# Performance Pillar. P1 Performance Operations. Wednesday 28 August 2013

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3 The following data are given for sub-questions 1.3 and 1.4 below A company is estimating its costs based on past information. The total costs incurred by the company at different levels of output were as follows: Output (units) Total costs \$ 160,000 2,420, ,000 2,775, ,000 2,840,000 The company uses the high-low method to separate total costs into their fixed and variable elements. Ignore inflation. 1.3 The estimated total costs for an output of 205,000 units is: A \$2,870,000 B \$3,050,000 C \$3,064,211 D \$3,080,857 (2 marks) 1.4 The company has now established that there is a stepped increase in fixed costs of \$30,000 when output reaches 180,000 units. The estimate of total costs for an output of 175,000 units using the additional information is: A \$2,645,000 B \$2,275,000 C \$2,615,000 D \$2,630,000 (2 marks) Section A continues on the next page TURN OVER September Performance Operations

4 1.5 A company is considering investing in a project with an expected life of four years. The project has a positive net present value of \$280,000 when cash flows are discounted at 12% per annum. The project s estimated cash flows include net cash inflows of \$320,000 for each of the four years. No tax is payable on projects of this type. The percentage decrease in the estimated annual net cash inflows that would cause the company s management to reject the project from a financial perspective is, to the nearest 0.1%: A 87.5% B 21.9% C 3.5% D 28.8% (2 marks) 1.6 A bond has a coupon rate of 6% per annum and will repay its face value of \$100 on its maturity in four years time. The yield to maturity on similar bonds is 4% per annum. The annual interest has just been paid for the current year. Required: Calculate the expected market value of the bond at today s date. (3 marks) 1.7 A company has annual sales revenues of \$30 million and the following working capital periods: Inventory conversion period Accounts receivable collection period Accounts payable payment period 2.5 months 2.0 months 1.5 months Required: Production costs represent 70% of sales revenue. Calculate the total amount held in working capital excluding cash and cash equivalents. (3 marks) Performance Operations 4 September 2013

5 1.8 A company uses 40,000 units of a particular item of inventory each year. Demand is predictable and spread evenly throughout the year. Ordering costs are \$70 per order and the cost of holding one unit in inventory is \$1.40 per annum. Required: (i) Calculate the economic order quantity (EOQ). (2 marks) (ii) Calculate the total annual ordering and holding costs for the inventory item assuming the company uses the EOQ and no buffer inventory is held. (2 marks) (Total for sub-question 1.8 = 4 marks) (Total for Section A = 20 marks) Reminder All answers to Section A must be written in your answer book. Answers to Section A written on the question paper will not be submitted for marking. End of Section A. Section B begins on page 6 TURN OVER September Performance Operations

6 SECTION B 30 MARKS [You are advised to spend no longer than 9 minutes on each sub-question in this section.] ANSWER ALL SIX SUB-QUESTIONS. YOU SHOULD SHOW YOUR WORKINGS AS MARKS ARE AVAILABLE FOR THE METHOD YOU USE. Question Two (a) A company, when deciding its cash management policy, has to balance the costs of holding insufficient cash with the costs of holding cash. The motives for holding cash can be categorised as follows: Transaction motive Precautionary motive Speculative motive Required: Explain the three categories of motives for holding cash given above. (5 marks) (b) A company has to decide which of three mutually exclusive projects to undertake. The directors believe that success of the projects will depend on consumer reaction. There is a 25% chance that consumer reaction will be strong, a 40% chance that consumer reaction will be good and a 35% chance that consumer reaction will be weak. The company uses expected value to make this type of decision. The net present value for each of the possible outcomes is as follows: Consumer reaction Project A Project B Project C \$000s \$000s \$000s Strong 1,000 1,600 1,200 Good Weak Required: A market research company believes it can provide perfect information on consumer reaction. Calculate the maximum amount that should be paid for the information from the market research company. (5 marks) (c) Explain the potential benefits for a company from using a just-in-time (JIT) production system. (5 marks) Performance Operations 6 September 2013

7 (d) CD has annual sales revenue of \$2,007,500 and trade receivables of \$330,000 which represent 60 days sales based on a 365 day year. Sales and trade receivables are expected to continue at the same level for the next year. CD pays interest on its overdraft at a rate of 10% per annum. Required: CD is considering the use of non-recourse factoring to manage its trade receivables. The factor will pay 80% of the trade receivable when a credit sale is made and the remaining 20% when the cash is received from the customer. It is estimated that, as a result of the factor s expertise, cash will be received from customers in 50 days. The factor will charge interest at a rate of 12% per annum on cash advanced and a fee of 2% of annual sales revenue. CD estimates that credit control costs will be reduced by \$30,000 each year if the factor is used. Calculate whether it is financially beneficial for the company to use the factor. (5 marks) (e) A supplier of pre-packed sandwiches is trying to decide how many batches of sandwiches should be prepared for each day. Any sandwiches prepared and not sold are thrown away at the end of the day. Each batch of sandwiches can be sold for \$100 and has a variable cost of \$40. It is estimated that demand will be 20, 21, 22 or 23 batches each day and therefore a minimum of 20 batches and a maximum of 23 batches will be prepared per day. The management accountant has started to produce a pay-off table showing the contribution for the possible outcomes as follows: Number of batches prepared Demand 20 batches 21 batches 22 batches 23 batches 20 batches \$1,200 \$1,160 \$1,120 \$1, batches \$1,200 \$1,260 \$1,220 \$1, batches 23 batches Required: (i) Calculate the figures that are required to complete the pay-off table. (2 marks) (ii) Apply the minimax regret criterion to determine the number of batches that should be prepared each day. (3 (3 marks) (Total for sub-question (d) = 5 marks) (f) Explain the differences between activity based budgeting and incremental budgeting. (5 marks) (Total for Section B = 30 marks) End of Section B. Section C begins on page 8 September Performance Operations

8 SECTION C 50 MARKS [You are advised to spend no longer than 45 minutes on each question in this section.] ANSWER BOTH QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION. EACH QUESTION IS WORTH 25 MARKS. YOU SHOULD SHOW YOUR WORKINGS AS MARKS ARE AVAILABLE FOR THE METHOD YOU USE. Question Three DE is a distributor of three models of Tablet PCs (Premium, Deluxe and Superfast) to retailers. The details of the sales volume budget, standard selling prices and standard variable costs for each model for July were as follows: Sales volume budget Premium Deluxe Superfast 7,000 units 5,000 units 8,000 units Premium Deluxe Superfast \$ per unit \$ per unit \$ per unit Standard selling price Standard variable cost At the end of July the senior management of the company decided that the impact of the failure of a major competitor had been underestimated and produced a revised sales volume budget as follows: Revised sales volume budget Premium Deluxe Superfast 9,800 units 7,000 units 11,200 units Actual results for July Premium Deluxe Superfast Sales volume (units) 11,000 6,000 9,000 Selling price per unit \$410 \$440 \$520 Variable cost per unit \$300 \$320 \$350 Performance Operations 8 September 2013

9 Required: (a) (b) Prepare a statement that reconciles the original budgeted contribution with the actual contribution for July, including planning and operational variances. Your statement should show the variances in as much detail as possible for each individual model, and in total. (13 marks) Explain why separating the sales volume variance into a sales mix and a sales quantity variance will provide useful information for the company s sales manager. You should use the variances calculated in (a) to illustrate your answer. (6 marks) (c) Explain why separating variances into their planning and operational components provides better information for planning and control purposes. (6 marks) (Total for Question Three = 25 marks) Section C continues on the next page TURN OVER September Performance Operations

10 Question Four A car rental company is considering setting up a division to provide chauffeur driven limousines for weddings and other events. The proposed investment will include the purchase of a fleet of 20 limousines at a cost of \$200,000 each. It is estimated that the limousines will have a useful life of five years and a resale value of \$30,000 each at the end of their useful life. The company uses the straight line method of depreciation. Revenue and variable costs Each limousine will be hired to customers for \$800 per day. The variable costs, including fuel, cleaning and the chauffeur s wages, will be \$300 per day. The limousines will be available for hire 350 days of the year. A market specialist was hired at a cost of \$20,000 to estimate the demand for the limousines in Year 1. The market specialist estimated that each limousine will be hired for 260 days in Year 1 and that the number of days hire will increase by 10 days each year for the remaining life of the project. Fixed costs Each limousine will incur fixed costs, including maintenance and depreciation, of \$45,000 a year. The administration of the division is expected to cost \$300,000 each year. The garaging of the limousines will not require any additional investment but will utilise existing facilities for which there is no other use. The head office will charge the division an annual fee of 10% of sales revenue for the use of these facilities. Taxation The company s financial director has provided the following taxation information: Tax depreciation: 25% per annum of the reducing balance, with a balancing adjustment in the year of disposal. The limousines will be eligible for tax depreciation. Taxation rate: 30% of taxable profits. Half of the tax is payable in the year in which it arises, the balance is paid in the following year. Other information Ignore inflation. The company uses a cost of capital of 12% per annum to evaluate projects of this type. Performance Operations 10 September 2013

11 Required: (a) Evaluate whether the company should go ahead with the project. You should use net present value as the basis of your evaluation. (14 marks) The company is also carrying out a review of its existing car rental business. The company is deciding whether it should replace the cars that it uses after one, two or three years. The cars will not be kept longer than three years due to the higher risk of breakdowns. The estimated relevant cash flows for the three possible options for each car can be obtained from the following information: Year Cash outflows Residual Value \$ \$ 0 (30,000) 1 (1,500) 21,000 2 (2,700) 15,000 3 (3,600) 9,000 The company uses a cost of capital of 12% for decisions of this type. Required:. (b) (c) Calculate, using the annualised equivalent method, whether the cars should be replaced after one, two or three years. You should ignore taxation and inflation. Explain the limitations of the annualised equivalent method for making decisions to replace non-current assets. (7 marks) (4 marks) (Total for Question Four = 25 marks) (Total for Section C = 50 marks) End of question paper Maths tables and formulae are on pages 13 to 16 September Performance Operations

13 PRESENT VALUE TABLE Present value of \$1, that is 1 r n where r = interest rate; n = number of periods until payment or receipt. Periods Interest rates (r) (n) 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% Periods Interest rates (r) (n) 11% 12% 13% 14% 15% 16% 17% 18% 19% 20% September Performance Operations

14 Cumulative present value of \$1 per annum, Receivable or Payable at the end of each year for n years n 1 (1 r ) r Periods (n) Interest rates (r) 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% Periods (n) Interest rates (r) 11% 12% 13% 14% 15% 16% 17% 18% 19% 20% Performance Operations 14 September 2013

15 FORMULAE PROBABILITY A B = A or B. A B = A and B (overlap). P(B A) = probability of B, given A. Rules of Addition If A and B are mutually exclusive: P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) If A and B are not mutually exclusive: P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) Rules of Multiplication If A and B are independent:: P(A B) = P(A) * P(B) If A and B are not independent: P(A B) = P(A) * P(B A) E(X) = (probability * payoff) DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Arithmetic Mean x x n fx x (frequency distribution) f Standard Deviation SD INDEX NUMBERS ( x x) n SD fx x (frequency distribution) f Price relative = 100 * P 1/P 0 Quantity relative = 100 * Q 1/Q 0 P1 w P o Price: x 100 w Q1 w Q o Quantity: x 100 w TIME SERIES Additive Model Multiplicative Model Series = Trend + Seasonal + Random Series = Trend * Seasonal * Random September Performance Operations

16 FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Compound Interest (Values and Sums) Future Value S, of a sum of X, invested for n periods, compounded at r% interest S = X[1 + r] n Annuity Present value of an annuity of \$1 per annum receivable or payable for n years, commencing in one year, discounted at r% per annum: PV = r [1 r ] n Perpetuity Present value of \$1 per annum, payable or receivable in perpetuity, commencing in one year, discounted at r% per annum: PV = r 1 LEARNING CURVE Y x = ax b where: Y x = the cumulative average time per unit to produce X units; a = the time required to produce the first unit of output; X = the cumulative number of units; b = the index of learning. The exponent b is defined as the log of the learning curve improvement rate divided by log 2. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Economic Order Quantity where: C o = cost of placing an order EOQ = 2C D C h = cost of holding one unit in inventory for one year D = annual demand C o h Performance Operations 16 September 2013

19 LIST OF VERBS USED IN THE QUESTION REQUIREMENTS A list of the learning objectives and verbs that appear in the syllabus and in the question requirements for each question in this paper. It is important that you answer the question according to the definition of the verb. LEARNING OBJECTIVE VERBS USED DEFINITION Level 1 - KNOWLEDGE What you are expected to know. List Make a list of State Express, fully or clearly, the details/facts of Define Give the exact meaning of Level 2 - COMPREHENSION What you are expected to understand. Describe Communicate the key features Distinguish Highlight the differences between Explain Make clear or intelligible/state the meaning or purpose of Identify Recognise, establish or select after consideration Illustrate Use an example to describe or explain something Level 3 - APPLICATION How you are expected to apply your knowledge. Level 4 - ANALYSIS How are you expected to analyse the detail of what you have learned. Level 5 - EVALUATION How are you expected to use your learning to evaluate, make decisions or recommendations. Apply Calculate Demonstrate Prepare Reconcile Solve Tabulate Analyse Categorise Compare and contrast Construct Discuss Interpret Prioritise Produce Advise Evaluate Recommend Put to practical use Ascertain or reckon mathematically Prove with certainty or to exhibit by practical means Make or get ready for use Make or prove consistent/compatible Find an answer to Arrange in a table Examine in detail the structure of Place into a defined class or division Show the similarities and/or differences between Build up or compile Examine in detail by argument Translate into intelligible or familiar terms Place in order of priority or sequence for action Create or bring into existence Counsel, inform or notify Appraise or assess the value of Advise on a course of action September Performance Operations

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