Development goals through a gender lens: The case of education

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1 Development goals through a gender lens: The case of education Albert Motivans Institute for Statistics Gender Equality and Progress in Societies OECD, 12 March 2010

2 World Gender parity index by level of education, 1999 and 2008 (Millennium Development Goals) Developed Countries Eurasia CIS Latin America&Carib. Northern Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Oceania World Developed Countries Eurasia CIS Latin America&Carib. Northern Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Oceania World Developed Countries Eurasia CIS Latin America&Carib. Northern Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Eastern Asia Southern Asia South-Eastern Asia Western Asia Oceania Primary education Secondary education Tertiary education Note: Provisional data Source: UIS, 2010

3 Accessing data that provide a gender dimension Tools Analytic questions Data sources Type of measure UIS Data Centre How do girls and boys progress within education systems? Administrative School surveys Student achievement Supply-side (service providers) Deprivation and Marginalization in Education (DME) -- EFA Global Monitoring Report How do markers of disadvantage interact to exclude girls and boys from educational opportunity? Household survey data Demandside (service users)

4 The difficult journey through primary school The example of Malawi Girls 100 Primary school entry age pupils Boys 100 Measuring Universal Primary Education Enrolment data provide only a partial insight Net intake rate Survival to grade 5 Minimum reading mastery Measures of intake, progression, completion and learning provide better measures of overall progress and gender issues Source: UIS, 2008

5 Gender differences in exposure to schooling among out of primary school children, Sub-Saharan Africa 100 South and West Asia Never enrols Enters late Drops out Never enrols Enters late Drops out Girls 12 Boys 10 0 Girls Boys Source: UIS, 2009

6 Income level and educational opportunity in Ethiopia, 2000 Ethiopia 2000: School attendance by age and HH wealth Richest Poorest Attendance rate (%) Primary Secondary Higher None DK/Missing Source: DHS Ethiopia, 2000

7 Percent Proportion of population in India with at least five years of education by year of birth Year of birth Male Richest quintile male Poorest quintile male Female Richest quintile female Poorest quintile female Data source: India DHS. Source: DHS India,

8 Philippines Turkey Vietnam Egypt Kenya Congo India Nigeria Yemen Nepal Pakistan Morocco Senegal Chad Burkina Faso Share of the population with less than 4 and less than 2 years of education The education poverty threshold The wealth effect: People from the poorest households who are in education poverty Education poverty In Yemen, the poorest 20% of households have an education poverty incidence double the national average The gender effect: Girls from the poorest households who are in education poverty People with less than 4 years of education Extreme education poverty People with less than 2 years of education And, for girls from the poorest 20% of households, the proportion triples. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2010

9 Overlapping disadvantage influence years in school Extreme education poverty % with less than 2 years of education (age 17-22) Nigeria, poor, Hausa, girls 8% 17% 25% Kenya, rural, Somali, girls Ghana 20% 31% 57% 73% 84% Pakistan, rural, Sindhi, girls 97% 96%, northern region, rural, girls India, poor, Uttar Pradesh, girls In Kenya, 96% of rural Somali girls (aged 17-22) have less than 2 years of education. The primary net attendance rate for Somali girls is only 30%. Country average Group average Source: EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2010

10 Further data on gender and education Global Education Digest 2010 Digest focuses on gender and education, release in Summer Digest focused on gender issues in higher education and field of study, access at: UIS Data Centre Hundreds of education indicators disaggregated by gender and gender parity indices updated three times a year, access at: DME database - EFA Global monitoring report Interactive tool to see how long children are spending in school, and who are getting left behind, access at:

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