Security Master Plan: Physical Security Design Criteria

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1 Comprehensive Master Plan Security Master Plan: Physical Security Design Criteria Final Report Prepared by: The Protection Engineering Group, Inc Bogle Drive, Suite 200 Chantilly, VA

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3 Table of Contents 1. Security Master Plan Overview Introduction Purpose Applicability Using this Document Measure Substitution Architectural Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Site Planning and Design Space Planning & Design Building Criteria Landscape and Urban Design Landscape Design Urban Design Mechanical General Elevators Electrical General Lighting Fire Protection Life Safety Fire Alarm Integration with Electronic Security System Information Technology Radio Telemetry Mass Notification Electronic Security System Design and Integration Security Management System Physical Access Control System (PACS) Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Video Assessment and Surveillance System (VASS) Security Intercommunications Security Closets Abbreviations & Acronyms References Security Design Criteria Matrix i

4 13. Preferred Equipment List (Template) ESS Configuration Template (Template) Initial Descriptor Secondary Descriptor (128 character) Linked Instruction Event Alarm / Event Mapping Requirements Preventative Maintenance Checks and Services (Template) ii

5 1. Security Master Plan Overview A major focus of the Comprehensive Master Plan was to enhancing the safety and security of the University s assets that include people, information, and facilities against security threats such as crime (traditional and non-traditional) and other hazards. The design team conducted an in-depth survey and analysis of the existing Security Program that provided recommendations on how best to improve ECU s security posture. Overall, ECU has made a great deal of headway towards improving the safety and security of the University s facilities in large part due to the individual efforts of staff members and departments. Many areas have implemented new procedures and equipment to mitigate potential threats, unfortunately this has not been coordinated as an overall campus effort. This has caused a duplication of effort and created a piece-meal security system with various levels of protection creating areas where security is considered insufficient. There is a significant lack of University level policies and procedures, minimal criteria for the selection and implementation of services or equipment, no University wide budget or procurement process for security related equipment or services, and the University has implemented multiple electronic security systems that are not integrated to function as a single system. Using this information the design aided ECU in developing a comprehensive University s Strategic Security Plan and Security Master Plan as well as integrated security into the overall Campus Master Plan. The overarching concept was to establish a centralized security program that is committed to the development of a cohesive and consistent level of safety and security the University. This Strategic Security Plan has six strategic goals to facilitate progress toward meeting the vision and mission of ECU s security program. Strategic Goal #1: Strategic Goal #2: Strategic Goal #3: Strategic Goal #4: Strategic Goal #5: Strategic Goal #6: Institute University Security Policies Establish a Centralized Security Organization Develop Security Plans Develop Security Operating Procedures and Programs Implement Physical Security Improvement Projects Establish New Police Facility The Security Design Criteria provides architectural and engineering (A/E) design teams, security consultants, and all ECU staff guidance for the designing and construction of ECU facilities. This document defines performance standards for physical security systems with information in key areas to ensure compliance with the goals and objectives stipulated in the University Strategic Security Plan and Master Plan for the University. This document defines the minimum security criteria required for ECU owned and leased facilities and the spaces and assets within those facilities. This document applies security measures consistently throughout ECU all spaces and 1

6 is an integral part of the planning, design, and construction of all projects. An objective of this manual is to provide cost effective design criteria that provides an appropriate level of protection to each facility. The most efficient way to implement security into a building and campus is through pre-design planning. ECU advocates the integration of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principals and strategies in their site planning and facility designs. CPTED focuses on the positive use of space and natural elements to maintain a desirable quality of life for intended users, while increasing the difficulty for criminal or abnormal activities. The principles focus on the positive use of space to create designs that attract users because they feel safe, while simultaneously making it unattractive and difficult for criminals and terrorists. The three main CPTED design principles are territoriality, natural surveillance, and natural access control. Territoriality clearly defines an area physically or psychologically utilizing physical element to create an environment with a sense of ownership where abnormal behavior, such as unusual loitering or other unauthorized activities, is easily recognized. A major component of territoriality is wayfinding, which is a concept where architectural and landscape features are designed with visual clues and signage to direct people or allow them to easily identify where they are and where they should go. Natural Surveillance supports good visibility in and around the campus and buildings to limit concealment of criminal activities. The concept is to see and be seen; criminals do not like to be seen and guests feel safer when they are seen. Natural Access Control is about using layout and design elements to easily direct site users in an orderly fashion from one location to another while reinforcing territoriality and aiding natural surveillance. For the electronic security systems, ECU will begin to standardize on one centralized security management system that is capable of integrating and centralizing the existing disparate systems into one system, providing a cost effective system. Additional improvements will include revamping the video monitoring center, consolidating the access control systems, and building a new facility to house the Police Department and Security Operations Center. The primary intent of the Security Master Plan is to implement a proactive and cost effective set of policies, plans, and procedures that will improve the overall safety and security of the University. The plan prioritizes assets based on the actual threats and risks ECU faces. The Security Master Plan establishes a long-term approach to building a security program trailer made for ECU that matches current the planned growth of the university. It provides a best in practice approach to discourage a criminal or group of criminals from perpetrating an incident or crime. 2

7 2. Introduction ECU Physical Security Design Criteria The East Carolina University (ECU) Security Design Criteria provided architectural and engineering (A/E) design teams, security consultants, and all ECU staff guidance for the designing and construction of ECU facilities. Utilize these criteria when designing new facilities or major renovations of owned or leased facilities. This document defines performance standards for physical security systems with information in key areas to ensure compliance with the goals and objectives stipulated in the University Strategic Security Plan and Master Plan for the University. This document provides design guidance for limiting or mitigating the typical risks a major university like ECU may face. The guidance also provides some benefits for mitigating natural hazards Purpose This document defines the minimum security criteria required for ECU owned and leased facilities and the spaces and assets within those facilities. This document applies security measures consistently throughout ECU all spaces and is an integral part of the planning, design, and construction of all projects. An objective of this manual is to provide cost effective design criteria that provides an appropriate level of protection to each facility Applicability These standards apply to new construction and all additions, alterations, and modernizations. These standards apply to only the spaces being renovated in an existing building, and do not extend to other spaces in the same building except as may be directed by the ECU Physical Security Office. Existing facilities not undergoing any renovation will be brought into compliance through separate security projects. The criteria used in this document is based on risks common to educational facilities and are consistent with other standards developed for these types of facilities. Additionally, this document recognizes risks are unique to each facility and the assets that they may house. Therefore, the criteria developed will vary by facility type, space usage, and risk categorization. 3

8 2.3. Using this Document ECU Physical Security Design Criteria The protective measures in this document address general threats associated with university protection, common crime, and workplace or school violence. For threats associated with domestic or international terrorism additional security measures may be require. Space specific criteria are ECU requirements for all projects. Appendix 1 - Security Design Criteria Matrix identifies the appropriate measures for each space category. To use the matrix, select the space listed in the left-hand column of the table then locate the measures under each area. In some instances, outside factors will require the baseline criteria be augmented or supplemented. Only the ECU Physical Security Office can approve any modifications to the design criteria for a facility or space Measure Substitution Where possible, the criteria are performance-based to provide the designer or user the most latitude in determining the best overall solution for ECU. Where prescriptive criteria are used, the designer may recommend alternative solutions with justifications to the ECU Physical Security Office for consideration. 4

9 3. Architectural ECU Physical Security Design Criteria A great deal can be done architecturally to mitigate security risks a facility or site faces. These measures often cost nothing or very little if implemented early in the design process. Architectural considerations include building layout and configuration, space design, and building detailing Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) The most efficient way to implement security into a building and campus is through predesign planning. ECU advocates the integration of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principals and strategies in their site planning and facility designs. CPTED focuses on the positive use of space and natural elements to maintain a desirable quality of life for intended users, while increasing the difficulty for criminal or abnormal activities. This is a well-founded concept dating back to the 1960s. The principles focus on the positive use of space to create designs that attract users because they feel safe, while simultaneously making it unattractive and difficult for criminals and terrorists. Various case studies document its effectiveness in reducing campus crime, street crime, burglaries, and other conventional crimes, both domestically and internationally. Incorporated throughout this document are the three main CPTED design principles; territoriality, natural surveillance, and natural access control Territoriality Territoriality clearly defines an area physically or psychologically utilizing physical element to create an environment with a sense of ownership where abnormal behavior, such as unusual loitering or other unauthorized activities, is easily recognized. For example, a clean, well-lit, attractive area will present an environment that encourages intended site users to feel safe and tolerate only acceptable behavior. This same environment has the opposite effect on criminals, as it is easy to observe, identify and report abnormal behavior. This means intended users are more likely to notice and report someone doing something inappropriate. A major component of territoriality is wayfinding, which is a concept where architectural and landscape features are designed with visual clues and signage to direct people or allow them to easily identify where they are and where they should go. Design teams shall incorporate the following items into the design or renovation of ECU facilities to support territoriality. 5

10 Provide a defined boundary around ECU campuses. A formidable barrier is not required but the boundary should provide visual cues as to what is and what is not ECU property. Select pavement patterns, vegetation, low walls, or site features to form physical or psychological separation of areas. Use signage to reinforce or establish territoriality and to support wayfinding, such as: o Provide signage to alert persons that uniformed and plain-clothes officers patrol the facility. o Provide signage to Please report suspicious activity to (###) ###-####. Provide trash receptacles in areas of intended pedestrian use to encourage a clean and kept environment. Apply polyurethane paints that reflect light and resistant to graffiti. Use symbolic barriers when laying out an area, to include open gateways, light standards, low walls, and plantings. Symbolic barriers inform an individual that he/she is passing from a public to private space. Symbolic barriers identified by people as boundary lines serve as defining areas of comparative safety. Many places warrant the use of symbolic barriers, including transition points between a public street and the campus grounds; an area between a building s lobby and its corridors; or hallways on particular floors of a building Natural Surveillance Natural Surveillance supports good visibility in and around the campus and buildings to limit concealment of criminal activities. The concept is to see and be seen; criminals do not like to be seen and guests feel safer when they are seen. A compartmentalized facility with many small out-of-the-way places or obscure corners combined with a lack of windows greatly inhibits the ability for people to see and identify abnormal behavior, which increases the intended users sense of fear. Coordination of interior design, adjacencies, corridors, windows and doors with the layouts of walkway and parking lots can support natural surveillance. Design teams shall incorporate the following design strategies and techniques when designing or renovating a facility. Orientate travel ways perpendicular to buildings. Develop pedestrian pathways and corridors with clear lines of sight. Parking lots rows should be perpendicular to buildings to maximize visibility. 6

11 Landscape architecture that supports security requires a design that integrates natural surveillance, video surveillance, and natural access control. Plant and site furnishing selection should meet the following functional requirements: o Maintain surveillance and access control corridors. o Control access to critical and sensitive areas. o Consider the 10-year growth canopies of trees to avoid conflicts with lighting, video cameras, and emergency call boxes. o Select plantings and establish maintenance schedules to keep shrubs and other low vegetation below 3-feet in height and tree canopies higher than 7-feet to provide clear lines of sight and limit hiding places. o Sidewalks should have a clear space of 3-feet on either side to provide clear lines of sight and reaction time. o Utilize barrier plants (thorny) in areas where pedestrian traffic is undesirable. o Light colored surfaces provide better light reflection for enhanced visual and video surveillance. Avoid constructing large blank walls that limit visibility and can become targets for graffiti; instead encourage the use of walls with windows, architectural details, or foliage. Place facility personnel where they have clear lines of sight of walkways and parking lots through windows and doors. Use baffle type restroom entrances to support visual and audible surveillance and position restroom entrances to be visible from main pedestrian areas but away from outside exits and pay telephones. Avoid dead-end corridors, isolated stairwells, and open areas under stairs. Design open floor plans for offices, classrooms, and laboratories. Include intended gathering areas where practical to increase legitimate use of corridors and lobbies therefore increasing natural surveillance. Gathering Areas A concept that can decrease criminal or abnormal behavior is to provide gathering areas and other architectural features that encourage the appropriate use of a space by intended users (also known as activity support). This can deter crime because criminals do not typically intermix with intended users. These are interior and exterior features around the campuses that include features for students, faculty, and staff and may include barbeque grills, picnic tables, benches, outside eating areas, or basketball courts. Interior features could be student, staff, and faculty lounges, billiard or ping-pong tables, and TV 7

12 or game rooms. These measures can increase security by placing intended users in areas where it will increase natural surveillance and make the areas less desirable for criminal behavior. Caution: Intended users will not use poorly planned or located gathering areas, which may lead to these areas attracting crime Natural Access Control Natural Access Control is about using layout and design elements to easily direct site users in an orderly fashion from one location to another while reinforcing territoriality and aiding natural surveillance. By denying access to targets and creating a perception of risk for offenders this concept decreases the opportunity for criminal activity. The mainstay of natural access control is limiting the number of intended access points to the greatest extent possible without negatively affecting operations as well as to guide people through a space by strategic design. This aids natural surveillance by increasing traffic flow at each of those locations therefore increasing the opportunities for surveillance. Channeling all users through a limited number of entrances increases the ability to see and be seen as well as reduces the number of electronic access control and security cameras required. The number of entrances also makes it harder for criminals to avoid detection or escape. These design elements are also useful tools to clearly indicate public routes and discourage access to private areas. Limit the number of pedestrian and vehicle entrances to ECU facilities. Design these limited entrance to be symbolic as be easily recognized as the intended entrances. Develop pedestrian traffic corridors between high use areas, such as between parking lots and main building entrances. Use site features, building design, and pathways to channel pedestrians and vehicles into intended corridors. Limit the number of entrances into a building without inhibiting its functionality or operations Design Team Guidance ECU encourages design teams to explore these CPTED concepts and principles in their projects. To encourage a multi-disciplinary approach to CPTED, discipline specific strategies are introduced in the following chapters to assist designers in addressing 8

13 security concerns. These strategies help prepare the design team in understanding CPTED and support its benefits in facility designs Site Planning and Design Planners, architects, and landscape designers play an important role in identifying and implementing crucial asset protection measures while considering land use, site selection, the orientation of buildings on the site, and the integration of vehicle access control points, physical barriers, landscaping, parking, and the protection of utilities to mitigate threats. To achieve the optimal balance of the above considerations the design team must work closely with ECU to integrate security requirements early in the design process when mitigation is the least costly and most effective Site Layout The layout of a site (e.g. the placement and form of its buildings, infrastructures, and amenities) is the starting point for this integration. Choices made during this stage of the design process will steer decision-making for the other elements of the site. Conflicts sometimes arise between security site design and conventional site design. To maximize safety, security, and sustainability, designers should implement a holistic approach to site design that integrates form and function to achieve a balance among the various design elements and objectives. Even if resources are limited, significant value can be added to a project by integrating security considerations into the more traditional design tasks in such a way that they complement, rather than compete with, the other elements Building Placement The ideal building placement from a security standpoint incorporates CPTED principles. The placement of the building should provide territorial reinforcement of the ownership by creating a distinction between the public domain and that of the building. This can be accomplished through the use of clear space to separate the two entities. Research has shown that the placement, enclosure, or routing of roadways and traffic can change the nature of a particular area and reduce wrongdoer activity. For example, a particular portion of a street might be closed to vehicular traffic, and streetscape (seats, lighting, planters, etc.) may be added. In a number of 9

14 areas where this technique has been utilized, it has been found that most people know or at least recognize other people up and down the block and suspicious activity on the street is identified. Similar approaches which involve rerouting traffic, using one-way streets, or blocking off streets has reduced wrongdoer activity. The building should be oriented in order to eliminate or at least minimize areas that casual observers cannot see. Provide layers of security Utility Infrastructure Providing power, gas, water, wastewater, and communications services is one of the most basic requirements of any facility. At the site scale, protect all critical lifelines to the maximum extent possible. Protect all controls, interconnections, exposed lines, and other vulnerable elements of infrastructure from access and exploitation by surveillance and/or physical countermeasures. To minimize the possibility of such hazards, apply the following measures: Where possible, provide underground, concealed, and protected utilities. Locate petroleum, oil, and lubricant storage tanks and operations buildings at lower elevations from all other buildings. Locate fuel storage tanks at least 100 feet from buildings. Locate the main fuel storage away from loading docks, entrances, and parking. Access should be restricted and protected (e.g., locks on caps and seals). Place trash receptacles as far away from the building as possible; trash receptacles should not be placed within 30 feet of a building. Locate utility systems at least 50 feet from loading docks, front entrances, and parking areas. Secure manhole covers 10 inches or more in diameter to prevent unauthorized opening. Secure them with locks and hasps, by welding them shut, or by bolting them to their frame. Ensure hasps, locks, and bolts are made of materials that resist corrosion. Keyed bolts (which make removal by unauthorized personnel more difficult) are also available. Locate all meters in readily accessible locations away from critical assets. 10

15 Circulation ECU Physical Security Design Criteria The circulation system determines the movement of people and materials into, through, and out of facilities and sites. Design this system to maximize efficiency while minimizing conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians. Designers should begin with an understanding of the site s transportation requirements based on an analysis of how the planned use o the site and facility. This includes the necessary parking volume, pedestrian patterns and the modes of transportation they will use, and the number and types of access points required. The following items are aspects of transportation planning can affect security Vehicular Control of vehicular movement throughout the site is essential in mitigating vehicleassociated threats. Local traffic patterns, sight distances, and the vehicle type and volume entering the site influence the location of access points. Primary objectives for on-site circulation are to separate vehicles from critical assets, control vehicle speed and approach, provide wayfinding, design safe road and parking area configurations, and provide adequate emergency access. Incorporate the following performance criteria into the site design. Site Access: o Limit number of vehicular entrances to the campuses. o Utilize symbolic site features to distinguish entrances and establish territoriality. Internal Roads: o Ensure placement of the primary road providing access from the perimeter to employee and visitor parking does not encroach upon pedestrian circulation in and around buildings. o Parking and Roadways should maintain a minimum of 33 feet separation from all inhabited facilities. o Equip roadways with traffic calming measures and drop-off locations. o Provide parking lot access roads in a manner that minimizes the need for pedestrian crossings Parking All types of parking facilities have security concerns to protect both people and property. All lots require dedicated pedestrian pathways to establish natural 11

16 surveillance and access control of the parking area and prevent pedestrian traffic from intermixing with vehicular traffic. Remote or secluded parking facilities may require additional electronic security measures such as video camera coverage and emergency call boxes. Use the following criteria in designing parking areas: Orient travel lanes perpendicular to buildings to support natural surveillance and identify crosswalks to ensure safe pedestrian linkage to buildings. Create separate visitor / short-term parking areas with appropriate signage near main building entrances. Provide parking spaces close to the buildings for faculty, staff, and students required to work late on a routine basis. Provide adequate parking spaces for service vehicles adjacent to the loading dock but a minimum of 33 feet (10 meters) from the facility. Provide parking and roadway lighting in each parking zone. o 2.8 foot-candle minimum horizontal (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) standard) o 0.8 foot-candle minimum vertical with uniformity ratio no more than 4:1 (IESNA standard) o Investigate ways to reduce parking lot lighting during times of limited use to reduce energy consumption while maintaining a safe environment. o Avoid placing light poles within the 10-year growth canopy of trees. o Provide minimum illumination for effective operation of security cameras Pedestrian ECU s safety and appeal is dependent on strategic pedestrian circulation design. The objectives are to concentrate activity to assist surveillance, minimize traffic crossings, provide Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) access, and channel movement through the campuses. The ability to identify an unauthorized person on the property is a priority for ECU. Utilize the following criteria when designing the pedestrian circulation. Define linkages from the parking facilities to the campus/building main entrances that correspond to preferred pedestrian routes and minimize road crossings. Provide a drop-off area central to the main entrance to buildings. Provide unobstructed views of pedestrian travel by avoiding hiding places along pedestrian routes and around outdoor spaces intended for pedestrian use. 12

17 Provide vandal-resistant pedestrian-scale illumination as follows: o 1 foot-candle minimum horizontal (IESNA standard) o 0.8 foot-candle minimum vertical with uniformity ratio no more than 4:1 (IESNA standard) o Provide transition lighting within 15 feet of building entrance of a minimum 5 foot-candle. o Avoid placing lighting within 10-year growth canopy of trees. o Provide minimum illumination for effective operation of security cameras. Maintain a minimum of 33 feet between pedestrian traffic and sensitive areas such as the daycare s exterior playground, generators, HVAC equipment, and loading docks. Provide appropriate signage for warnings and wayfinding (site entry, delivery traffic, visitor parking, and drop-off). Consider using specialty pavement techniques to enhance territoriality and wayfinding. Funnel pedestrian walkways to main entrances as a means of supporting natural access control Lighting Reference Electrical Section for specific lighting requirements Site Furnishings Through urban design, practitioners seek to create vibrant, inviting, and functional facilities for people to live, learn, work, and play. Security considerations are a necessary aspect to achieve these types of facilities to protection people and property while reducing liability. People must feel safe when using a facility or they will not use it, which defeats the purpose of creating the facility. This failure can actually result in attracting crime. Utilize street furniture (e.g., mailboxes, bus stop shelters, light poles, street trees, planters, bicycle racks, seating, newspaper boxes, kiosks, and trash receptacles) to enhance security; for example, design bus stop shelters to allow for easy surveillance and detection of suspicious activity and objects. Security measures must not impede access to public entrances or pedestrian flow on adjacent sidewalks. 13

18 Landscape elements in the form of grassed plinths, trees, plantings, fountains, and pools are appropriate, but must be designed as integral parts of a building and its setting as much as possible. Miscellaneous decorative elements such as flagpoles, fountains, pools, gardens, and similar features may be located within an access path to slow movement or restrict access. Trees planted along the inside edge of a public sidewalk and adjacent to pedestrian and vehicular paths can serve dual aesthetic and barrier purposes. The design of bollards, fences, light posts, and other streetscape and landscape elements should form an urban ensemble that helps to create a sense of unity and character. Design and locate security devices to establish consistent, rhythmic patterns along the street, particularly where a number of elements are used in combination to reduce visual street clutter. Provide trash receptacles in areas of intended pedestrian use. Locate bicycle parking within observation of the building entrance. Locate exterior benches and tables in observable locations. Securely anchor all site furnishings to avoid movement. Incorporate vandal-resistance in design of plinth walls to prevent skateboarding, e.g., canted or ridged wall cap Signage Wayfinding is an important function of design that illustrates the importance of coordination among practitioners and community planning, public works, transportation, law enforcement, and fire-rescue organizations. Navigating an unfamiliar environment is important for its success on a day-to-day basis, but becomes critical in an emergency. In addition to overt prompts such as landmarks, architectural elements, and clear, consistent signage and maps, users will subconsciously rely on cues from their surroundings to help them select a path to safety. Similarly, emergency responders will depend in part on these design elements in order to navigate the scene. Signs are an important element of security. Confusion over site circulation, parking, and entrance locations can contribute to a loss of site security. Provide signs off site and at entrances. There should be on-site directional, parking, and cautionary signs for students, faculty, staff, and visitors. Unless required, signs should not identify sensitive areas. 14

19 ECU must approve all signage. The following guidelines are for signage: Cleary post the building address for emergency response. Along service drives, post signage designating short-term / visitor parking and employee-only parking. Post signs at campus and building entrances stating, All persons entering this facility are subject to search. Post signs notifying the use of video surveillance. Locate signs to provide the least obstruction to lines of sight for security personnel. Provide prominent signage that directs visitors to the Visitors Center. Avoid marking outside utilities and areas such as air intakes, fuel supply valves, gas or power distribution locations, evacuation assembly areas, etc Space Planning & Design General The protection of the building interior focuses on the functional layout of spaces. Separating public areas such as the lobby, classrooms, laboratories, loading docks, mailrooms, garages, and retail areas from the more private areas of the facility such as offices, residential areas, and utility areas enhances security by defining areas and consolidating user groups. Achieve this separation by creating internal hard lines or buffer zones, using secondary stairwells, elevator shafts, corridors, and storage areas between public and private areas. Consider the following design measures when laying out interior spaces: Defined Main Entrance Limit Secondary Entrances Align interior corridors Limited recessed or hidden areas Clearly define public and private spaces Group spaces with similar activities together Provide open interior design Do not isolate common areas such as restrooms, study areas, gathering areas. Promote good natural surveillance by providing opportunities for surveillance through the positioning of windows in relation to stairs, corridors, or outside 15

20 areas, continual natural observation will be maintained and crime will be deterred. Locate key assets as far into the interior of a building as possible. Place areas of high visitor activity away from key assets. Locate assets in areas where they are visible to more than one person. Use interior barriers to differentiate levels of security within a building. Stairwells required for emergency egress should be located as remotely as possible from areas where high-risk incidents might occur and, wherever possible, should not discharge into lobbies, parking, or loading areas. No egress paths from public space shall pass through private areas. Clearly defined separation points between public and private areas established territoriality by defining who should be in what area of a building. Consider sheltering in place and assembly areas in space planning Adjacencies Space adjacencies play a critical role in providing effect security for a facility. Just as it is important to place a bathroom adjacent to a dormitory room, it is just a important as not to place a dormitory room next to a laboratory, as the two spaces conflict in use and user type. Consider the security implications of placing two space types adjacent to one another when designing spaces. Group spaces by similar use type, similar user groups, and by the level of security required to protect them Public and Private Separation Points Spaces can typically be defined as public areas and private areas. Public areas are those that are intended to be used by the general population of an area, at ECU this would include lobbies, classrooms, hallways, study areas, and retail spaces. Private areas are those that are intended to be used by only a select group of people, such as resident halls, office spaces, utility rooms, and some laboratories. Grouping private areas is an effective manner to reduce access control requirements, such as walls, door, or card readers. The grouping of private spaces includes both vertical and horizontal access controls to enable adequate separation Shelter-in-Place Shelter-in-Place is the process of securing and protecting people and assets in the general area in which a crisis occurs. Shelter-in-place can be in response to a natural hazard (such as a tornado, hurricane, or other severe storm), a criminal act (such as 16

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