1 THE COLLAPSE OF THE DOHA ROUND OF THE WTO AND THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1 By Durval de Noronha Goyos 2 The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 1947, like other international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Organization of the United Nations (UN), was formatted with a view of promoting the perceived interests of a cluster of developed countries, in accordance with the economic and political doctrines of the so-called neo-liberalism prevalent at the time of their inception in the United States of America (USA) and in the United Kingdom (UK). In the days following the end of the Second World War ( ), a polarization of forces took place between the USA and its supporters, on the one side, and those of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), on the other, in the cold war. This situation left the developing countries, which comprised then, as now, the vast majority of the world s population, as pawns of the two blocks. In the area of international trade, the diktat of the USA in the development of the multilateral system, through the rounds of negotiations based on the most-favored nation clause (MFN), had been absolute until 1979, with the conclusion of the Tokyo Round of the GATT. By the early 80s, however, the economies of the countries of the now European Union (EU) and of Japan had fully recovered from the devastating effects of the Second World War. As a result, these countries became gradually more internationally competitive and, accordingly, the US participation in world trade fell dramatically. The share of US products in world exports fell from 17 percent in 1950 to 11 percent in Accordingly, the USA resorted to a series of unilateral measures and protectionist actions, all against the legal order of the multilateral trading system it had inspired, with a view to minimizing its huge trade deficits. In 1985, the US Congress started working on a new trade bill looking for fair trade rather than free trade. 1 Basic text of the presentation made for the post-graduation students of the Central University of China, Beijing, People s Republic of China, November 6, Admitted as a lawyer in Brazil, England and Wales (solicitor) and Portugal. Founder and senior partner of Noronha Advogados, a global firm in São Paulo, Brazil with offices in Shanghai, China; London, UK; Lisbon, Portugal, Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Miami, USA.GATT, WTO and CIETAC arbitrator. Co-coordinator of the post-graduation programmes in international law and the law of international trade at the EPD, São Paulo, Brazil. Author of 42 books on international law and international trade relations.
2 Japan, in particular, became together with developing countries in general, the greatest victim of the truculence of US trade policy. One example in particular well illustrates the pressures of the times. Unable to impose quotas against Japanese imports, as quotas were deemed to be illegal under GATT rules, the USA, with a view to circumventing such impediments, bullied Japan to imposing on itself the voluntary export restraints, by which Japan would voluntarily limit its access to the open US markets 3. That explained why Japan was then the first country other than the USA, since the beginning of the multilateral trade system in 1947, to have asked for a new round of trade negotiations of the GATT, in an attempt to increase the juridicity in commercial relations. Undisturbed, the USA, rather than feeling intimidated by the initiative, decided very expediently to co-opt the opportunity for its own benefit. The US economy had become increasingly dependent on services, which represented, in the early 80s almost 70 percent of the country s GDP. In addition, the country was the world s largest investor abroad and its companies owned the majority of the extant intellectual property rights. Accordingly, the USA supported the idea of a new round of negotiations and proposed the inclusion of the so-called new areas : services, investments and intellectual property. The EU followed suit supporting the US view and the Japanese concurred. Thus, the Uruguay Round of the GATT was launched in September 1986, in Uruguay, by 72 countries. However, sudden opposition came from unsuspected quarters. A group of 10 developing countries led by Brazil and India (the Group of 10) objected to the inclusion of the new areas into the multilateral trade system whilst agriculture and textiles remained excluded. This exclusion was caused by the USA in 1947 because its negotiators believed that the country would lose its comparative advantage in those sectors very shortly. The Group of 10 made the following arguments concerning the inclusion of the new areas in the multilateral trade system: a) No new areas should be added whilst agriculture and textiles remained excluded; b) Developing countries would become buyers and not sellers of services; and c) Developing countries would become forced recipients of inadequate technologies. 3 Durval de Noronha Goyos, ARBITRATION IN THE WTO, Legal Observer, INC., 2003, Miami, Florida, page 27 et seq.
3 Great acrimony ensued and progress on the talks was stalled. The resistance posed by the Group of 10 lasted until 1991, when they succumbed to the very many pressures put against them by the USA and its allies, unrestrained now after the collapse that year of the USSR. In the efforts to destabilize the developing countries, the USA had the assistance of the IMF and of the World Bank. The Uruguay Round was closed in April of 1994, with the execution of the relevant treaties, by representatives of the 125 countries which participated in the negotiations. The treaties governed regulation of all the new areas, in accordance with the wishes and drafting of the hegemonic powers. Developing countries, as a rule, had been virtually forced by the main powers and the multilateral agencies controlled by them to leberalise trade unilaterally before the closing of the Road, and thus had little to gain from it. By the end of the Uruguay Round, in 1993, an ominous analysis of the World Bank had already indicated that the results of the negotiations would benefit developed countries by 64 percent and developing countries by 36 percent 4 Reality proved much worse. In accordance with subsequent studies by the IMF and the UN, developed countries reaped 73 and 80 percent, against 27 and 20 percent respectively by developing countries. Developing countries have approximately 80 percent of the world s population. This imbalance was more acute in the new areas and promoted a major growth of export of services by developed countries to the tune of 10 percent per year for the USA, 6 percent for the EU and 5 percent for Japan, against a modicum for developing countries. The fears of the Group of 10 were abundantly justified. In addition, the framework of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) comprised predominantly services provided by developed countries, largely excluding those originated in developing countries, which faced draconian horizontal barriers in the movement of their service providers. If that was not enough, the GATS did not contemplate safeguards, as in the case of trade in goods, which left the domestic service industries at the mercy of the rapacious predators from developed countries. On the other hand, the Agreement on Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) was introduced mostly as a result of the pressures from the lobby of US and European pharmaceutical 4 I. Goldin et al, Trade Liberalization: Global Economic Implications (1993, The World Bank and the OECD).
4 companies unhappy with the balanced work of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) which sought to promote the protection of the property rights together with the absorption of technology by developing countries. Developed countries, contrarily, wanted to promote intellectual property as an absolute value and wished to have sanctions against the violations of such cannons as they would insert in the TRIPS. Accordingly, the TRIPS enshrined intellectual property rights above those of human rights and matters of public policy. In addition, whilst the TRIPS addressed all demands from the pharmaceutical companies lobby, it failed miserably from tracking the very important issues of bio-piracy and of traditional medicine, important for developing countries, amongst others. On the other hand, the Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) outlawed all matters of internal support for the nascent industries of developing countries. Most such measures as important substitution, commitments for export and obligations of national content had been promoted by other multilateral organizations, such as the UN. Developing countries had put considerable hope in the reform of the dispute resolution system of the multilateral trade regime, as they had been historically the victims of unilateral arbitrary action. However, the new Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) drafted by Anglo American specialists failed to meet expectations because of its many short comings, including the lack of enforcement power. In addition, the operations of the system were soon to be controlled by the intelligence communities of the hegemonic powers. It is true that the Uruguay Round succeeded in putting the end of the odious Multi-Fiber Agreement, which allowed for a system of import quotas, normally granted with a hefty political price, within sight. Accordingly, the quota system was dismantled after 10 years, in In agriculture, however, the success was very limited, as the sector was only nominally and at long last included in the multilateral trade system, by means of the Agreement on Agriculture. However, the Agreement on Agriculture allowed for the maintenance of the vast amount of subsidies disbursed by developed countries, which were prohibited in other sectors. Furthermore, the Agreement on Agriculture failed to provide for a clause on safeguards, with a view to protecting the domestic sectors of those countries affected by loss of competitiveness from imports, especially those leveraged by subsidies.
5 Thus, by the end of the 90s, the conviction of international public opinion was very well both founded and established to the effect the World Trade Organization (WTO), which had been created in 1995, was an institution that promoted the economic interests of the few (developed countries) to the detriment of many (developing nations). It was within this state of spirit that a new round of trade negotiations failed to be launched in the in the ministerial meeting of Seattle in year 2000, when the force of international public opinion alone prevented further abuses to the rights of developing countries. The tireless strategists of developed countries, however, soon found a way to present a repackaged framework of a new process of negotiations to be called The Development Round which should address issues of interest to developing countries. The agenda, however, was to be that of interest to developed countries. Accordingly in October of 2001, in Doha, Qatar, the so-called Doha Round was launched. Once again, the respective agenda had been prepared by and for the exclusive benefit of developed countries. Developing countries, once again led by the Brazilian and Indians, opposed no restrictions. The new agenda failed to address the important and necessary reforms of the GATS, TRIPs, TRIMs, DSU, and on the Agreement on Subsidies. Therefore, the new round of negotiations of the WTO would address the following topics: a) tariff reduction of industrialized products; b) further liberalization of access in services; and c) Agriculture. Of course, developed countries had a proactive agenda in promoting further tariff reductions of industrialized products by developing countries, as well as greater market access in those markets for its service providers. In the case of tariffs on industrialized products, developed countries already had a very low average, so that on the defensive side they had little to lose other than their tariffs peaks, which they sought to protect. With respect to services, developed countries sought greater access for even further advantages. On the defensive side, they had only to maintain their horizontal barriers on immigration, by actually preventing the provision of services by nationals of developing countries. In agriculture, developed countries had only a defensive agenda, in that they sought to maintain their scandalous levels of subsidies and prevent further changes in the Agreement on Agriculture which would affect the enormous imbalance in their favor.
6 When the People s Republic of China acceded to the WTO on the 11 th December 2001, after 15 years of arduous negotiations and many concessions, its negotiations found the agenda already defined for the new round of the WTO. The interests of developing counties were now defended by the Group of 20, which had the original base of the Group of 10 of the Uruguay Round, now expanded with new members including China and South Africa, which had acceded to the WTO after democratization in Developing countries soon realized that with the agenda agreed in 2001, they would inexorably only come out of the Doha Round, once again, as losers. Then, the traditional game of procrastination ensued in which difficulties were created to avoid the conclusion of the round, that would materialise the disadvantages enshrined in the official agenda. Early in 2008, both the USA and EU, through the new Farm Bill and budget for the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP), respectively, sought to present a fait accompli to their trade partners, establishing the levels of agricultural subsidies for the next 5 years. Subsequently, before the ministerial meeting of June 2008, both EU and the USA afforded small concessions in the level of agreed subsidies in exchange for the conclusion of the round. However, both developed countries demanded a reduction of agricultural tariffs from India and China, a major concession for the developing countries, as massive subsidies would continue to be disbursed by the USA and the EU. China and India even proposed to accept such demands, in case a regime of safeguards similar to that existing for industrialized products would be put in place. This was rejected by the USA. Therefore, the negotiations collapsed as result of a failure to reach a compromise. In the financial crisis that originated in the USA and in the United Kingdom towards September of 2008, such countries reacted to the collapse of their financial markets and of numerous financial institutions unilaterally, without recourse to any of the post-war multilateral institutions or even political co-ordination. The measures adopted originally by the USA and the UK, and subsequently separately by other European countries, outside the framework of the EU, were inconsistent with the neo-liberal order that informed their economies and the multilateral institutions. Accordingly, governments started to buy shares in banks for prices above those of the market; to nationalize financial institutions; to buy financial assets for prices above those of the market; and to guarantee obligations which the private financial institutions could not meet. Of course, all those measures represented not only the negation of the market economy doctrines, but were also inconsistent with the legal order of the multilateral trade regime. Therefore, a crisis of the multilateral
7 institutions became evident, not only because of inadequate representation of the developing countries and excessive power in the hands of the irresponsible leadership of developed nations, but also for lack of an new doctrine in substitution of that of the now defunct neo-liberalism. What is worse is that, when the financial crisis reaches the real economy, such measures of support will be also given to manufacturing companies, which will probably start a trade war of illegal subsidies and other measures inconsistent with the present legal order of the multilateral trade system. This situation presents the risks that a hard core of developed countries will try to maneuver the international efforts to address the crisis with a view to having developing countries paying the price of the recuperation of their economies. On the other hand, the crisis brings the opportunity for developing countries to cooperate more intensively in the formatting of a multilateral system which is not only more equitable, but also more effective. It is not to be surprising if, on the G-20 summit to be held in Washington, D.C., USA, on November 15, 2008, developed countries try to insert, amongst the recommendations to deal with the crisis, the revival of the Doha Round according to the original agenda. This should be eschewed in favor of a complete reformulation of the multilateral trade system. Thank you very much.
Chapter 2 NATIONAL TREATMENT PRINCIPLE 1. OVERVIEW OF RULES National treatment (GATT Article III) stands alongside MFN treatment as one of the central principles of the WTO Agreement. Under the national
Chapter 6 DEVELOPING COUNTRIES How the WTO deals with the special needs of an increasingly important group 1. Overview About two thirds of the WTO s around 150 members are developing countries. They play
Chapter 1 MOST-FAVOURED-NATION TREATMENT PRINCIPLE OVERVIEW OF RULES Most-Favoured-Nation ( MFN ) treatment requires Members to accord the most favourable tariff and regulatory treatment given to the product
OPEN MARKETS FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT Fast Facts In 2008, more than 38 million jobs in America more than one in five depended on international trade exports and imports. 1 In 1992, a year
WTO AGREEMENTS GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES (GATS) Alison Burrows Director, Services Trade and Negotiations Section Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Canberra, Australia What is a service?
Page 1 The System: Objectives - Procedures - Experience Workshop at the Model WTO 2003 Thomas A. Zimmermann St. Gallen (Switzerland), [updated in September 2003] Thomas A. Zimmermann The Swiss Institute
FOOD SECURITY AND GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION Samarendu Mohanty Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA E. Department of Agricultural
Unit 1 Chapter 5 5 The United States and the Global Economy Chapter Objectives Key Facts About U.S. International Trade Comparative Advantage, Specialization, and International Trade How Exchange Rates
Side-by-side Comparison of the 2014 and 2015 TPA Bills ***Prepared by Ways and Means Committee Democratic Staff*** A comparison of the Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities Act of 2014 (Baucus-Hatch-Camp)
12 Globalization and International Trade Globalization refers to the growing interdependence of countries resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, people, and ideas in one global marketplace.
American Model United Nations United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Report to the General Assembly on Commodities CONTENTS Chapter Heading Page Executive Summary 3 I Matters calling for action
ECO 352 Spring 2010 No. 23 Apr. 27 INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS FOR TRADE LIBERALIZATION BASIC ISSUE PRISONERS' DILEMMA All countries stand to benefit from liberalization: Trade enables more efficient resource
Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Master s of International and Development Economics Why did the Doha Round fail? Prospects of a Development-friendly Solution Workshop Trade Policies in International
Trade Barriers Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D. Economic Basis for Trade Distribution of Economic Resources Different Technologies Goods are Differentiated as to Quality and other Non - price Attributes
GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS International Domain [Type the author name] GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS Fundamental Economic Concepts SSEF3 The student will explain how specialization
Skip to content Français Español Search: Contact us Site map A-Z Hom e About WT O News an d events Trade topi cs WTO membershi p Document s and resources WT O and you home > wto news > 2014 press releases
World 5 The the Global Economy 5-1 Chapter Objectives World Key Facts About U.S..,,. How Rates are Determined in Currency s. How Why Sometimes Interferes with Free. Role Played by Free- Zones the WTO in
C ENTER FOR I NTERNATIONAL E NVIRONMENTAL L AW BRIEF ON THE TREATMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN THE DOHA WTO MINISTERIAL DECLARATION: MANDATED NEGOTIATIONS AND REVIEWS BY DAVID VIVAS EUGUI 1 FEBRUARY,
WTO Turnaround 2013: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Development First Statement August 2013 After more than three decades of experience with a corporate-led model of globalization, it is clear that this particular
Summary Oxfam International Concerns With Initialled Interim EPA Texts Friday, 07 December 2007 Over the past two weeks, a number of Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (Interim EPA) have been initialled
EU initiative on the Access to the EU Public Procurement markets A Tool to Regain Leverage Anders C. Jessen Head of Unit, Public Procurement and Intellectual Property, DG Trade, European Commission Content
Mexico Trade and Economic Overview (June 2015) 1. Economic performance The Mexican economy is highly concentrated in services, accounting for 62% of GDP, then industry 34% and agriculture only 4%. Mexico
CHAPTER 6 BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT TRADE RELATIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. Describe the political, economic, and cultural motives behind governmental intervention in trade. 2. List and explain the methods governments
ENTRY OF FOREIGN LAW FIRMS IN INDIA Mukul Gupta & Diljeet Titus, Advocates INTRODUCTION A debate is ongoing for over a decade now as to whether or not foreign law firms should be allowed to provide legal
FOREWORD The 1997 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers (NTE) is the twelfth in an annual series that surveys significant foreign barriers to U.S. exports. In accordance with section
Balance of Payments The Balance of Payments, the Exchange Rate, and Trade Policy The balance of payments is a country s record of all transactions between its residents and the residents of all foreign
6: Business-Government Trade Relations 1 C H A P T E R S I X Business-Government Trade Relations 6 Learning Objectives Describe the political, economic, and cultural motives behind governmental intervention
Global Economic Issues and Policies First edition Chapter 5 Regionalism and Multilateralism PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright 2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning. All rights reserved. 1.
Sale of t h e C e n t u ry? Proposals for a positive sustainable trade agenda Trade should be gender-fair, equitable, environmentally sustainable, and just. There should be a redistribution of resources
SUBMISSIONS TO THE PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE ON TRADE & INDUSTRY ON THE PROMOTION AND PROTECTION OF INVESTMENT BILL, 2015 ANGLO AMERICAN SOUTH AFRICA LIMITED 15 September 2015 ABOUT ANGLO AMERICAN SOUTH AFRICA
PROTOCOL ON THE ACCESSION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA Preamble The World Trade Organization ("WTO"), pursuant to the approval of the Ministerial Conference of the WTO accorded under Article XII of
The EU s new investment policy agenda Prof. Markus Krajewski University of Erlangen-Nürnberg ITAP UNCTAD Annual Capacity Building Program International Investment Agreements: Negotiating for Sustainable
LEGAL REGIMES GOVERNING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) IN HOST COUNTRIES SRIJANEE BHATTACHARYYA SLAUGHTER AND MAY Type: Published: Last Updated: Keywords: Legal Guide November 2012 November 2012 Foreign
IMF Quota Reform: The Singapore Agreements Santiago Fernández de Lis Theme: This document analyses the changes in the quotas of certain countries as agreed at the annual meeting of the International Monetary
Investing in Renewable Energies A guide to investment treaty protections available to investors in the Arab Republic of Egypt Investing in Renewable Energies in the Arab Republic of Egypt The Arab Republic
What factors have contributed to globalisation in recent years? by Maziar Homayounnejad, Queen Elizabeth's School, Barnet. Globalisation can be defined: as the growing interdependence of world economies.
Global Economy Journal Volume 5, Issue 4 2005 Article 1 Perspectives on the WTO Doha Development Agenda Multilateral Trade Negotiations Overview: Perspectives on the WTO Doha Development Agenda Multilateral
Brussels, 5 May 2014 BACKGROUND 1 FOREIGN AFFAIRS COUNCIL - TRADE ISSUES Thursday 8 May in Brussels The Council will take note of progress on the remaining technical issues to be resolved on a comprehensive
Economic Policy Vignette 2012-11-04 A New Form of Services Trade Agreement Moving Ahead in Geneva: The International Services Agreement J. Robert Vastine November 2012 J. Robert Vastine is a Senior Industry
Brief on Sri Lanka s Position on the Key Issues of the Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration While Sri Lanka shares most of the characteristics and concerns of a typical low income developing country it has
PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE UK THE CONSERVATIVES PROPOSALS FOR CHANGING BRITAIN S HUMAN RIGHTS LAWS HUMAN RIGHTS IN CONTEXT Britain has a long history of protecting human rights at home and standing
July 3, 2014 The Trans-Atlantic Business Council (TABC) welcomes the opportunity to comment on the European Commission public consultation on investment protection and investor-to-state dispute settlement
LEGAL AID ADVISORY COMMITTEE REVIEW INTO ESTABLISHING A CONTINGENCY LEGAL AID FUND IN NORTHERN IRELAND WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF PERSONAL INJURY LAWYERS 1. The Association of Personal Injury
EDRi s Red lines on TTIP January 2015 European Digital Rights Rue Belliard 20, 1040 Brussels www.edri.org @EDRi tel. +32 (0) 2 274 25 70 ABOUT EDRI European Digital Rights is a network of 34 privacy and
The FDI regime in Brazil has been fairly open during the last decades. Except in specific situations in the legislation or as a manner to circumvent FDI limitations, there is no distinction between established
By Gareth R Thomas & Corbett Haselgrove- Spurin CONTENTS Page Topic 1 Aims and Objects Introduction What is ADR? Mediation 2 Ground rules for mediation 3 Steps in a mediation Advantages of mediation Why
Centre for the Analysis of Regional Integration at Sussex Qualitative analysis of a potential Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and India Executive Summary Centre for the Analysis of Regional
To kindle interest in economic affairs... To empower the student community... Open YAccess www.sib.co.in firstname.lastname@example.org A monthly publication from South Indian Bank 18th Year of Publication SIB STUDENTS
Intellectual Property and Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment Case Studies Recent TRIPS-related developments in the rest of the world In developing countries Until now, India, Brazil and Thailand have been among
POSITION PAPER May 2015 TTIP: the sustainability chapter KEY MESSAGES 1 pr in ci 2 pl e 3 p ur 4 p o 5 s e a n d fu n ct io The main objective of TTIP is to boost trade and investments between the European
The World Trade Organization......In brief, the World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations. Its main function is to ensure
WTO NEWS: SPEECHES DG ROBERTO AZEVÊDO 24 March 2015 Regional initiatives cannot substitute for the multilateral trading system Azevêdo Director-General Roberto Azevêdo, in a lecture at the Stockholm School
November 10, 2015 TABC Position Statement on European Commission s Draft Text on Investment Protection and an Investment Court System in TTIP On 16 September, the European Commission introduced a draft
State Aid, Subsidy and Tax Incentives under EU and WTO Law Claire Micheau 0 Wolters Kluwer Law & Business Summary of Contents About the Author Table of Contents List of Abbreviations Acknowledgements vii
27 August 2015 Practice Group(s): Tax Italian Tax Reform New legislation on abuse of law and statute of limitations By Vittorio Salvadori di Wiesenhoff The Italian Government has recently approved a new
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STATEMENT ON THE DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA: Failure is Not an Option January 15 th 2007 The Doha Development Round: Failure is Not an Option Business stakeholders from across the globe
THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES (GATS) Application to Health and Social Services Trade in Services Division WTO 1 Structure of the WTO Goods Services Int. property Dispute settlement Basic principles
ANNUAL 2008 SESSION OF THE PARLIAMENTARY CONFERENCE ON THE WTO Geneva, 11-12 September 2008 Organized jointly by the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the European Parliament Item 3(a) PC-WTO/2008/3(a)-R.2
DOCUMENTI IAI REVIVING THE DOHA ROUND by Jeffrey J. Schott Note presented at the Instituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) and Embassy of the United States International Workshop on The Transatlantic Relations
12 Negotiating for Brazil The beginning In the 1980s, intellectual property rights (IPRs) reappeared as one of the top items in discussions on international trade. In my view, some factors would explain
Edna dos Santos-Duisenberg (email@example.com) Chief, Creative Economy Programme Euro-African Campus for Cultural Cooperation, Maputo, June 2009 1 Context and Objective First UN multi-agency report
The EU s Common Agricultural Policy and the WTO Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Georg-August University Göttingen 1 Outline 1. The Common Agricultural
January 2015 Study by the Ifo Institute, Munich, and the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IAW), Tübingen commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Page 1 of 5 Will Bulgaria Remain a "Quiet Place" for Higher Education? Bulgarian higher education fails to compete successfully either within the EU or with the US. It is lagging behind in terms of available
RESOLUTION (Adopted on Committee Two of CNMUN 2010) Council: UN Human Rights Council Committee Two Topic: the Impact of Financial Crisis on the Universal Realization and Effective Enjoyment of Human Rights
The Honorable Michael Froman Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Adviser for International Economic Affairs The White House Washington, DC 20504 USA Ambassador Ron Kirk U.S. Trade Representative
NORONHA ADVOGADOS GLOBAL LAWYERS São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Brasília Curitiba Recife Belo Horizonte Campo Grande London Lisbon Shanghai Beijing Miami Buenos Aires Johannesburg New Delhi Opportunities and
10 benefits of the WTO trading system From the money in our pockets and the goods and services that we use, to a more peaceful world the WTO and the trading system offer a range of benefits, some well-known,
Regionalism and the World Trading System Lawrence H. Summers Increasing economic integration has been one of the major forces driving the world economy's impressive growth over the last fortyfive years.
Chapter 17 review Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following resulted in a retaliation by the United States of
EMB-Position on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership - TTIP I TTIP negotiations have to stop The TTIP puts the EU at risk in its economical, ecological and social dimension. Sovereignty and
Curriculum Guide I. Goals and Objectives A. Understand the importance of exports and imports to agriculture and how risk management is affected. B. Understand factors causing exports to change. C. Understand
386 REGULATIONS FOR THE POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION AND DISPUTE SETTLEMENT (PDipArb) (See also General Regulations) Admission requirements LL75 To be eligible for admission to the
1 Sensitive Agricultural Products in the EU under the Doha Round Huan-Niemi E. 1 1 MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Economic Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland. Abstract EU agricultural products are examined
The Global Trading System Edited by Kym Anderson Professor of Ecohomics and Director, Centre for International Economic Studies, University of Adelaide and Bernard Hoekman Senior Economist, International
ENVIRONMENTAL AND PRODUCT SAFETY CASES IN THE WTO WTO Research Center of AGU William J. Davey * I. Introduction A. The World Trade Organization - Background - result of Uruguay Round negotiations 1986-1994
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION Negotiating Group on Market Access TN/MA/W/18/Add.6 28 January 2005 (05-0371) Original: English U.S. PROPOSAL ON NEGOTIATING NTBS RELATED TO THE AUTOMOBILE SECTOR Communication
Page 71 ETSI Guidelines for Antitrust Compliance Version adopted by Board #81 on 27 January 2011 A Introduction ETSI, with over 700 member companies from more than 60 countries, is the leading body for
National Energy Policies on Trial at the WTO Nilmini Silva-Send EPIC (Energy Policy Initiatives Center) University of San Diego School of Law Western Energy Policy Conference September 4, 2013 World Trade
International Chamber of Commerce The world business organization Policy statement Commission on Trade and Investment Policy World business and the multilateral trading system ICC policy recommendations
Balance of Competences Review: Trade and Investment August 2013 2013 The Law Society. All rights reserved. Balance of Competences Consultation Response: Trade and Investment August 2013 I. UK membership
CHAPTER 13: International Law, Norms, and Human Rights MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Why did the former Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, state that the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 was illegal?
Testimony of Peter Allgeier President Coalition of Services Industries (CSI) Hearing On International Data Flows: Promoting Digital Trade in the 21st Century House Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee
Presentation on behalf of Centre for Applied Legal Studies, Wits University (CALS) & Partners to the UN Working Group on Business and Human Rights Open Consultation on National Action Plans on Business
Licensing Options for Internet Service Providers June 23, 2001 Updated September 25, 2002 Some countries require Internet Service Providers ( ISPs ) to obtain government- issued licenses before commencing
CGD Brief Trading Up: Trade Policy and Global Poverty By William R. Cline* Summary: The trade ministers of WTO-member countries will soon meet in Cancun, Mexico, to review progress in the current round
TRADE AND FOOD SECURITY: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Jonathan Brooks, OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate Sahel and West Africa Week, Forum, 7th December, Ouagadougou Main message: open markets can improve
Theoretical and Applied Economics Volume XVIII (2011), No. 8(561), pp. 75-82 Law Antimonopoly of China a Model of European Inspiration Cornelia LEFTER Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies firstname.lastname@example.org
1 The Business of Higher Education in England Ken Jones Since the devolution of some political power from London to Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland in the late 1990s, education in the 4 territories