Module 3: Measuring (step 2) Poverty Lines

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Module 3: Measuring (step 2) Poverty Lines"

Transcription

1 Module 3: Measuring (step 2) Poverty Lines

2 Topics 1. Alternative poverty lines 2. Setting an absolute poverty line 2.1. Cost of basic needs method 2.2. Food energy method 2.3. Subjective method 3. Issues in setting poverty line. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 2

3 1. Alternative poverty lines. (1) Once we have an aggregate consumption indicator for each household, we need to judge whether the amount defines the members of the household as poor. We calculate a poverty line, the threshold below which individuals and households are considered poor and above which they are considered non-poor. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 3

4 1. Alternative poverty lines. (2) There are many different types of poverty lines. One of the main distinction is between: Relative poverty line: when the line is defined relative to some measure of welfare for the entire population (distribution). Absolute poverty line: when the line is defined in absolute terms, as the minimum cost of a reference living standard. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 4

5 1. Alternative poverty lines. (3) A. Relative poverty line Definition: A relative line is set in relation to the overall distribution of income or consumption in a country/region of reference. Example: set the poverty line at 50 percent of the mean consumption in the country, or at 50 percent of the median consumption. Relative lines are typically used in high income countries. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 5

6 1. Alternative poverty lines. (4) Advantages and disadvantages: (+) In high income countries, absolute poverty (where defined by a minimum cal intake) or destitution is very small, so the poverty rates will be small (lack of variation). (-) Relative poverty lines do not allow for comparisons across countries or over time since they don t represent the same welfare level. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 6

7 1. Alternative poverty lines. (5) (-) Relative poverty lines depend only on the distribution of consumption. They lead to poverty measures which are insensitive to overall well-being. In a country, if the consumption of all individuals doubled, poverty would remain unchanged. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 7

8 1. Alternative poverty lines. (6) (-) Dependence on distribution also means that: if the poor are getting poorer (all things equal for the others), the mean or median consumption decreases, the poverty line decreases, and poverty measures decrease. If the rich are getting richer (all things equal for the others), the mean or median consumption increases, the poverty line increases, and poverty measures increase. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 8

9 1. Alternative poverty lines. (7) B. Absolute poverty line Definition: An absolute poverty line is set as an absolute level below which consumption is considered to be too low to meet the minimum welfare level acceptable. Absolute poverty lines are typically used in low or middle income countries. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 9

10 1. Alternative poverty lines. (8) Advantages and disadvantages: (+) An absolute poverty line is essential for comparisons of poverty rates between two countries or over time, since it ensure that similar standards are used. (+) In low or middle income countries, where some groups may be unable to reach minimum standards, an absolute poverty line is usually preferred to identify those in absolute need of interventions. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 10

11 1. Alternative poverty lines. (9) (-) In rich countries, the absolute poverty line would probably not provide relevant information: The $1 per day poverty line might be useful in Vietnam (where 27% of the population is poor by this standard in 1998), but would be of little relevance in the UK. (-) It is difficult to define what constitutes basic needs, which vary across individuals according to their metabolism and their activity level. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 11

12 1. Alternative poverty lines. (10) The World Bank uses national absolute poverty lines for within country analysis. For across country, the $/day poverty lines are used: US $1 per person per day (adjusted for PPP) The current estimate is that 1,200 million people worldwide are poor by this standard. US $2 per person per day (adjusted for PPP) The current estimate is that over 2 billion people worldwide are poor by this standard. (Both are in purchasing power parity terms). Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 12

13 1. Alternative poverty lines. (11) Comparison of absolute and relative poverty worldwide: Source: World Bank Share of population living on less than $1 per day (in 1998) Share of the population living on less than one-third of average nat. consump. for 1993 (in 1998) East Asia and Pacific East Asia and Pacific excluding China Europe and Central Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Total Total excluding China Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 13

14 1. Alternative poverty lines. (12) Recommendation: Absolute poverty lines are still relevant since absolute poverty is prevalent. We focus on the absolute poverty lines in this course. Ultimately, the choice can greatly affect poverty measures and who is considered poor in a country. It is therefore absolutely essential to test the sensitivity of results to the choice of poverty line (see Module 6). Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 14

15 1. Alternative poverty lines. (13) As countries become better off, they have a tendency to revise the poverty line upwards with the notably exception of the United States, where the line has (in principle) remained unchanged for almost four decades. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 15

16 1. Alternative poverty lines. (14) Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 16

17 2. Setting an absolute poverty line. (1) Poverty line defined as the minimum amount necessary to achieve the minimum level of wellbeing. There are two major issues: A. Referencing problem what is the minimum level of well-being? B. Identification problem how to estimate the minimum amount of money necessary to achieve it? Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 17

18 2. Setting an absolute poverty line. (2) Alternative methods for setting an absolute poverty line: 1. Cost of basic needs method (Food-share version) 2. Food-energy method 3. Subjective method Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 18

19 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (1) The method is based on the estimated cost of the bundle of goods adequate to ensure that basic needs are met. In practice, the cost of the food basket necessary to attain the minimum energy intake is calculated. A small allowance for non-food expenditure is then added. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 19

20 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (2) Step 1. Pick a nutritional requirement. Step 2. Choose the basket of food items that will allow to attain this requirement. Step 3. Estimate the cost of meeting this food basket, that is the food component. Step 4. Add a non-food component. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 20

21 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (3) Example: 1 - Construction of food component Calories in a portion Expenditure for a portion 2,100 calories Expenditure, for 2,100 calories Rice Corn Eggs Total Assumption: non-food = 20% (food) = Total poverty line = food + non-food = = 126. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 21

22 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (4) Issues in the calculation: 1. What is the minimum energy intake? 2. What basket of goods do we choose to attain that minimum? 3. What prices do we use? 4. How do we estimate the non-food component? Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 22

23 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (5) ISSUE 1: What is the minimum energy intake? Problem: Needs vary across individuals (age, gender, activity) and over time for a given individual (activity levels). Solution: International estimates give recommended energy requirements for alternative activity levels and body weight. One usually uses the requirement of 2,100 calories per day per person. [remember the discussions of household size and composition in Module 2]. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 23

24 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (6) ISSUE 2: What basket of goods to attain the minimum? Problem: Many different baskets of goods can be used to reach the same minimum. Which one do we choose? Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 24

25 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (7) For example, food consumption by expenditure quintile (Vietnam, ) shows that calories are more expensive for the rich diet. Quintile Expenditure per capita ( 000 dong/year) % food in total expend. Calories per capita per day Cost per Calorie (dong) Poorest Richest Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 25

26 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (8) Same calories from different food baskets Kazakhstan 2001: distribution of calories across food groups Govt Subsist. Min. WB Bread, Rice, Pasta Beef Fish Milk and Dairy Eggs Fats Fruits Vegetables Sugars Spices, Sauces Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 26

27 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (9) The question is particularly relevant if we choose to use different poverty lines in different regions, or for different groups. Which basket to choose? The criteria for selection of bundles (and poverty lines in general) is to have the same standard of living treated the same way in different groups consistency in terms of welfare Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 27

28 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (10) Another example: imagine two poverty lines built on the following two baskets designed to yield the same energy intake: % calories from each source Rice Cassava Vegetables Meat Urban Rural Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 28

29 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (11) With these baskets: the urban basket is almost certainly preferable to the rural one. Therefore, the standard of living at the urban poverty line is higher than at the rural line. This makes the poverty comparison inconsistent, which can distort policy making based on the poverty profile. not a good choice! Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 29

30 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (12) Solution: choose one single basket for all the population groups, to ensure consistency in terms of welfare. Typically, the average food composition of a certain group is taken (for example, the average for the poor themselves, or the average for the second quintile, or the average for those around the poverty line, etc. ). Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 30

31 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (13) 3. Which prices do we use to cost the basket? Problem: Prices differ across the population groups (see Module 2 earlier). Solution: Use local prices for the groups, but keep using a single basket of goods to have regional poverty lines. Or, use national average prices. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 31

32 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (14) 4. How do we estimate the non-food component? Problem: We add a non-food component to the food component to calculate the line. How do we estimate that component? Solution: There are two main techniques: Method 1: Bundle of goods Method 2: Food-share method Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 32

33 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (15) Method 1: Bundle of goods: This technique consists in picking a bundle of goods and services and pricing them. This is similar to the technique used to estimate the food component, and it shares the same issues. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 33

34 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (16) Method 2: Food share or Orshansky method: The method consists using the share of food in total expenditure of some group of households (typically the poor) to calculate the non-food component as follows: Cost of food-energy requirement Food-share of "poor" Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 34

35 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (17) The food-share method has limitations. In particular, differences in average consumption between groups or dates create difficulties: Those with a higher mean will tend to have a lower food share, which will thus lead one to use a higher poverty line. The difference can even be large enough to cause a rank reversal in measured poverty levels across sectors or regions of an economy. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 35

36 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (18) Among households that can afford to reach Z f, the lowest level of non-food expenditure which displaces basic food expenditure is given by the distance NF. This distance NF is the minimum level of basic non-food expenditure. Food expenditures Z f 45 0 F N Z f Z Total poverty line Food exp curve Total exp Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 36

37 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (19) Estimate food share eqtn: Food share = f(y)/y = α + β ln (Y / Z f ) + Lower poverty line, Z L : Add the nonfood of those with Y = Z f Nonfood exp = Z f- food exp = Z f- αz f Z L = Z f + (Z f - αz f )=(2 -α) Z f Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 37

38 2.1. Cost of basic needs method. (20) Upper poverty line, Z u : Identify from est. curve, the nonfood for those whose food exp. = Z f Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 38

39 2.2. The food energy method. (1) The method is based on the observation of the typical level of expenditure or income for which households obtain the food needed to meet basic energy requirements. This level of expenditure will include non-food as well as food items, since even poor households consume other goods (such as clothing and shelter), which are included in the level identified. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 39

40 2.2. The food energy method. (2) Graphically, if we plot the number of calories obtained by households at different expenditure levels (or income levels), we obtain the Calorie- Expenditure (or income) function. The line is found by identifying the expenditure level for which 2,100 calories are consumed. (see next page). Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 40

41 2.2. The food energy method. (3) Food energy intake (calories/day) 2,100 Calorie-expenditure (or income) function Poverty line Expenditure (or income) Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 41

42 2.2. The food energy method. (4) This method presents many limitations: The relationship between food energy intake and total consumption varies. Therefore, using this method is equivalent to bringing some relative component in the absolute line, with all the associated issues. The dimension in which the relationship varies are: according to wealth and tastes: as a result, lines will be higher in richer regions (where households on average buy more expensive calories). Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 42

43 2.2. The food energy method. (5) Food energy intake (calories/day) 2,100 Calorie-expenditure (or income) function Rural Urban Rural Urban Expenditure (or income) Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 43

44 Food energy intake (calories/day) 2.2. The food energy method. (6) Over time: Here, the function shifts from 1993 to In practice, food prices rose by 70% and non-food prices by 25% and consumers shifted from food to non-food items, since food had become relatively more expensive. The Calorie-expenditure function shift was thought to be implausibly large. 2, Expenditure (or income) Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 44

45 2.3. Subjective methods. (1) 3. Subjective methods. The methods are based on the subjective judgment of people on what constitutes a socially acceptable minimum standard of living. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 45

46 2.3. Subjective methods. (2) The typical question used is the following: "What income/expenditure do you consider to be absolutely minimal, in that you could not make ends meet with any less?" The answers will vary from person to person (in part as a result of household size and composition). The answers are usually found to be correlated with actual income. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 46

47 2.3. Subjective methods. (3) If we plot the responses on a graph, we typically obtain the following. The point Z could be used as the poverty line: Subjective minimum income * * * * * * * z * Subjective poverty line * 45o * * * * * * * * * * * actual income or expenditure Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 47

48 3. Conclusions and recommendations. (1) 1. The key issue is not the actual precise location of the poverty line, but rather, the key issue is being sure that the line is fixed in terms of the indicator of well-being (so that, irrespective of where household live, the same level of consumption is always treated the same way). Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 48

49 3. Conclusions and recommendations. (2) 2. Whatever the poverty line selected, it is important to carry out sensitivity analysis. This consists in testing the degree to which the results are sensitive to the choice of poverty line. This can be done by repeating the calculations for different liens and comparing. (see Module 6 for more details). One can also consider a second poverty line, such as the ultra-poor line. Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 49

50 3. Conclusions and recommendations. (3) The recommended method: cost-of-basic-needs approach 1. Select nutritional requirement 2. Select a single food bundle for the entire population, using prevailing tastes (take the average consumption of some reference group). 3. Price this bundle at prevailing prices for each of the groups analysized (e.g. rural / urban). 4. Set the non-food allowance in line with the consumption behavior of those around the food poverty line (calculate the food-share of those around the food line). Module 3: Measuring (step 2) 50

Chapter 3. Poverty Lines

Chapter 3. Poverty Lines Chapter 3. Poverty Lines Summary The poor are those whose expenditure (or income) falls below a poverty line. This chapter explains how poverty lines are constructed and discusses the strengths and weaknesses

More information

An update to the World Bank s estimates of consumption poverty in the developing world *

An update to the World Bank s estimates of consumption poverty in the developing world * An update to the World Bank s estimates of consumption poverty in the developing world * The World Bank has been regularly monitoring the progress of developing countries against absolute poverty. Drawing

More information

Module 5: Measuring (step 3) Inequality Measures

Module 5: Measuring (step 3) Inequality Measures Module 5: Measuring (step 3) Inequality Measures Topics 1. Why measure inequality? 2. Basic dispersion measures 1. Charting inequality for basic dispersion measures 2. Basic dispersion measures (dispersion

More information

A national poverty line for South Africa

A national poverty line for South Africa Statistics South Africa National Treasury 21 February 2007 Background As a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals, South Africa is committed to halving poverty by 2015 as one amongst eight global

More information

Poverty Lines. Chapter. Summary

Poverty Lines. Chapter. Summary Chapter 3 Poverty Lines Summary The poor are those whose expenditure (or income) falls below a poverty line. This chapter explains how poverty lines are constructed and discusses the strengths and weaknesses

More information

Olga Grigorieva and Pavel Grigoriev. BSPS Conference 2008 Manchester, September

Olga Grigorieva and Pavel Grigoriev. BSPS Conference 2008 Manchester, September Olga Grigorieva and Pavel Grigoriev Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany BSPS Conference 2008 Manchester, 10-12 12 September E-mail: grigorieva@demogr.mpg.de Do the official

More information

Chapter 6. Inequality Measures

Chapter 6. Inequality Measures Chapter 6. Inequality Measures Summary Inequality is a broader concept than poverty in that it is defined over the entire population, and does not only focus on the poor. The simplest measurement of inequality

More information

Poverty Indicators Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2006/07 Department of Census and Statistics Ministry of Finance and Planning Sri Lanka

Poverty Indicators Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2006/07 Department of Census and Statistics Ministry of Finance and Planning Sri Lanka ISSN 1391-4695 March 2008 Poverty Indicators Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2006/07 Department of Census and Statistics Ministry of Finance and Planning Sri Lanka Introduction The Household

More information

Government of India Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation National Sample Survey Office

Government of India Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation National Sample Survey Office Government of India Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation National Sample Survey Office Dated the 20 th June 2013 30 Jyaistha, 1935 Saka PRESS RELEASE KEY INDICATORS OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMER

More information

Growth in Tanzania: Is it Reducing Poverty?

Growth in Tanzania: Is it Reducing Poverty? Growth in Tanzania: Is it Reducing Poverty? Introduction Tanzania has received wide recognition for steering its economy in the right direction. In its recent publication, Tanzania: the story of an African

More information

The Changing Role of Rice in Global Food Security: Implications for Latin America

The Changing Role of Rice in Global Food Security: Implications for Latin America The Changing Role of Rice in Global Food Security: Implications for Latin America C. Peter Timmer Cabot Professor of Development Studies, Emeritus Harvard University Presented at the Americas Rice Congress

More information

Standard of Healthy Living on the Island of Ireland Summary Report

Standard of Healthy Living on the Island of Ireland Summary Report Standard of Healthy Living on the Island of Ireland Summary Report Summary Report: Standard of Healthy Living on the Island of Ireland Summary Report based on Research by: Dr Sharon Friel 1,2, Ms Janas

More information

Chapter 1 Introduction, page 1 of 7

Chapter 1 Introduction, page 1 of 7 Chapter 1 Introduction, page 1 of 7 the distinction between economic growth and economic development: economic growth takes place when there is a sustained (ongoing for at least 1-2 years) increase in

More information

FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY

FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY Ministry of Food and Agriculture FOOD SECURITY STRATEGY Dr. Shakeel Ahmed Khan FOOD SECURITY Exists when all people, at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious

More information

Comparing Levels of Development

Comparing Levels of Development 2 Comparing Levels of Development Countries are unequally endowed with natural capital. For example, some benefit from fertile agricultural soils, while others have to put a lot of effort into artificial

More information

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION MATERIALS AND METHODS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGY 1560 8530/004/06 3 483 487 http://www.ijab.org Estimation of Food Security Situation at Household Level in Rural Areas of Punjab SHAHZAD AHMAD, M. SIDDIQUE

More information

The impact of high food prices on hunger

The impact of high food prices on hunger Briefing paper: Hunger on the rise Soaring prices add 75 million people to global hunger rolls The impact of high food prices on hunger Provisional FAO estimates show that the number of undernourished

More information

It is important to understand child poverty as multidimensional. Income poverty in South Africa. Annie Leatt (Children s Institute)

It is important to understand child poverty as multidimensional. Income poverty in South Africa. Annie Leatt (Children s Institute) Income poverty in South Africa Annie Leatt (Children s Institute) It is important to understand child poverty as multidimensional and more than just a lack of income. Nevertheless, this essay specifically

More information

Progress and prospects

Progress and prospects Ending CHILD MARRIAGE Progress and prospects UNICEF/BANA213-182/Kiron The current situation Worldwide, more than 7 million women alive today were married before their 18th birthday. More than one in three

More information

Trends in Agrifood Systems

Trends in Agrifood Systems 1 of 39 Trends in Agrifood Systems Drivers, Changes, Impacts and Overall Assessment About the FAO Policy Learning Programme This programme aims at equipping high level officials from developing countries

More information

Uganda Case Study: An Impact Evaluation of Cash and Food Transfers at Early Childhood Development Centers in Karamoja. Page 1

Uganda Case Study: An Impact Evaluation of Cash and Food Transfers at Early Childhood Development Centers in Karamoja. Page 1 Uganda Case Study: An Impact Evaluation of Cash and Food Transfers at Early Childhood Development Centers in Karamoja Page 1 Uganda vs. Ecuador Similarities to Ecuador case study: RCT rigorously comparing

More information

Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger. Akhter Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa Smith, Doris Wiesmann, and Tim Frankenberger

Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger. Akhter Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa Smith, Doris Wiesmann, and Tim Frankenberger The World s Most Deprived Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger Akhter Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa Smith, Doris Wiesmann, and Tim Frankenberger Context Report was undertaken as part

More information

Poverty and income growth: Measuring pro-poor growth in the case of Romania

Poverty and income growth: Measuring pro-poor growth in the case of Romania Poverty and income growth: Measuring pro-poor growth in the case of EVA MILITARU, CRISTINA STROE Social Indicators and Standard of Living Department National Scientific Research Institute for Labour and

More information

Sohail J. Malik Hina Nazli Asma Shahzad Amina Mehmood April 15, 2015

Sohail J. Malik Hina Nazli Asma Shahzad Amina Mehmood April 15, 2015 Food Consumption Patterns and Nutrition Sohail J. Malik Hina Nazli Asma Shahzad Amina Mehmood April 15, 215 Plan of Presentation Food security and Consumption Patterns Food prices and cost of calories

More information

Child Survival and Equity: A Global Overview

Child Survival and Equity: A Global Overview Child Survival and Equity: A Global Overview Abdelmajid Tibouti, Ph.D. Senior Adviser UNICEF New York Consultation on Equity in Access to Quality Health Care For Women and Children 7 11 April 2008 Halong

More information

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. VII - Consumption in Developing Nations - L. Sartori

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Vol. VII - Consumption in Developing Nations - L. Sartori CONSUMPTION IN DEVELOPING NATIONS L. Sartori Department of Communication, University of Bologna, Italy Keywords: modernization, globalization, patterns of consumption, positional goods, imitation, international

More information

Economic Growth Rates

Economic Growth Rates 4 Economic Growth Rates Will the poor countries catch up with the rich? GDP and GNP growth rates in developing countries are on average higher than those in developed countries. Moreover, the difference

More information

Development goals through a gender lens: The case of education

Development goals through a gender lens: The case of education Development goals through a gender lens: The case of education Albert Motivans Institute for Statistics Gender Equality and Progress in Societies OECD, 12 March 2010 World Gender parity index by level

More information

Intermediate Macroeconomics

Intermediate Macroeconomics Intermediate Macroeconomics Lecture 2 - Growth Facts & the Malthusian Model Zsófia L. Bárány Sciences Po 2014 January Hall and Jones 1999, QJE: In 1988 output per worker in the United States was more than

More information

Photograph by P. Casier, CGIAR. Africa s enormous potential for regional trade in staples is not being exploited

Photograph by P. Casier, CGIAR. Africa s enormous potential for regional trade in staples is not being exploited Photograph by P. Casier, CGIAR Africa s enormous potential for regional trade in staples is not being exploited 11 Africa Can Help Feed Africa Africa has considerable variation in its climatic conditions

More information

How Not to Count the Poor? A Reply to Reddy and Pogge

How Not to Count the Poor? A Reply to Reddy and Pogge How Not to Count the Poor? A Reply to Reddy and Pogge Martin Ravallion 1 Reddy and Pogge (2002) claim that the World Bank has systematically underestimated the extent of poverty in the world in the 1990s,

More information

Poverty and Inequality in Indonesia. From Suharto to SBY

Poverty and Inequality in Indonesia. From Suharto to SBY Poverty and Inequality in Indonesia From Suharto to SBY The Asian Debate on Poverty In Asia the debate on the benefits of economic growth began in the 1970. In Indonesia there were heated debates from

More information

INDICATOR REGION WORLD

INDICATOR REGION WORLD SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA INDICATOR REGION WORLD Demographic indicators Total population (2005) 713,457,000 6,449,371,000 Population under 18 (2005) 361,301,000 2,183,143,000 Population under 5 (2005) 119,555,000

More information

Global Stratification

Global Stratification Global Stratification Patterns of social inequality in the world as a whole Changing Terminology Old terminology First world Industrial rich countries Second world Less industrial socialist countries Third

More information

Beef Demand: What is Driving the Market?

Beef Demand: What is Driving the Market? Beef Demand: What is Driving the Market? Ronald W. Ward Food and Economics Department University of Florida Demand is a term we here everyday. We know it is important but at the same time hard to explain.

More information

Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.)

Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter Overview This chapter discusses theories of economic growth, highlighting the Solow growth model and the importance

More information

Emerging Issues in the Agricultural Sector Implications to Successful Implementation of Feed the Future

Emerging Issues in the Agricultural Sector Implications to Successful Implementation of Feed the Future Emerging Issues in the Agricultural Sector Implications to Successful Implementation of Feed the Future Feed the Future Partner s Meeting Dar es Salaam November 30th, 2012 David Nyange Senior Agricultural

More information

The Statistical Measurement of Poverty

The Statistical Measurement of Poverty The Statistical Measurement of Poverty (Prepared by Simon Schwartzman, President, Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics) This document is a summary of the work of the Expert Group of Poverty

More information

Beef Demand: Clarifying Concepts, Summarizing Status, and Discussing Future Opportunities

Beef Demand: Clarifying Concepts, Summarizing Status, and Discussing Future Opportunities Beef Demand: Clarifying Concepts, Summarizing Status, and Discussing Future Opportunities Glynn Tonsor Dept. of Agricultural Economics Kansas State University 1 Beef Demand Kickoff Points Critically Important,

More information

Poverty Indices: Checking for Robustness

Poverty Indices: Checking for Robustness Chapter 5. Poverty Indices: Checking for Robustness Summary There are four main reasons why measures of poverty may not be robust. Sampling error occurs because measures of poverty are based on sample

More information

Economic Growth Rates

Economic Growth Rates BEG_i-144.qxd 6/10/04 1:46 PM Page 23 4 Economic Growth Rates GDP growth rates in developing countries are on average higher than those in developed countries. Over the 1965-99 period, the average annual

More information

Chapter 1. The Development Gap

Chapter 1. The Development Gap Chapter 1 The Development Gap STORIES OF CATCH-UP AND DECLINE The development gap emerged because some countries developed earlier than others. In historical perspective the Industrial Revolution : The

More information

Economic growth, hunger and malnutrition. Income growth and changes in food consumption

Economic growth, hunger and malnutrition. Income growth and changes in food consumption Income growth and changes in food consumption Key message In order for economic growth to enhance the nutrition of the neediest, the poor must participate in the growth process and its benefits: (i) Growth

More information

INDICATOR REGION WORLD

INDICATOR REGION WORLD SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA INDICATOR REGION WORLD Demographic indicators Total population (2006) 748,886,000 6,577,236,000 Population under 18 (2006) 376,047,000 2,212,024,000 Population under 5 (2006) 125,254,000

More information

About 870 million people are estimated to have

About 870 million people are estimated to have Undernourishment around the world in 212 Undernourishment around the world Key messages The State of Food Insecurity in the World 212 presents new estimates of the number and proportion of undernourished

More information

Over-Age, Under-Age, and On-Time Students in Primary School, Uganda

Over-Age, Under-Age, and On-Time Students in Primary School, Uganda Primary School Net and Gross Attendance Rates, Uganda More than three quarters of primary school age children in Uganda attend school and gender parity in attendance has been achieved. of children ages

More information

Section C. Diet, Food Production, and Public Health

Section C. Diet, Food Production, and Public Health This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 1 (1 of 3). March 2002

Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 1 (1 of 3). March 2002 Inequality Briefing Briefing Paper No 1 (1 of 3). March 2002 Defining and Measuring Inequality Andrew McKay (Overseas Development Institute and University of Nottingham) Introduction: The Importance of

More information

Dietary Sources of Iron in Uganda

Dietary Sources of Iron in Uganda Dietary Sources of Iron in Uganda Data from the 2009/2010 Uganda National Panel Survey Jack Fiedler, Leanne Dougherty, Celeste Sununtnasuk Uganda National Panel Survey 2009/10 UNPS A national survey representative

More information

Nutritional information

Nutritional information TOPIC 1 THEME 3 Nutritional information LEARNING OUTCOMES To understand the guidelines for healthy eating To compare the nutritional value of different foods RESOURCES Range of fresh and packaged foods

More information

Income Poverty Trends and Patterns

Income Poverty Trends and Patterns CHAPTER 1 Income Poverty Trends and Patterns Data Availability Direct estimates of poverty can only be derived from nationally representative household income and expenditure surveys. For the Middle East

More information

Copies can be obtained from the:

Copies can be obtained from the: Published by the Stationery Office, Dublin, Ireland. Copies can be obtained from the: Central Statistics Office, Information Section, Skehard Road, Cork, Government Publications Sales Office, Sun Alliance

More information

A Profile of. Child Marriage in Africa

A Profile of. Child Marriage in Africa A Profile of Child Marriage in Worldwide, more than 700 million women and girls alive today were married before their 18th birthday. n child brides are most likely found in rural areas and among the poorest

More information

Institutional information. Concepts and definitions

Institutional information. Concepts and definitions Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere Target 1.3: Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of

More information

The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries. Homi Kharas, Brookings Institution June XX, 2011

The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries. Homi Kharas, Brookings Institution June XX, 2011 The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries Homi Kharas, Brookings Institution June XX, 2011 1 Introduction Middle class consumers in the US and other G7 powers have been a key source of demand in

More information

Chapter 1. What is Poverty and Why Measure it?

Chapter 1. What is Poverty and Why Measure it? Chapter 1. What is Poverty and Why Measure it? Summary Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being. The conventional view links well-being primarily to command over commodities, so the poor are those

More information

Economic Growth Rate The World Bank

Economic Growth Rate The World Bank Economic Growth Rate The World Bank GDP growth rates in developing countries are on average higher than those in developed countries. Over the 1965-99 period, the average annual growth rate was 4.1 percent

More information

The Nature of Rising Food Prices in the Eastern Caribbean

The Nature of Rising Food Prices in the Eastern Caribbean The Nature of Rising Food Prices in the Eastern Caribbean An Analysis of Food Inflation During the Period 2005 2008 in a Context of Household Poverty UNICEF Office for Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean

More information

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Philippines. HDI values and rank changes in the 2014 Human Development Report

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Philippines. HDI values and rank changes in the 2014 Human Development Report Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices Philippines HDI values

More information

Child poverty in the post-2015 agenda June 2014 ISSUE. Child Poverty in the Post-2015 Agenda BRIEFS

Child poverty in the post-2015 agenda June 2014 ISSUE. Child Poverty in the Post-2015 Agenda BRIEFS Child poverty in the post-2015 agenda June 2014 ISSUE BRIEFS Child Poverty in the Post-2015 Agenda June 2014 1 ISSUE UNICEF ISSUE BRIEF UNICEF June 2014 Division of Policy and Strategy This is an issue

More information

Measuring poverty in South Africa

Measuring poverty in South Africa Measuring poverty in South Africa Methodological report on the development of the poverty lines for statistical reporting Technical Report D0300 November 2008 your leading partner in quality statistics

More information

Russian Federation. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Russian Federation. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Russian Federation Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for

More information

CHAPTER TWENTYONE FOOD, GLORIOUS FOOD: AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES. October 2007

CHAPTER TWENTYONE FOOD, GLORIOUS FOOD: AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES. October 2007 CHAPTER TWENTYONE FOOD, GLORIOUS FOOD: AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES October 27 FOOD, GLORIOUS FOOD: AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Structural factors behind rising food prices in the BRICs higher incomes and demand

More information

A Healthy Diet Supporting Information

A Healthy Diet Supporting Information A Healthy Diet Supporting Information 1 What is a Healthy Diet? Childhood obesity is on the increase, so establishing good eating patterns early in life is very important. A healthy diet is one that is

More information

Women s empowerment mitigates the negative effects of low production diversity on maternal and child nutrition in Nepal

Women s empowerment mitigates the negative effects of low production diversity on maternal and child nutrition in Nepal Women s empowerment mitigates the negative effects of low production diversity on maternal and child nutrition in Nepal Hazel Malapit 1, Suneetha Kadiyala 2, Agnes Quisumbing 1, Kenda Cunningham 2 and

More information

The Eatwell Plate. Dr. Elizabeth Finnegan

The Eatwell Plate. Dr. Elizabeth Finnegan The Eatwell Plate Dr. Elizabeth Finnegan Food Pyramid vs The Eatwell Plate Food Pyramid = grocery list with lots of fruit and veg, carbohydrates and protein a little dairy and some treats in the basket

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Self-Care

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Self-Care TABLE OF CONTENTS Self-Care Self-Care...3 The Major Food Groups...4 Meal Planning...9 Meal Planning Worksheet...12 Smart Shopper Worksheet...15 Personal Hygiene...17 Health Care...21 Medical Care Basics...23

More information

The role of diet on the longevity of elderly Europeans: EPIC-Elderly

The role of diet on the longevity of elderly Europeans: EPIC-Elderly The role of diet on the longevity of elderly Europeans: EPIC-Elderly A study in the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) An EU funded Research Project. Project

More information

Healthy Food for All. Submission on Budget 2014 to the Minister for Social Protection

Healthy Food for All. Submission on Budget 2014 to the Minister for Social Protection Healthy Food for All Submission on Budget 2014 to the Minister for Social Protection Theme: Improve food and nutrition consumption for children and families in poverty 1. Enhance low-income household s

More information

CONSUMPTION PATTERNS AMONG SELECTED RURAL AND URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN COIMBATORE CITY

CONSUMPTION PATTERNS AMONG SELECTED RURAL AND URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN COIMBATORE CITY 46 CONSUMPTION PATTERNS AMONG SELECTED RURAL AND URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN COIMBATORE CITY * DR.K.T.GEETHA * Professor of Economics Avinashilingam Deemed University Coimbatore-641043. ABSTRACT Over the years,

More information

Novus Poultry Roundtable Feeding the World and the Role of Poultry Dr. Paul Aho - Poultry Perspective January 2010

Novus Poultry Roundtable Feeding the World and the Role of Poultry Dr. Paul Aho - Poultry Perspective January 2010 Novus Poultry Roundtable Feeding the World and the Role of Poultry Dr. Paul Aho - Poultry Perspective January 2010 paulaho@paulaho.com Storrs, Connecticut USA Conventional Wisdom About Feeding the World

More information

Brazil. HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human Development Report

Brazil. HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human Development Report Human Development Report 2013 The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World Explanatory note on 2013 HDR composite indices Brazil HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human Development Report

More information

Challenges in Securing Halal Food Supply

Challenges in Securing Halal Food Supply World Food Security Summit 2014 Challenges in Securing Halal Food Supply 24 Feb 2014 Copyright HDC 2014 Presentation outline INTRODUCTION Why Halal Industry? Challenges in Halal Supply Chain Food Security

More information

Economics 301 Problem Set 4 5 October 2007

Economics 301 Problem Set 4 5 October 2007 Economics 301 Name Problem Set 4 5 October 2007 Budget Lines and Indifference Curves and the Consumer Optimum 1. Parvez, a pharmacology student, has allocated $120 per month to spend on paperback novels

More information

Executive summary. Global Wage Report 2014 / 15 Wages and income inequality

Executive summary. Global Wage Report 2014 / 15 Wages and income inequality Executive summary Global Wage Report 2014 / 15 Wages and income inequality Global Wage Report 2014/15 Wages and income inequality Executive summary INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE GENEVA Copyright International

More information

The short and medium term impacts of rises in staple food prices

The short and medium term impacts of rises in staple food prices Policy Brief The short and medium term impacts of rises in staple food prices Recent years have seen increasing average food prices, severe food price shocks (in 7/8 and /), and increasing concerns about

More information

Distance Runners Nutrition Guide

Distance Runners Nutrition Guide Distance Runners Nutrition Guide Dear athletes and parents, The purpose of this nutrition guide is to prepare distance runners for optimal performance. While the purpose of this guide is not to force you

More information

Promoting pro-poor growth in Rwandan agriculture: What are the policy options?

Promoting pro-poor growth in Rwandan agriculture: What are the policy options? Promoting pro-poor growth in Rwandan agriculture: What are the policy options? Michael Morris, Liz Drake, Kene Ezemenari, Xinshen Diao Analytical Approaches to Inclusive Growth PREM Learning Week 22 April

More information

Nutrition: Healthy Eating to Support Exercise

Nutrition: Healthy Eating to Support Exercise Nutrition: Healthy Eating to Support Exercise Introduction One of the biggest problems facing the community today is the rising rate of obesity. Sadly, it is both children and adults that are being affected

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS. This chapter will provide information about the socio-demographic details of the pre-school children who participated in the NPNS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS. This chapter will provide information about the socio-demographic details of the pre-school children who participated in the NPNS. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY This chapter provides a detailed description of the background information and methodology used in the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (NPNS).

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Timor-Leste

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. Timor-Leste Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Timor-Leste Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Absolute Poverty Measures for the Developing World, 1981-2004

Absolute Poverty Measures for the Developing World, 1981-2004 Absolute Poverty Measures for the Developing World, 1981-2004 Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion * Development Research Group, World Bank March 2007 We report new estimates of measures of absolute poverty

More information

El Salvador. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

El Salvador. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report El Salvador Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

Globalization and China: Impact on the Economy and People s Quality of Life

Globalization and China: Impact on the Economy and People s Quality of Life Globalization and China: Impact on the Economy and People s Quality of Life Tao (Tony) Gao, Ph. D. Zarb School of Business Hofstra University University 1 APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration Shanghai, China;

More information

Role of Food Processing and Post-harvest Management in Improving Food and Nutrition Security in Cities

Role of Food Processing and Post-harvest Management in Improving Food and Nutrition Security in Cities Role of Food Processing and Post-harvest Management in Improving Food and Nutrition Security in Cities Senior Agro-Industries and Post- Harvest Officer FAO RAP Overview Urbanization and its impacts on

More information

THE PARADOX OF RELATIVE POVERTY, VULNERABILITY AND HIGH HOUSEHOLD INCOME

THE PARADOX OF RELATIVE POVERTY, VULNERABILITY AND HIGH HOUSEHOLD INCOME THE PARADOX OF RELATIVE POVERTY, VULNERABILITY AND HIGH HOUSEHOLD INCOME Chamhuri Siwar & Mohamad Ibrahim Institute for Environment & Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Paper presented

More information

Exploring the potential of trans fats policies to reduce socio-economic inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality in England

Exploring the potential of trans fats policies to reduce socio-economic inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality in England Exploring the potential of trans fats policies to reduce socio-economic inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality in England Jonny Pearson-Stuttard Academic Clinical Fellow, Public Health j.pearson-stuttard@imperial.ac.uk

More information

Health Care Payments and Poverty

Health Care Payments and Poverty 19 Health Care Payments and Poverty In the previous chapter we examined the issue of catastrophic payments for health care the disruption to material living standards due to large out-of-pocket (OOP) payments

More information

YEMEN MONTHLY MARKET WATCH OCTOBER 2012

YEMEN MONTHLY MARKET WATCH OCTOBER 2012 Highlights YEMEN MONTHLY MARKET WATCH OCTOBER 2012 The country level general inflation further escalated to 5.96% and food inflation stood at 9.68% in September 2012, based on 12 months moving average.

More information

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Togo. HDI values and rank changes in the 2014 Human Development Report

Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices. Togo. HDI values and rank changes in the 2014 Human Development Report Human Development Report 2014 Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience Explanatory note on the 2014 Human Development Report composite indices Togo HDI values and rank

More information

Global Urbanization: Trends, Patterns, Determinants, and Impacts. Abdullah Baqui, DrPH, MPH, MBBS Johns Hopkins University

Global Urbanization: Trends, Patterns, Determinants, and Impacts. Abdullah Baqui, DrPH, MPH, MBBS Johns Hopkins University This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. South Sudan

Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report. South Sudan Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report South Sudan Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human

More information

CANADA IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. Data Report 2016 International Trade

CANADA IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. Data Report 2016 International Trade CANADA IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Data Report 2016 International Trade 1 CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM - DATA REPORT 2016 2 HIGHLIGHTS Canada s trade to GDP ratio is around 63% making it

More information

Over-Age, Under-Age, and On-Time Students in Primary School, Tanzania

Over-Age, Under-Age, and On-Time Students in Primary School, Tanzania Primary School Net and Gross Attendance Rates, Tanzania More than three quarters of primary school age children in Tanzania attend school and gender parity in attendance has been achieved. 1 of children

More information

ECONOMICS INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DISCIPLINES Vol. I - Costs of Health Care Throughout the World - R.E. Santerre

ECONOMICS INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DISCIPLINES Vol. I - Costs of Health Care Throughout the World - R.E. Santerre COSTS OF HEALTH CARE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD R.E. Center for Health Care and Insurance Studies, Department of Finance, University of Connecticut, USA Keywords: health care costs, supply and demand of health

More information

Examination of Consumer Price Index in India Rural versus Urban

Examination of Consumer Price Index in India Rural versus Urban Volume4, Issue4, August2014, ISSN No.: 22500758 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Available at: www.ijemr.net Page Number: 124129 Examination of Consumer Price Index in India

More information

Thailand. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Thailand. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Thailand Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

Making Sense of the Label Language

Making Sense of the Label Language Making Sense of the Label Language How Can You Really Know if a Food is a Healthy Choice? You ve seen the claims: Fat-free, Reduced Fat, Sugar-free, Reduced Sodium, Light. The claims can be confusing and

More information

Turkey. HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human Development Report

Turkey. HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human Development Report Human Development Report 2013 The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World Explanatory note on 2013 HDR composite indices Turkey HDI values and rank changes in the 2013 Human Development Report

More information

3.2 Extent of food losses and waste

3.2 Extent of food losses and waste 4 3. Extent of food losses and waste 3.1 Food volumes produced Figure 1 illustrates the 2007 production volumes of all commodity groups in their primary form, including animal feed products (which are

More information