Financing Education for All in Sub Saharan Africa: Progress and Prospects

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1 Financing Education for All in Sub Saharan Africa: Progress and Prospects Albert Motivans Education for All Working Group Paris, 3 February 211 1

2 Improving the coverage and quality of education finance data Capacity development with national planners in sub Saharan Africa Producing finance indicators project in 1 countries in sub Saharan Africa Supported by bilateral donor contributions and EPDF funding Sustainable reporting by countries UIS field staff support Intensive data reviews and use of sector reviews (CSRs) to fill gaps Creation of matrix to translate CSR data to meet UIS finance reporting standards 28 or so 2 or so Percentage of countries in SSA reporting finance indicators Public education expenditure as a % of GDP Public education expenditure as a % of total govt expenditure Public primary education expenditure per student Share of salary expenditure in the recurrent expenditure Public education expenditure as a % of GDP Public education expenditure as a % of total govt expenditure Public education expenditure per primary student Base line % 73% 24% 73% 47% 69% 13% 51% 56% 84% 24% 62% 47% 56% Share of salary expenditure in recurrent expenditure 13% 2% 2

3 New UIS report on financing education in Africa Authored by UIS, IIEP and Pole de Dakar (UNESCO BREDA) To be released in April 211 Addresses three main issues: How much is spent on education? For what? Who pays for education? in the context of economic change and rapid expansion of education in the last decade in sub Saharan Africa 3

4 More children entering primary education Trend of gross intake ratio to primary education, and Malawi Uganda Equatorial Cape Verde Eritrea Namibia South Africa Seychelles Botswana Lesotho Comoros Mauritius Côte d'ivoire Gambia Togo Swaziland Ghana Sao Tome United Zambia Senegal Mali Burkina Guinea Chad Liberia Niger Rwanda Cameroon Mozambique Benin Democratic Ethiopia Congo Madagascar Sierra Gross intake ratio to primary education (%) Decreased between Increased between Note: The earlier year ranges from 1999 to 22, and most recent year ranges from 26 to 29. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 4

5 More children progressing through primary education Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, and Cape Verde Mauritius Seychelles Namibia Malawi Equatorial Gambia South Africa Botswana Côte d'ivoire Togo Lesotho Swaziland Chad Eritrea Senegal Ghana Burkina Niger Democratic Zambia Cameroon Guinea Comoros Ethiopia Sao Tome Mozambique Madagascar United Decreased between Increased between Note: The earlier year ranges from 1999 to 22, and the latest year ranges from 26 to 29. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education (%)

6 Increased levels of national income Real GDP growth rate and per capita growth in sub Saharan Africa, Real GDP growth rate 6 Real GDP growth rate Real GDP per capita growth rate GDP per capita growth rate (%) Source: World Bank

7 Changes in education expenditure as a % of GDP Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, and 29 % Most recent year Zimbabwe Malawi Guinea Cent. Afr. Eritrea Liberia Sierra Niger Togo Mozambique Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Zambia Guinea Madagascar Uganda Chad Benin Cameroon Rwanda Mali Burkina Côte d'ivoire Senegal Tanzania Kenya Comoros Lesotho Equat. Gabon Angola Mauritius Cape Verde Seychelles South Africa Namibia Swaziland Botswana < PPP$ 1, PPP$ 1,-3, > PPP$ 3, GDP per capita Note: The earliest year ranges from 1999 to 22, and the latest year ranges from 26 to 29. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics

8 Mixed picture in government commitments to education Public expenditure on education as a % of total government expenditure, and Note: The earliest year ranges from 1999 to 22, and the latest year ranges from 26 to 29. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 8 Total public expenditure on education as a % of total government expenditure Mauritius Central African Chad Madagascar Benin South Africa Kenya Togo Rwanda Lesotho Cameroon Guinea Niger Mozambique Mali Namibia Ethiopia Côte d'ivoire Decreased between Increased between

9 Real education expenditure since 1999 Annual growth rate of real public education expenditure between and 29 Annual growth rate of real public education expenditure(%) Cent. Afr. Rep. Average Seychelles Zambia Namibia Côte d'ivoire 1.9 Lesotho Mauritius Togo South Africa 3.4 Guinea 4.3 Madagascar Benin Rwanda Kenya Niger 7.8 Swaziland Chad Sierra Leone Mali Uganda Senegal Angola Ethiopia Cameroon Mozambique Note: The earliest year refers to years between 1999 and 2. The annual growth rate of real public education expenditure is calculated based on constant price in local currency unit. Average is a simple average of 26 countries for which data are available. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 9

10 Patterns of primary enrolment and expenditure per student Change in real expenditure per pupil between 1999 and 29 or most recent year (%) Number of students and expenditure per student in primary education between 1999 and 29 2 Increased expenditure per student and decreased enrolment 15 1 Comoros Swaziland Senegal 5 Togo Mauritius South Africa Kenya Rwanda Mali Niger Cape Verde Madagascar Namibia Benin Lesotho -5 Decreased expenditure per student and decreased enrolment PPP$ PPP$683 Change of number of pupils in primary education between 1999 and 29 or most recent year (%) Increased expenditure per student and increased enrolment 1999-PPP$ PPP$83 Decreased expenditure per student and increased enrolment Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 1

11 Country examples: and Swaziland Public expenditure on primary and secondary education and gross enrolment ratio, Gross enrollment ratio % % Distribution of public expenditure on education Gross enrollment ratio % % Swaziland Distribution of public expenditure on education Primary education GER (left) Secondary education GER (left) Proportion of primary education expenditure (right) Proportion of seconday education expenditure (right) Primary education GER (left) Secondary education GER (left) Proportion of primary education expenditure (right) Proportion of seconday education expenditure (right) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 11

12 High dependence on ODA in some countries Official Development Assistance (ODA) for education as a ratio to public expenditure on education, 28 % ODA for education as a ratio of total public expenditure on education Congo, Togo Cent. Afr. Niger Eritrea Ethiopia Liberia Côte d'ivoire Kenya Lesotho Tanzania Cameroon Senegal Uganda Madagascar Benin Burkina Comoros Guinea Rwanda Mali Zambia South Africa Seychelles Swaziland Botswana Namibia Mauritius Cape Verde < PPP$ 1, PPP$ 1,-3, > PPP$ 3, GDP per capita Source: UIS estimates based on OECD DAC

13 but wide range in ODA per capita PPP$ 7 6 Per capita Official Development Assistance (ODA) for education, < PPP$ 1, PPP$ 1,-3, > PPP$ 3, Weighted average by region GDP per capita Note: Based on total ODA for education divided by the 5 24 year old population. Weighted regional averages are calculated based on data for 132 ODA recipient countries. Source: UIS estimates based on OECD DAC 13

14 For more information To find finance data, visit the UIS Data Centre: For the report, contact: Shinsaku Nomura Michael Bruneforth 14

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