1 Physical Security for Cyborgs Roger G. Johnston, Ph.D., CPP Vulnerability Assessment Team Argonne National Laboratory
2 Argonne National Laboratory ~$738 million annual budget 1500 acres, 3400 employees, 4400 facility users, 1500 students R&D and technical assistance for government & industry
3 Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) The greatest of faults, I should say, is to be conscious of none. -- Thomas Carlyle ( ) A multi-disciplinary team of physicists, engineers, hackers, & social scientists. The VAT has done detailed vulnerability assessments on hundreds of different security devices, systems, & programs. Sponsors DHS DoD DOS IAEA Euratom DOE/NNSA private companies intelligence agencies public interest organizations
4 Definition Security Theater: sham or ceremonial security; Measures that ostensibly protect people or assets but that actually do little or nothing to counter adversaries. Actual Courtroom Testimony: Witness (a Physician): He was probably going to lose the leg, but at least maybe we could get lucky and save the toes.
5 Security Theater 1. Best way to spot it is with an effective thorough VA. 2. Next best is to look for the characteristic attributes: Sense of urgency A very difficult security problem Involves fad and/or pet technology Questions, concerns, & dissent are not welcome or tolerated The magic security device, measure, or program has lots of feel good aspects to it Strong emotion, over confidence, arrogance, ego, and/or pride related to the security Conflicts of interest No well-defined adversary No well-defined use protocol No effective VAs; no devil s advocate The technical people involved are mostly engineers Intense desire to save the world leads to wishful thinking People who know little about security or the technology are in charge
6 Facts About Locks 1. Locks are meant to delay, complicate, and discourage unauthorized access. 2. All locks can be defeated quickly, even by sufficiently motivated amateurs. 3. Ways to defeat locks include picking, bumping, rifling, jiggling a blank key, drilling out the lock, attacking the electronics, etc. - Who are you and how did you get in here? - I'm a locksmith. And, I'm a locksmith. -- Lieutenant Frank Drebin in Police Squad
7 Blunder: Cheap Locks on Security Hardware
8 Facts About Access Control Devices For most AC systems (including biometrics), it s easy to tamper with the: power I do not care to belong to a club that software accepts people like me as members. hardware -- Groucho Marx ( ) database tamper switch microprocessor communications key or password door lock or turnstile
9 9 9
10 Facts About Access Control Devices For most AC systems (including biometrics), it s easy to: clone the signature of an authorized person do a man-in-the-middle (MM) attack access the database or password counterfeit the device install a backdoor The first time we ever made love, I said, Am I the first man who ever made love to you? She said, You could be. You look damn familiar. -- Ronnie Bullard
11 Backdoor or MM Attacks The importance of a cradle-to-grave, secure chain of custody: As with most security devices, AC devices can usually be compromised in 15 seconds (at the factory or vendor, on the loading dock, in transit, in the receiving department, or after being installed). Most security devices have little built-in security or ability to detect intrusion/tampering. Sometimes security implementations look fool proof. And by that I mean proof that fools exist. -- Dan Philpott
12 Security of Security Products
13 Remote Toggling On/Off of Cheating I have been called dumb, crazy man, science abuser, Holocaust denier, villain of the month, hate-filled, warmonger, Neanderthal, Genghis Khan, and Attila the Hun. And I can just tell you that I wear some of those titles proudly. -- Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe
14 Blunder: Wrong Assumptions about Counterfeiting Usually much easier than developers, vendors, & manufacturers claim. Often overlooked: The bad guys usually only needed to mimic only the superficial appearance of the original and (maybe) some of the apparent performance of the product or the security device, not the thing itself, or its real performance. Rarely is full reverse engineering necessary. Sincerity is everything. If you can fake that, you ve got it made. -- George Burns ( )
15 Access Control (AC) Question: Is that really your AC device, or is it a counterfeit or a tampered version? ( perhaps one that lets anybody in, with occasional random false rejects to look realistic.) Check at random, unpredictable times with random, unpredictable people that the unauthorized are rejected. I was the kid next door s imaginary friend. -- Emo Philips
16 Access Control (AC) Blunders Bad door or turnstile design Not registering when the door is opened Not tracking who exits No role-based access; Not changing access with promotions & personnel changes Not securing the equipment and personnel that make ID badges "Badges? We don't need no stinkin' badges! -- From the movie The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) [The actual dialog was, Badges? We ain't got no badges. We don't need no badges! I don't have to show you any stinkin' badges! ]
17 Biometrics Blunders All the blunders of access control, plus: Not understanding how easy it is to counterfeit a biometric signature though why would an adversary bother? Downloading the entire database to satellite stations Not turning off the enroll function on satellite stations Believing the snake oil & bogus performance specs I m always amazed to hear of accident victims being identified by their dental records. If they don t know who you are, how do they know who your dentist is? -- Paul Merton
18 Terminology (tamper-indicating) seal: a device or material that leaves behind evidence of unauthorized entry. I d say, It s a Buttmaster, Your Holiness. -- Suzanne Somers on how she would respond if the Pope asked her the name of the exercise machine she promotes
19 Terminology (con t) defeating a seal: opening a seal, then resealing (using the original seal or a counterfeit) without being detected. attacking a seal: undertaking a sequence of actions designed to defeat it. Radisson Welcomes Emerging Infectious Diseases -- Sign outside a Radisson Hotel
20 Seal Fact A seal is not a lock. Yanking a seal off a container is not defeating it! 20
21 Seals Some examples of the commercial seals Example Seal Applications: customs cargo security counter-terrorism nuclear safeguards counter-espionage banking & couriers drug accountability records & ballot integrity evidence chain of custody weapons & ammo security IT security medical sterilization instrument calibration tamper-evident packaging waste management & HAZMAT accountability
22 Seals are easy to defeat: Percent of seals that can be defeated in less than a given amount of time by 1 person using only low-tech methods 244 different kinds of seals
23 Summary of Seals Results parameter mean median attack time 1.4 mins 43 secs cost of tools & supplies $78 $5 marginal cost of attack 62 9 time to devise successful attack 2.3 hrs 12 mins
24 Seal Facts 1. All seals need a unique identifier (like a serial number). 2. A seal must be inspected, either manually or with an automated reader, to learn anything about tampering or intrusion. The person doing this must know exactly what they are looking for. 3. Unlike locks & safes, defeating seals is more about fooling people & the inspection protocol than beating hardware. 4. Adhesive label seals do not provide effective tamper detection, even against amateurs. It s better to be looked over than overlooked. -- Mae West ( ) in Belle of the Nineties,
25 Seal Use Protocol A seal is no better than its formal and informal use protocol......how the seal is: manufactured procured shipped stored checked out installed inspected removed destroyed after use And how the seal data and reader are stored & protected and How the seal installers/inspectors are trained.
26 Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Label Seals Lifting & Counterfeiting are easy. Lifting is usually the most likely attack. The difficulty of either attack is almost always greatly over-estimated by seal manufacturers, vendors, & users. If the recipient doesn t know what the seal and envelope (or container) is supposed to look like, you are wasting your time. [This information cannot accompany the seal.] Nothing is like it seems, but everything is exactly like it is. -- Yogi Berra
27 Installation It is essential to feel the surface to check that the adversary hasn t pre-treated it to reduce adhesion. Full adhesion requires 48+ hours. A PSA seal is particularly easy to lift the first few minutes to hours. Heat can help. For the third goal, I blame the ball. -- Saudi goalkeeper Mohammed Al-Deayea
28 Inspection Smell can be a powerful tool for detecting attacks. Or use a handchemical sniffer ($150-$9K). held (As with all seals) compare the seal side-by-side with an unused seal you have protected. Check size, color, gloss, font, & digit spacing/alignment. Carefully examine the surface area outside the perimeter of the label seal. The best test for tampering is to closely observe how the label seal behaves when it is removed.
29 Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Label Seals A blink comparator is a very powerful tool for detecting tampering with PSA label seals.
30 The Good News: Countermeasures Most of the seal attacks have simple and inexpensive countermeasures, but the seal installers & inspectors must understand the seal vulnerabilities, look for likely attacks, & have extensive hands-on training. Also: better seals are possible! The prophet who fails to present a bearable alternative and yet preaches doom is part of the trap he postulates. -- Margaret Mead ( )
31 Conventional Seal: Stores the evidence of tampering until the seal can be inspected. But this alarm condition is easy to erase or hide (or a fresh seal can be counterfeited). Anti-Evidence Seal: When the seal is first installed, we store secret information that tampering hasn t been detected. When the seal is opened this Anti-Evidence is quickly erased. There s nothing left to erase, hide, or counterfeit. Don t play what s there, play what s not there. -- Miles Davis ( ) 31
32 20+ New Anti-Evidence Seals better security no hasp required no tools to install or remove seal can go inside the container 100% reusable, even if mechanical Talking Cargo Seal can monitor volumes or areas, not just portals anti-gundecking automatically verifying that the seal was inspected Tie Dye Seal Chirping Tag/Seal Time Trap
33 Tampering with Urine Drug Tests It s easy to tamper with urine test kits. Most urine testing programs (government, companies, athletes) have very poor security protocols. Emphasis has been on false negatives, but false positives are equally troubling. Serious implications for safety, courts, public welfare, national security, fairness, careers, livelihood, reputations, sports. Journal of Drug Issues 39, (2009)
34 Confusing Inventory & Security Inventory Counting and locating stuff No nefarious adversary May detect innocent errors by insiders, but not surreptitious attacks by insiders or outsiders. Security Meant to counter nefarious adversaries (insiders and outsiders) Watch out for mission creep: inventory systems that come to be viewed as security systems!
35 Examples of confusing Inventory & Security rf transponders (RFIDs) contact memory buttons GPS Usually easy to: * lift * counterfeit * tamper with the reader * spoof the reader from a distance Very easy to spoof, not just jam!
36 A Sampling of RFID Hobbyist Attack Kits Available on the Internet Commercial: $20 Car RFID Clone (Walmart) Commercial: Used for faking RFID tags, reader development. RFID Skimmers, Sniffers, Spoofers, and Cloners; oh my! Documents, code, plans needed to build your own: free. There is a huge danger to customers using this (RFID) technology, if they don't think about security. -- Lukas Grunwald (creator of RFDump)
37 Facts About Prox Cards All the vulnerabilities of regular access control technologies. Plus, they are RFIDs (so they re really not secure)! It had only one fault. It was kind of lousy. -- James Thurber ( )
38 GPS: Not a Security Technology The private sector, foreigners, and 90+% of the federal government must use the civilian GPS satellite signals. These are unencrypted and unauthenticated. They were never meant for critical or security applications, yet GPS is being used that way! GPS signals can be: Blocked, Jammed, or Spoofed
39 Spoofing Civilian GPS Receivers Easy to do with widely available GPS satellite simulators. These can be purchased, rented, or stolen. Not export controlled. Many are surprisingly user friendly. Little expertise is needed in electronics, computers, or GPS to use them. Spoofing can be detected for ~$15 of parts retail (but there s no interest).
40 GPS Spoofing
41 GPS Spoofing 600 mph! pegged signal strength
42 GPS Spoofing
43 Some Potential GPS Spoofing Attacks Crash national utility, financial, telecommunications & computer networks that rely on GPS for critical time synchronization Steal cargo or nuclear material being tracked by GPS Install false time stamps in security videos or financial transactions Send emergency response vehicles to the wrong location after an attack Interfere with military logistics (DoD uses civilian GPS for cargo) Interfere with battlefield soldiers using civilian GPS (against policy, but common practice anyway) Spoof GPS ankle bracelets used by courts and GPS data loggers used for counter-intelligence The creativity of the adversary is the only limitation
44 Blunder: Poor Insider Threat Countermeasures Employee disgruntlement is a risk factor for workplace violence, sabotage, theft, espionage, and employee turnover (which is not good for security). While disgruntlement is certainly not the only insider threat issue, it is an important one. Question on a job application form: Do you support the overthrow of the government by force, subversion, or violence? Answer from one applicant: Violence.
45 Blunder: Poor Insider Threat Countermeasures Phony or non-existent grievance & complaint resolution processes (Note: if good, they ll be used a lot) Employee perceptions are the only reality! Phony or non-existent anonymous whistle blower program & anonymous tip hot line No constraints on bully bosses or HR tyranny Emphasis on being fair instead of treating EVERYBODY well Not managing expectations. Wow if only a face could talk! -- Sportscaster John Madden during Super Bowl coverage
46 Warning: Multiple Layers of Security ( Security in Depth ) Increases cost & complexity Multiple layers of bad security do not equal good security. Often mindlessly applied: the layers are not automatically backups for each other, or may even interfere with each other Leads to complacency Tends to be a cop-out to avoid improving any 1 layer or thinking critically about security How many sieves do you have to stack before the water won t leak through? Security is only as good as the weakest link. -- old adage
47 So Why So Much Bad Physical Security? I watch a lot of game shows and I ve come to realize that the people with the answers come and go, but the man who asks the questions has a permanent job. -- Gracie Allen (1895? 1964) Security Theater is easy, thinking and Real Security is hard Committees, bureaucrats, & other knuckleheads are in charge People & organizations aren t used to thinking critically about it Physical Security as a Taking Out the Garbage slam dunk thing If it s important, somebody must have thought it through Myth Lots of hype, snake oil, & bad products Blind faith in precedence and authorities Physical security is not a well developed field
48 Physical Security: Scarcely a Field at All - You can t (for the most part) get a degree in it from a major 4-year research university. - Not widely attracting young people, the best & the brightest. - Few peer-review, scholarly journals or R&D conferences. - Lots of Snake Oil & Security Theater - Shortage of models, fundamental principles, metrics, rigor, R&D, standards, guidelines, critical thinking, & creativity. - Often dominated by bureaucrats, committees, groupthink, linear/concrete/wishful thinkers. Harry Solomon: I didn t have enough experience to sell hot dogs, so they made me a security guard Third Rock from the Sun
49 What Physical Security Could Learn From Cyber Security Vulnerabilities are numerous, ubiquitous, inevitable, & constantly evolving They don t automatically mean somebody has been screwing up Scapegoating isn t very helpful Security is not binary, it s a continuum Customer focus: productivity has to be an issue in security How to motivate good security practice among regular employees Past criminals can make good consultants Technology is not a panacea security is really about people Regular employees are the security, not the enemy of security Lose the coat & tie!
50 What Cyber Security Could Learn From Physical Security Discipline, Leadership, Organizational Skills, & Being a Team Player Understanding where you fit into the organization Techniques for dealing with upper management Making the business case for security Effective project management & budgeting; meeting deadlines Females can be very effective security professionals Street smarts, people skills, & a good understanding of psychology Dealing with Social Engineering & the Insider Threat Realization that good cyber security requires good physical security Maybe that T-shirt could be washed once in a while!
51 For More Information... Related papers, reports, and presentations are available from (includes Security Maxims) If you look for truth, you may find comfort in the end; if you look for comfort you will get neither truth nor comfort only soft soap and wishful thinking to begin, and in the end, despair. -- C.S. Lewis ( )
52 Supplemental material
53 Talking Truck Cargo Seal: An Anti-Evidence, Audio Seal Seal: $15 of parts (retail) Reader: $40 of parts (retail) I hope you believe you understand what you think I said, but I m not sure you realize that what you ve heard is not what I meant. -- Richard Nixon ( )
54 Talking Truck Cargo Seal: Sample Slogans At Least One Fire Extinguisher per Dozen Trucks The Best People You Can Hire for $8 an Hour The Center Lane Marker is Only a Suggestion Amphetamines Aren t for Amateurs We Break for Small, Furry Animals Not in Front of the Teamsters! Mad Max Works for Us We Eat Our Road Kill The Go in Cargo We ll Make it Fit!
55 Security Cameras Research (for the most part) shows that security cameras: - Don t prevent crime - Can sometimes help solving crimes - Can be useful for criminal prosecution Common Sense Rule: If you re going to bother having a security camera, make sure the resolution is sufficient to recognize your own mother. The video recording system is the main cause of poor quality images. Shoot a few scenes out of focus. I want to win the foreign film award. -- Billy Wilder ( )
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