you did not acknowledge, lead me where you said, so that I might escape this evil or worse and see the Gate of St Peter and those whom you make out to be so saddened. VIRGIL MOVES OFF. DANTE STAYS AND CLOSES THE CANTO. INF C / KLINE and see the Gate of St Peter, and those whom you make out to be so saddened. INF C / DANTE che tu mi meni là dov' or dicesti, sì ch'io veggia la porta di san Pietro e color cui tu fai cotanto mesti. INF C1 136 / KLINE Then he moved: and I moved on behind him.

11 8 CANTO 2 INF C2 1-3 / DANTE Lo giorno se n'andava, e l'aere bruno toglieva li animai che sono in terra da le fatiche loro; e io sol uno INF C2 4-6 / DANTE m'apparecchiava a sostener la guerra sì del cammino e sì de la pietate, che ritrarrà la mente che non erra. INF C2 1-3 / KLINE The day was going, and the dusky air was freeing the creatures of the earth, from their labours, and I, one, alone, prepared prepare myself to endure the inner war of the journey and its pity, that the mind, without error, shall recall. DANTE OPENS HIS BOOK AND CALLS TO TWO PARTS OF THE SKY. INF C2 7-9 / KLINE O Muses, O high invention, aid me, now! O memory, that has engraved what I saw, here your nobility will be shown. INF C2 7 / DANTE O muse, o alto ingegno, or m'aiutate; INF C2 7-9 / DANTE O muse, o alto ingegno, or m'aiutate; o mente che scrivesti ciò ch'io vidi, qui si parrà la tua nobilitate. O Muses, O high invention, aid me, now! THE MUSES AGE : YOUNG PLACE./.LANGUAGE ETC GREECE. DESCRIPTION THE 9 GODDESSES WHO INSPIRE HUMANITY, AND MAIM, DESTROY OR TRANSFORM INTO BIRDS ANY HUMAN WHO CHALLENGES THEIR SUPREMACY. NAME SYMBOL DOMAIN INTEREST CALLIOPE (CALLIOPEIA) Writing tablet Epic Poetry Philosophy CLIO Scroll History the Alphabet ERATO Lyre Love Poetry EUTERPE Double flute Music MELPOMENE Tragic mask Tragedy Chanting POLY(HY)MNIA Pensive mask; finger at mouth Sacred Poetry Geometry TERPSICHORE Dancing figure Dancing THALIA (THALEIA) Comic mask Comedy URANIA (OURANIA) [Staff points to] globe or stars Astronomy Prophecy RESPONSE TO INVOCATION: OVERTURE * * * * * * * * * * INF C2 7 CHORUS OR MUSES ONLY Ancient or Archaic Greek Music, becoming Christian. DANTE CALLS OUT TO VIRGIL.

12 9 INF C / DANTE Io cominciai: Poeta che mi guidi, guarda la mia virtù s'ell' è possente, prima ch'a l'alto passo tu mi fidi. INF C / DANTE Tu dici che di Silvïo il parente, corruttibile ancora, ad immortale secolo andò, e fu sensibilmente. INF C / DANTE Però, se l'avversario d'ogne male cortese i fu, pensando l'alto effetto ch'uscir dovea di lui, e 'l chi e 'l quale INF C / DANTE non pare indegno ad omo d'intelletto; ch'e' fu de l'alma Roma e di suo impero ne l'empireo ciel per padre eletto: INF C / DANTE la quale e 'l quale, a voler dir lo vero, fu stabilita per lo loco santo u' siede il successor del maggior Piero. INF C / DANTE Per quest' andata onde li dai tu vanto, intese cose che furon cagione di sua vittoria e del papale ammanto. INF C / DANTE Andovvi poi lo Vas d'elezïone, per recarne conforto a quella fede ch'è principio a la via di salvazione. INF C / KLINE I began: Poet, who guides me, examine my virtue, see if I am fitting, before you trust me to the steep way. You say that Aeneas, the father of Sylvius, while still corruptible flesh, went to the eternal world and in his senses. But if God, who opposes every evil, was gracious to him, thinking of the noble consequence of who and what should derive from him, then that does not seem unreasonable to a man of intellect, since he was chosen to be the father of benign Rome and of her empire. Both of them were founded as a sacred place, where the successor of the great Peter is enthroned. By that journey, by which you graced him, Aeneas learned things that were the source of his victory and of the Papal Mantle. Afterwards Paul, the Chosen Vessel, went there, to bring confirmation of the faith that is the entrance to the way of salvation. INF C / DANTE Ma io, perché venirvi? o chi 'l concede? But why should I go there? Who allows it? Io non Enëa, io non Paulo sono; I am not Aeneas, I am not Paul. Neither I, me degno a ciò né io né altri 'l crede. nor others, think me worthy of it. INF C / DANTE Per che, se del venire io m'abbandono, temo che la venuta non sia folle. Se' savio; intendi me' ch'i' non ragiono. So, if I resign myself to going, I fear that going there may prove foolish: you know and understand better than I can say. DANTE BEGINS VERSIFYING. INF C / KLINE And I rendered myself, on that dark shore, like one who unwishes what he wished, and changes his purpose in new thinking, so that he leaves off what he began, completely, since in thought I consumed action that had been so ready to begin. INF C / DANTE E qual è quei che disvuol ciò che volle e per novi pensier cangia proposta, sì che dal cominciar tutto si tolle, INF C / DANTE tal mi fec' ïo 'n quella oscura costa, perché, pensando, consumai la 'mpresa che fu nel cominciar cotanto tosta. VIRGIL INTERRUPTS HIM.

13 INF C / DANTE «S'i' ho ben la parola tua intesa», rispuose del magnanimo quell' ombra, «l'anima tua è da viltade offesa; INF C2 44 / KLINE The ghost of the generous poet replied: INF C / KLINE The ghost of the generous poet replied: If I have understood your words correctly, your spirit is attacked by cowardly fear, DANTE notes: INF C2 44 / DANTE rispuose del magnanimo quell' ombra, 10 INF C / DANTE la qual molte fïate l'omo ingombra sì che d'onrata impresa lo rivolve, come falso veder bestia quand' ombra. INF C / DANTE Da questa tema acciò che tu ti solve, dirotti perch' io venni e quel ch'io 'ntesi nel primo punto che di te mi dolve. INF C / DANTE Io era tra color che son sospesi, e donna mi chiamò beata e bella, tal che di comandare io la richiesi. INF C / KLINE that often weighs men down, so that it deflects them from honourable action, like a creature seeing phantoms in the dusk. That you may shake off this dread yourself, I will tell you why I came, and what I heard at the first moment when I took pity on you. I was among those, in Limbo, in suspense, and a lady called to me, so blessed, so beautiful that I begged her to command me. DANTE EXCLAIMS WITH FEELING. INF C2 53 / KLINE and a lady called to me, she so blessed, so beautiful INF C2 53 / DANTE e donna mi chiamò beata e bella, INF C / KLINE Her eyes shone more brightly than the stars, and she began to speak, gently, quietly, in an angelic voice, in her language: BE-A-TRI-CE MOTIF * * * * * * * * * * INF C2 53 Four notes, representing the syllables of the name in Italian: Be a tri ce ( blessed ). In later segments the motif may be developed. BEATRICE (BICE DI FOLCO PORTINARI) 1266? AGE : 24 PLACE./.LANGUAGE ETC BORN IN FLORENCE, BICE DI FOLCO PORTINARI (BEATRICE) WAS FIRST SEEN BY DANTE WHEN SHE WAS 8 YEARS OLD & HE WAS 9. HIS LOVE FOR HER INSPIRED THE VITA NUOVA & THE DIVINE COMEDY., IN WHICH SHE REPRESENTS DIVINE PHILOSOPHY. DESCRIPTION HER VOICE IS FROM HEAVEN [INF C ]. INF C / KLINE O noble Mantuan spirit, whose fame still endures in the world, and will endure as long as time endures, BEATRICE: INF C / DANTE O anima cortese mantoana, di cui la fama ancor nel mondo dura, e durerà quanto 'l mondo lontana,

14 11 DANTE SPEAKS WITH SHOCK, JOY AND TENDERNESS. Bea Beatrice! Bice!...Beatrice! HE RECOVERS A LITTLE AND SPEAKS MORE FORMALLY BUT STILL WITH PASSION. my lady La donna mia THIS PHRASE OCCURS IN DANTE S MOST FAMOUS LYRIC, A SONNET ABOUT BEATRICE. (JOSEPH TUSIANI: THIS MOST HARMONIOUS AND BEAUTIFUL SONNET HAS ACHIEVED DANTE S POETIC GOAL OF THE HIGHEST FORM OF LOVE POETRY EMBODIED IN THE THE STILNOVISTIC CREDO.) LA VITA NOVA 26 SONNET DANTE / MUSA Tanto gentile e tanto onesta pare la donna mia quand'ella altrui saluta, ch'ogne lingua deven tremando muta, e li occhi no l'ardiscon di guardare. Ella si va, sentendosi laudare, benignamente d'umiltà vestuta; e par che sia una cosa venuta da cielo in terra a miracol mostrare. Mostrasi sì piacente a chi la mira, che dà per li occhi una dolcezza al core, che 'ntender no la può chi no la prova: e par che de la sua labbia si mova un spirito soave pien d'amore, che va dicendo a l'anima: Sospira. [INF C34 139] GIVES DANTE S NOTE Such sweet decorum and such gentle grace attend my lady's greeting as she moves that lips can only tremble into silence, and eyes dare not attempt to gaze at her. Moving, benignly clothed in humility, untouched by all the praise along her way, she seems to be a creature come from Heaven to earth, to manifest a miracle. Miraculously gracious to behold, her sweetness reaches, through the eyes, the heart (who has not felt this cannot understand), and from her lips it seems there moves a gracious spirit, so deeply loving that it glides into the souls of men, whispering: "Sigh!" LA DONNA MIA STARTS DANTE COMPOSING, MOSTLY SILENTLY. AT THE FINALE OF THE CANTICLE [INF C34 139] HE RECITES THE WHOLE SONNET TO BEATRICE. VIRGIL MODESTLY TRANSLATES BEATRICE S TRIBUTE TO HIMSELF. INF C / DANTE O anima cortese mantoana, di cui la fama ancor nel mondo dura, e durerà quanto 'l mondo lontana, INF C / DANTE l'amico mio, e non de la ventura, ne la diserta piaggia è impedito sì nel cammin, che vòlt' è per paura; INF C / DANTE e temo che non sia già sì smarrito, ch'io mi sia tardi al soccorso levata, per quel ch'i' ho di lui nel cielo udito. INF C / KLINE O noble Mantuan spirit, whose fame still endures in the world, and will endure as long as time endures., BEATRICE: INF C / KLINE my My friend, not fortune s friend, is so obstructed in his way, along the desert strand, that he turns back in terror, and I fear he is already so far lost, that I have started too late to his aid, from what I heard of him in heaven.

15 INF C / DANTE Or movi, e con la tua parola ornata e con ciò c'ha mestieri al suo campare, l'aiuta sì ch'i' ne sia consolata. I am Beatrice who asks you to go: I come from a place I long to return to: love moved me that made me speak. INF C / DANTE I' son Beatrice che ti faccio andare; vegno del loco ove tornar disio; amor mi mosse, che mi fa parlare. Now go, and help him so, with your eloquence, and with whatever is needed for his relief, that I may be comforted. INF C / DANTE I' son Beatrice che ti faccio andare; vegno del loco ove tornar disio; amor mi mosse, che mi fa parlare. I am Beatrice who asks you to go: I come from a place I long to return to: love moved me that made me speak. 12 THE ITALIAN PRONUNCIATION OF BEATRICE SHOULD BE USED FROM HERE, EVEN WHEN THE NAME IS QUOTED IN THE ENGLISH VERSION. INF C / DANTE Quando sarò dinanzi al segnor mio, di te mi loderò sovente a lui. Tacette allora, e poi comincia' io: INF C / DANTE O donna di virtù sola per cui l'umana spezie eccede ogne contento di quel ciel c'ha minor li cerchi sui, INF C / DANTE tanto m'aggrada il tuo comandamento, che l'ubidir, se già fosse, m'è tardi; più non t'è uo' ch'aprirmi il tuo talento. INF C / DANTE Ma dimmi la cagion che non ti guardi de lo scender qua giuso in questo centro de l'ampio loco ove tornar tu ardi". INF C / DANTE "Da che tu vuo' saver cotanto a dentro, dirotti brievemente", mi rispuose, "perch' i' non temo di venir qua entro. INF C / DANTE Temer si dee di sole quelle cose c'hanno potenza di fare altrui male; de l'altre no, ché non son paurose. INF C / DANTE I' son fatta da Dio, sua mercé, tale, che la vostra miseria non mi tange, né fiamma d'esto 'ncendio non m'assale. INF C / DANTE Donna è gentil nel ciel che si compiange di questo 'mpedimento ov' io ti mando, sì che duro giudicio là sù frange. GENTLE LADY: MARY BEATRICE: INF C / KLINE When I am before my Lord, I will often praise you to him. Then she was silent, and I began: INF C / KLINE O lady of virtue, in whom, alone, humanity exceeds all that is contained in the lunar heaven, which has the smallest sphere, your command is so pleasing to me, that, obeying, were it done already, it were done too slow: you have no need to explain your wishes further. But tell me why you do not hesitate to descend here, to this centre below, from the wide space you burn to return to. BEATRICE: INF C / KLINE She replied: Since you wish to know, I will tell you this much, briefly, of why I do not fear to enter here. Those things that have the power to hurt are to be feared: not those other things that are not fearful. I am made such, by God s grace, that your suffering does not touch me, nor does the fire of this burning scorch me. There is a gentle lady in heaven, who has such compassion, for this trouble I send you to relieve, that she overrules the strict laws on high.

16 13 INF C / DANTE Questa chiese Lucia in suo dimando e disse:--or ha bisogno il tuo fedele di te, e io a te lo raccomando--. She called St Lucy Lucia to carry out her request, and said: Now, he who is faithful to you, needs you, and I commend him to you. ST LUCY: VIRGIN MARTYR OF SYRACUSE, IN THE THIRD CENTURY AD, TRADITIONALLY ASSOCIATED WITH LIGHT & VISION. SHE IS DANTE S PATRON SAINT (HE HAD WEAKENED EYESIGHT) & IS FOR HIM THE SYMBOL OF ILLUMINATING GRACE. INF C / DANTE Lucia, nimica di ciascun crudele, si mosse, e venne al loco dov' i' era, che mi sedea con l'antica Rachele. INF C / DANTE Disse: Beatrice, loda di Dio vera, ché non soccorri quei che t'amò tanto, ch'uscì per te de la volgare schiera? INF C / DANTE Non odi tu la pieta del suo pianto, non vedi tu la morte che 'l combatte su la fiumana ove 'l mar non ha vanto? Lucy, who is opposed to all cruelty, rose and came to the place where I was, where I sat with that Rachel of antiquity. Lucy said: Beatrice, God s true praise, why do you not help him, who loved you, so intensely, he left behind the common crowd for you? Do you not hear how pitiful his grief is? Do you not see the spiritual death that comes to meet him, on that dark river, over which the sea has no power? BEATRICE TREMBLES WITH EMOTION. INF C / DANTE Al mondo non fur mai persone ratte a far lor pro o a fuggir lor danno, com' io, dopo cotai parole fatte, INF C / DANTE venni qua giù del mio beato scanno, fidandomi del tuo parlare onesto, ch'onora te e quei ch'udito l'hanno". BEATRICE: INF C / KLINE No one on earth was ever as quick to search for their good, or run from harm, as I to descend, from my blessed place, after these words were spoken, and place my faith in your true speech, that honours you and those who hear it. DANTE BOWS REVERENTLY. LA VITA NOVA my lady, when she greets a passer-by, l. 2 / DANTE SONNET / TUSIANI SONNETTO? Tanto gentile La donna mia quand ella altrui saluta, INF C / KLINE She turned away, with tears in her bright eyes, after saying this to me, and made me, by that, come here all the quicker: DANTE TAKES A STEP FORWARD AND SPEAKS WITH TENDERNESS AND GRIEF. Beatrice! Bea! INF C / DANTE E venni a te così com' ella volse: rescued d'inanzi a quella fiera ti levai che del bel monte il corto andar ti tolse. Beatrice! Bice! INF C / KLINE and And so I came to you, as she wished, and you in the face of that the wild creature that denied you the shortest path to the lovely mountain.

17 INF C / DANTE Dunque: che è? perché, perché restai, perché tanta viltà nel core allette, perché ardire e franchezza non hai, INF C / DANTE poscia che tai tre donne benedette curan di te ne la corte del cielo, e 'l mio parlar tanto ben ti promette?». 14 Dunque What is it then? Why, do you hold back? Why let such cowardly fear into your heart? Why, when three such blessed ladies in the courts of heaven care for you, and my words promise you so much good, are you not free and ardent? INF C / KLINE As the flowers, bent down and closed, by the night s cold, erect themselves, all open, on their stems, when the sun shines on them, so I rose from weakened courage: and so fine an ardour coursed through my heart, that I began to speak, like one who is freed: INF C / DANTE «Oh pietosa colei che mi soccorse! e te cortese ch'ubidisti tosto a le vere parole che ti porse! INF C / DANTE Tu m'hai con disiderio il cor disposto sì al venir con le parole tue, ch'i' son tornato nel primo proposto. INF C / DANTE Or va, ch'un sol volere è d'ambedue: tu duca, tu segnore e tu maestro. Così li dissi; e poi che mosso fue, INF C / KLINE O she, who pities, who helps me; and you, so gentle, who swiftly obeyed the true words she commanded, you have filled my heart with such desire, by what you have said, to go forward, that I have turned back to my first purpose. Go now, for the two of us have but one will, you, the guide, the lord, the master. So I spoke to him, and he going on, DANTE CLOSES THE CANTO. INF C / KLINE Go now, for the two of us have but one will, you, the guide, the lord, the master. INF C2 140 / KLINE I entered on the steep, tree-shadowed way. INF C / DANTE Or va, ch'un sol volere è d'ambedue: tu duca, tu segnore e tu maestro. INF C2 140 / DANTE intrai per lo cammino alto e silvestro. CANTO 3 THE GATE OF HELL INFERNAL: SOFT, BECOMING LOUDER * * * * * * * * * * INF C3 1 Infernal: dire but without sounds of suffering humans.

18 15 INF C / DANTE Queste parole di colore oscuro vid' ïo scritte al sommo d'una porta; per ch'io: «Maestro, il senso lor m'è duro». INF C / KLINE These were the words, with their dark colour, that I saw written above the gate, at which I said: Master, their meaning, to me, is hard. see the words with their dark colour above the Gate. A LOUD, DIRE NOTE SOUNDS. INF C3 1-3 / KLINE INF C3 1-3 / DANTE THROUGH ME TO THE ETERNAL CITY: Per me si va ne la città dolente, THROUGH ME TO ETERNAL SADNESS: per me si va ne l'etterno dolore, THROUGH ME TO THE LOST PEOPLE. per me si va tra la perduta gente. INF C3 1-3 / DANTE Per me si va ne la città dolente, per me si va ne l'etterno dolore, per me si va tra la perduta gente. INF C3 1-3 / KLINE THROUGH ME TO THE ETERNAL CITY: THROUGH ME TO ETERNAL SADNESS: THROUGH ME TO THE LOST PEOPLE. Alternative: THIS WAY FOR THE SORROWFUL CITY: THIS WAY FOR ETERNAL SUFFERING: THIS WAY TO JOIN THE LOST PEOPLE. DANTE BEGINS READING. VIRGIL STARTS JUST AFTER HIM. INF C3 4-6 / DANTE Giustizia mosse il mio alto fattore; fecemi la divina podestate, la somma sapïenza e 'l primo amore. & INF C3 4-6 / KLINE JUSTICE MOVED MY SUPREME MAKER: I WAS SHAPED BY DIVINE POWER, BY HIGHEST WISDOM, AND BY PRIMAL LOVE. INF C3 7-8 / DANTE Dinanzi a me non fuor cose create se non etterne, e io etterno duro. BEFORE ME, NOTHING WAS CREATED THAT IS NOT ETERNAL: AND ETERNAL I ENDURE. VIRGIL AND DANTE FINISH TOGETHER. INF C3 9 / DANTE Lasciate ogne speranza, voi HERE. ch'intrate'. or: & INF C3 9 / KLINE FORSAKE ALL HOPE, ALL YOU THAT ENTER ABANDON ALL HOPE, YOU WHO ENTER HERE. INFERNAL: LOUD NOTE * * * * * * * * * * INF C3 9

19 INF C / DANTE Ed elli a me, come persona accorta: «Qui si convien lasciare ogne sospetto; ogne viltà convien che qui sia morta. INF C / KLINE And he replied to me, as one who knows: Here, all uncertainty must be left behind: all cowardice must be dead. Come with me. 16 INF C KLINE We have come to the place where I told you that you would see the sad people who have lost the good of the intellect. And placing his hand on mine, with a calm expression, that comforted me, he led me towards the hidden things. INF C KLINE Here sighs, complaints, and deep groans, sounded through the starless air, so that it made me weep at first. Many tongues, a terrible crying, words of sadness, accents of anger, voices deep and hoarse, with sounds of hands amongst them, making a turbulence that turns forever, in that air, stained, eternally, like sand spiralling in a whirlwind. MISERABLE MODE * * * * * * * * * * INF C3 15 from C3 22, sighs, complaints, deep groans; many tongues, a terrible crying, words of sadness, accents of anger, voices deep & hoarse, with sounds of hands amongst them, making a turbulence that turns forever, in that air, stained, eternally, like sand spiralling in a whirlwind. INF C / DANTE E io ch'avea d'error la testa cinta, dissi: «Maestro, che è quel ch'i' odo? e che gent' è che par nel duol sì vinta?». INF C / DANTE Ed elli a me: «Questo misero modo tegnon l'anime triste di coloro che visser sanza 'nfamia e sanza lodo. INF C3 36 / KLINE who lived without praise, without blame. INF C / DANTE Mischiate sono a quel cattivo coro de li angeli che non furon ribelli né fur fedeli a Dio, ma per sé fuoro. INF C / DANTE Caccianli i ciel per non esser men belli, né lo profondo inferno li riceve, ch'alcuna gloria i rei avrebber d'elli». INF C / DANTE E io: «Maestro, che è tanto greve a lor che lamentar li fa sì forte?». INF C3 45 / DANTE Rispuose: «Dicerolti molto breve. INF C / KLINE And I, my head surrounded by the horror, said: Master, what is this I hear, and what race are these that seem so overcome by suffering? INF C / KLINE And he to me: This is the miserable mode in which those exist who lived without praise, without blame. INF C3 36 / DANTE che visser sanza 'nfamia e sanza lodo. INF C / KLINE They are mixed in with the despised choir of angels, those not rebellious, not faithful to God, but for themselves. Heaven drove them out to maintain its beauty, and deep Hell does not accept them, lest the evil have glory over them. INF C / KLINE And I: Master, what is so heavy on them, that makes them moan so deeply? INF C3 45 / KLINE He replied: I will tell you, briefly.

20 17 INF C / DANTE Questi non hanno speranza di morte, e la lor cieca vita è tanto bassa, che 'nvidïosi son d'ogne altra sorte. INF C / DANTE Fama di loro il mondo esser non lassa; misericordia e giustizia li sdegna: non ragioniam di lor, ma guarda e passa». They have no hope of death, and their darkened life is so mean that they are envious of every other fate. Earth allows no mention of them to exist: mercy and justice reject them: let us not talk of them, but look and pass. INF C / KLINE And I, who looked back, saw a banner, that twirling round, moved so quickly, that it seemed to me scornful of any pause, DANTE MURMURS INF C / KLINE and behind it came so long a line of people, I never would have believed that death INF C / DANTE e dietro le venìa sì lunga tratta di gente, ch'i' non averei creduto INF C / DANTE e dietro le venìa sì lunga tratta di gente, ch'i' non averei creduto INF C / KLINE and behind it came so long a line of people, I never would have believed that death THEN SPEAKS CLEARLY. INF C / DANTE di gente, ch'i' non averei creduto che morte tanta n'avesse disfatta. INF C / KLINE I never would have believed that death had undone so many. AFTER A WHILE INF C / KLINE and behind it came so long a line of people, I never would have believed that death had undone so many. INF C / DANTE e dietro le venìa sì lunga tratta di gente, ch'i' non averei creduto che morte tanta n'avesse disfatta. AFTER ANOTHER WHILE INF C / DANTE Poscia ch'io v'ebbi alcun riconosciuto, vidi e conobbi l'ombra di colui che fece per viltade il gran rifiuto. INF C / KLINE When I had recognised some among them, I saw see and knew know the shade of him who from cowardice made the great refusal : Pope Celestine. THE SHADE OF HIM: CELESTINE V, SAINT & POPE: PIETRO DA MORRONE, A SAINTLY HERMIT FROM THE ABRUZZI, WAS COMPELLED TO BECOME POPE BY THE CARDINALS IN 1294, AT THE AGE OF EIGHTY. FIVE MONTHS LATER, WORN OUT, HE ABDICATED AND WAS CONFINED BY HIS SUCCESSOR, BONIFACE VIII, TILL HIS DEATH IN HE WAS CANONISED IN INF C3 60 / KLINE who from cowardice made the great refusal. DANTE notes: INF C3 60 / DANTE che fece per viltade il gran rifiuto.

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