Impact of the perceived public image of nursing on nurses work behaviour

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Impact of the perceived public image of nursing on nurses work behaviour"

Transcription

1 NURSING AND HEALTHCARE MANAGEMENT AND POLICY Impact of the perceived public image of nursing on nurses work behaviour Miyuki Takase PhD RN Research Fellow, School of Nursing, Deakin University/Cabrini Hospital, Victoria, Australia Phillip Maude PhD RN Senior Lecturer, School of Nursing, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Elizabeth Manias PhD RN Associate Professor, School of Nursing, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Accepted for publication April 5 Correspondence: Miyuki Takase, School of Nursing, Deakin University/Cabrini Hospital, 8 Wattletree Road, Malvern, Victoria 44, Australia. TAKASE M., MAUDE P. & MANIAS E. (6) Journal of Advanced Nursing 5(), 4 Impact of the perceived public image of nursing on nurses work behaviour Aim. This paper reports a study comparing nurses perceptions of their public image with their self-image, and examining how the relationship between their perceived public image and self-image was associated with their job performance and turnover intentions. Background. The stereotypical public image of nursing is a major concern to nurses. However, it is relatively unknown how this image affects nurses. A few studies have investigated how nurses interpretations of their public image affect their self-image and work behaviour. Methods. A convenience sample of 46 Australian nurses participated in a questionnaire study in. The results were analysed by t-test, polynomial regression and response surface analysis. Six participants from the survey participated in a focus group to provide further interpretation of the findings. Results. Nurses rated their aptitude for leadership more positively than they thought the public viewed them. In contrast, nurses rated their image as being caring less negatively than their perceived public image. Job performance was predicted by selfimage relating to leadership aptitude. On the contrary, the relationship between selfimage and perception of the public image as being caring predicted job performance. When nurses perceived their public image as caring less positively than their selfimage, their job performance tended to improve. As for turnover intention, both self-image and perceived public images of having an aptitude for leadership and being caring were negatively related to intention to quit the job. Conclusion. To enhance nurses job performance and reduce their turnover intentions, it is important to improve both the public image and self-image of nurses. Keywords: nurse, nursing, nursing image, organizational behaviour of nurses, person environment fit, professional development Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

2 M. Takase et al. Introduction Nursing is a profession that has long been troubled with its public image. The public has a stereotypical view of nursing, in which nurses may be regarded as less intelligent than doctors, dependent on doctors, powerless and underpaid (Reiskin & Haussler 994, Tomey et al. 996, Rossiter et al. 998, Hemsley-Brown & Foskett 999, Tang et al. 999). This view, however, may not be an accurate portrayal. While there have been many studies on the public image of nurses, there is a lack of research on how nurses actually perceive their public image. There is also a lack of knowledge of how nurses interpret their public image based on their self-image, and how this interpretation affects their work behaviour. This lack of knowledge arises because the public image of nursing is often discussed in the context of recruitment (for example, Nurse Recruitment and Retention Committee ). A poor public image of nursing may affect not only nursing recruitment, but also nurses attitudes towards work (Takase et al. ). The aims of this study were to explore how nurses perceive their public image, to compare this with their self-image, and to examine how this relationship affected their job performance and intention to leave their jobs (hereafter referred to as turnover intention). Theoretical framework The person environment fit theory was adopted to investigate these relationships The person environment fit refers to a perceived compatibility between employees characteristics and those of the work environment, or between employees occupational needs and organizational capability to reinforce those needs (Dawis & Lofquist 984, Walsh & Holland 99). The theory contends that when employees perceive a fit between the person and environment, they tend to manifest favourable occupational behaviours, such as increased job performance and job satisfaction, and low intention to leave their job (Dawis & Lofquist 984, Walsh & Holland 99). When they perceive a misfit (i.e. incompatibility between their characteristics and those of the environment/job), employees experience frustration and dissatisfaction with their job. To reduce the burden, employees attempt to maintain the person environment fit by adjusting their characteristics to the environment or by attempting to modify their environment. The ultimate solution to avoiding this burden is to leave an organization or an occupation and to look for a more compatible environment or job (French & Kahn 96, Dawis & Lofquist 984). A hypothesized model illustrating the relationship between the person environment fit and job performance is illustrated in Figure. In this figure, the score of the perceived public image (i.e. the environmental factor) is described along the x- axis, that of nurses self-image (i.e. the personal factor) along the y-axis, and that of job performance along the z-axis. The larger scores along the x-, y-, and z-axes indicate positive responses to perceived public image, nurses self-image and job performance. The fit between the perceived public image and nurses self-image (hereafter referred to as the image fit) is represented by the Y ¼ X line, which is illustrated by the straight line in the xy-plane. Along the Y ¼ X line, the scores of the perceived public image correspond to those of nurses self-image. As depicted in Figure, when nurses perceive the image fit, their job performance is constantly high. The image misfit is illustrated along the Y ¼ X line, which is illustrated by the dotted line in the xy-plane, and where the scores of the perceived public image contradict the nurses self-image. The misfit along the Y ¼ X line is viewed as a continuum in which the midpoint of the line represents the image fit, whereas both ends of the line represent the extreme misfit. Along the Y ¼ X line, the surface illustrating job performance shows a downwards curve, suggesting nurses job performance becomes lower when they perceive a greater image misfit (Edwards & Parry 99). As for the relationship between image fit and turnover intention, the curvilinear relationship illustrated in Figure is Job performance Self-image(y-axis) Public image (x-axis) Figure A hypothesized model illustrates the three-dimensional relationship between nurses self-image, the perception of their public image and their job performance (based on the work of Edwards & Parry 99). The straight line in the xy-plane illustrates the Y ¼ X line, while the dotted line illustrates the Y ¼ X line. 4 Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

3 Nursing and healthcare management and policy Impact of the perceived public image of nursing Turnover intention Self-image (y-axis) 5 inverse; that is, the surface is an upward curved along Y ¼ X line, indicating that the misfit contributes to an increased turnover intention of nurses (Figure ) (Edwards & Parry 99). Various dimensions of person environment relationships and their effects on employees work behaviours have been investigated in the fields of psychology and organizational studies. Examples include relationships between job characteristics and employees vocational interests (Fritzsche et al. 999, Ton & Hansen ), and between employees work values and organizational culture (O Reilly et al. 99, Livingstone et al. 997, Edwards ). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between employees professional self-image and how they are perceived by others in their environment. Takase et al. () compared nurses self-image with nurses perception of the public image, and found that nurses had a significantly more positive self-image compared with how they perceived their public image. The results also showed that the image misfit was negatively associated with nurses job satisfaction and job performance. Friedman and Harber (99) tested the impact of the image fit on teacher burnout and found a negative association. While these studies inform the impact of the image fit on nurses job performance and turnover intention, their findings are susceptible to methodological limitations. This is because the investigators used the absolute difference score between Public image (x-axis) Figure A hypothesized model illustrates the three-dimensional relationship between nurses self-image, the perception of their public image and their turnover intentions (based on the work of Edwards & Parry 99). The straight line in the xy-plane illustrates the Y ¼ X line, while the dotted line illustrates Y ¼ X line. self-image and the image perceived by others to represent the degree of the image fit. The use of the difference score has been criticized for two reasons (Edwards ). First, the difference score obscures the individual effects of personal and environmental factors as they are hidden in the single index. Secondly, there is a problem relating to the equation used to produce the difference score. A simple algebraic difference score is expressed as Z ¼ b þ b (E P) þ e ¼ b þ b E b P þ e, where Z represents a dependent variable, E for an environmental factor and P for an employee s factor. According to Edwards (), the use of a single index of the person environment fit assumes untested assumptions, such as that the coefficient on E must be equal in magnitude to that on P with an opposite sign. An absolute difference score involves more complex assumptions. The present study addressed these methodological concerns by adopting more sophisticated procedures in order to examine the effect of the image (mis)fit on nurses job performance and turnover intention. The study Aim The aim of the study was to answer the following research questions: How do nurses perceive their public image compared with their self-image? How does the image (mis)fit affect nurses work behaviour? The hypotheses tested were: The image fit is positively related to increased job performance of nurses. The image fit is positively related to low turnover intention of nurses. Design A correlational design was adopted, using questionnaires and a focus group. The data were collected in. Participants The study participants were a convenience sample of 94 Registered Nurses who had completed a -year nursing diploma or degree programme and were working in a variety of clinical settings. These nurses were from a metropolitan public hospital, a rural public hospital, or were studying as postregistration students at a university in Victoria, Australia. For the hospitals, questionnaires were distributed by nurse unit managers at the request of the researchers. Question- Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 5

4 M. Takase et al. naires were sent to a large number of nurses in order to obtain a minimum of respondents, with which it is sufficient to conduct factor analysis and to maintain an adequate statistical power to detect 5% increase of variances in regression analysis. Completed questionnaires were returned using a selfaddressed reply-paid envelope. For the university group, we visited classrooms with the permission of subject coordinators and distributed questionnaires to students. Students were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaires in the classroom or at home. To seek focus group participants, fliers were sent to hospital nurses and university student nurses. In addition, face-to-face recruitment of hospital nurses was conducted by visiting each ward. A total of six nurses who had participated in the previous survey took part in the focus group. Data collection Questionnaire Nurses self-image and their perception of the public image of nurses were measured using a shortened version of the Porter Nursing Image Scale (Porter & Porter 99). The original Porter Scale consists of matched-pair, bipolar adjectives, which are rated on a seven-point semantic differential scale. To reduce the time needed to answer the questionnaire, 7 single/unipolar adjective items from the scale were administered to participants. Twelve items measured leadership aptitudes, and five measured caring aptitudes. These items were rated on a forced-choice six-point Likert scale, with higher scores indicating positive images. Job performance was measured using four items derived from the Task Performance Scale (Goodman & Svyantek 999), with minor rewording made. The original Task Performance Scale consisted of nine items, measured on a seven-point Likert scale. However, we used a forced-choice six-point Likert scale. High scores indicate a positive evaluation of organizational job performance based on organizational objectives. Turnover intention was assessed initially using five items based on the three-item Withdrawal Cognitions Scale, which measures turnover cognition in three factors (i.e. thinking of quitting, searching for a job, and intention to quit; Mowday et al. 984). This original three-item scale was reworded to measure two different reasons for nurses turnover: leaving the current organization to look for a new nursing job (three items) and leaving the nursing profession itself (two items). These items were also rated on a six-point Likert scale, with a high score indicating high turnover intention. Focus group A schedule of open-ended questions was used to explore the selective findings of the survey study. The focus group session was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Validity and reliability To establish the validity of the modified instruments, the following steps were taken. Prior to administration of the questionnaire to participants, the questionnaire was reviewed by a panel of nursing experts using the Index of Content Validity to establish the relevance of the instruments to the study (Waltz et al. 984). The questionnaire was then pilottested with 6 postregistration students. After administering the instruments, a factor analysis was conducted to establish construct validity. The reliability of the modified instruments was assessed with Cronbach s alpha. The rigour of data collection in the focus group was maintained by checking the researcher s understandings with the participants at the end of each question. As a means of checking that the content of the data accurately reflected participants views, they were asked to review the focus group transcription. Except for minor editorial changes, they made no alterations to this. The data analysis was conducted by the first author and was re-validated by the second author. Ethical considerations Ethics approval was obtained from all participating institutions. All participants received a letter explaining the purposes and procedures of the study. Consent to participate was assumed by return of the questionnaire. Written informed consent was obtained from the focus group participants. Data analysis Correlational study A paired t-test was used to compare nurses self-image and their perception of the public image. The hypotheses were tested using polynomial regression and response surface analysis. The procedures of polynomial regression analysis described by Edwards () are as follows. Polynomial regression analysis began with identifying the regression equation for the hypothesized model. As shown in Figures and, the hypothesized models involve a curvilinear relationship, with a greater discrepancy between nurses self-image and the perceived public image contributing to reduced job performance and increased turnover intention. Thus, the equation to predict nurses organizational job performance was 6 Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

5 Nursing and healthcare management and policy OP ¼ b b ðpi NIÞ þ e; ðþ where organizational job performance is represented as OP, perceived public image as PI, nurses self-image as NI, the coefficients as b (b is a constant), and the unexplained error as e. Expanding this equation gave the following: OP ¼ b b PI þ b PI NI b NI þ e: This expanded equation was compared with a general (unconstrained) quadratic equation: OPðor TIÞ ¼ b þ b PI þ b NI þ b PI þ b 4 PI NI þ b 5 NI þ e: It was identified that the coefficients in equation must meet the following assumptions (constraints) in order to correspond to equation : () b ¼ ; () b ¼ ; () b ¼ b 5 and b and b 5 are negative; and (4) b þ b 4 þ b 5 ¼. The equation predicting turnover intention (represented as TI) was: TI ¼ b þ b ðpi NIÞ þ e ¼ b þ b PI b PI NI þ b NI þ e: Comparing equation 4 with equation, the same four assumptions in equation were identified, except that b and b 5 are positive. In order to examine whether the relationship between nurses self-image, their perception of the public image and their work behaviour would support the hypotheses, the unconstrained quadratic equation (i.e. equation ) was entered for regression analysis. In this analysis, an exploratory procedure was used because this helps to identify an appropriate model to explain nurses work behaviour beyond the hypothesis testing. Thus, the monotonic terms of PI and NI were entered together first into regression. Then, the quadratic terms of PI and NI (i.e. PI,PI NI and NI ) were added as a set. If the relationship is curvilinear, there should be a statistically significant increase in the variance when the quadratic terms are added to the regression analysis. When a statistically significant increase was identified, visual examination of the coefficients was made to see whether the appropriate coefficients were statistically significant and if they were in the hypothesized directions, as shown in equation or 4. This visual examination was followed by a statistical examination of the four identified assumptions by imposing them on the unconstrained regression equation. For the hypothesized model to be satisfied, these constraints should not be rejected. Finally, the cubic terms of PI and NI (i.e. PI,PI NI, PI NI,NI ) were added to the regression analysis to determine whether the relationship was truly ðþ ðþ ð4þ quadratic, but not cubic in nature. To support the hypotheses, these cubic terms should be rejected. Response surface analysis was conducted to further examine whether the curvilinear relationships identified by polynomial regression analysis would fit the hypothesized model illustrated in Figures or. The detailed procedures of the analysis are described by Edwards () and Edwards and Parry (99). Focus group Focus group data were analysed using the framework method, which involved becoming familiar with the data through listening to the tape and reading transcriptions, identifying a thematic framework, indexing the transcription in accordance with the thematic framework, charting the index/subindex, and interpreting the data (Ritchie & Spencer 994). Results Impact of the perceived public image of nursing A total of 46 questionnaires were returned, which represented a response rate of 6Æ7%. The demographics of the survey participants are presented in Table. The reliability of the instruments, means of the variables, and results of the t-test are presented in Table. Nurses rated their overall self-image statistically significantly more positively than how they believed the public viewed them. This difference was more prominently observed in leadership aptitudes. As shown in Figure, nurses rated their self-image as being leaders much higher than the perceived public image. They also rated themselves as more independent, intelligent, professional, and logical than their perceived public image. With reference to the image of nursing as being powerful, nurses rated their self-image and the public image as low. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between nurses self-image as being caring and their perception of the public image. In fact, respondents rated their public image slightly more positively than how they perceived themselves (Figure 4). Table presents the results of polynomial regression analysis. As for leadership aptitudes, the unconstrained monotonic models explained the statistically significant variances with both nurses organizational job performance and turnover intention. When the quadratic terms were added to both models; however, they did not increase the explained variances, thus rejecting the hypothesized curvilinear models. These results suggest that nurses organizational job performance can be predicted by a linear relationship with their selfimage as having leadership aptitudes. Their turnover intention can be predicted by linear relationships with both their selfimage and the perception of their public image as leaders. Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 7

6 M. Takase et al. Table Demographics of survey participants Characteristic Percentage (n) Gender Female 9Æ7 (6) Male 7Æ (5) Work status Full-time ( 5 hour/week) 58Æ9 () Part-time (<5 hour/week) 4Æ (4) Age (mean) Æ6 years (range 68, SD ¼ 9Æ4) Currently studying or have completed postgraduate courses Yes 67Æ9 (6) No Æ (7) Have a diploma Æ7 (9) Have a degree Æ4 (68) Clinical specialty Critical (including intensive care unit, 4 (7) emergency, cardiology, coronary care unit) Medical/surgical 7Æ8 (96) Chronic (including aged care, mental, 9Æ4 (67) palliative and oncology) Paediatric 5Æ8 () Others Æ (44) Clinical position Clinical staff 9Æ4 () Others (including nurse unit manager) 9Æ6 () The total sample size ranges from to 45 because of missing values. Table Reliability of the instruments, the means and the results of the t-test Variables Reliability Mean (SD) t-test Overall image Nurses self-image Æ89 4Æ96 (Æ5) t(4) ¼ Æ Perceived public image Æ9 4Æ48 (Æ68) P < Æ Leadership aptitudes Nurses self-image Æ87 4Æ88 (Æ55) t(4) ¼ 6Æ46 Perceived public image Æ9 4Æ7 (Æ79) P < Æ* Caring aptitudes Nurses self-image Æ85 5Æ6 (Æ66) t(4) ¼ Æ9 Perceived public image Æ88 5Æ (Æ7) P > Æ5* Organizational job Æ8 5Æ9 (Æ58) performance Turnover intention Æ79 Æ7 (Æ6) n ¼ 4 due to system missing. *The significance level was adjusted by the sequential Bonferroni procedure to control type I error (Holland & Copenhaver 988). With reference to caring aptitudes, the unconstrained monotonic model explained the statistically significant variance with their turnover intention. However, the quadratic terms did not add a statistically significant variance to the Leader Perceived public image Nurses' self-image Intelligent Logical Independent Professional Confident In control Competent Rational Powerful Responsible Organised Figure Comparison of respondents self-image and their perception of the public image of them as having leadership aptitude Warm Perceived public image Nurses' self-image Nurturing Patient Compassionate Respectful Figure 4 Comparison of nurses self-image and their perception of the public image of nurses as having caring aptitude. model. These results suggest that the relationship between nurses turnover intention, their self-image and the perceived public image is linear with nurses self-image and public image individually explaining nurses turnover intention. On the contrary, the results indicate that nurses organizational job performance is better explained by a curvilinear relationship with nurses caring aptitudes and their perception of the public image of nurses as being caring. As shown in Table, the quadratic terms of caring aptitudes added a statistically significant variance to the monotonic model. The coefficients on the perceived public image, interaction between the perceived public image and nurses self-image, and higher order term of the nurses self-image were statistically significant. However, the coefficient on the quadratic term of the perceived public image was insignificant, and all the 8 Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

7 Nursing and healthcare management and policy Impact of the perceived public image of nursing Table Results of polynomial regression analysis Relationships The first step: monotonic model (B) The second step: unconstrained quadratic model (B) PI NI R PI NI PI PI NI NI R Change in R from first to second step (F-change). Leadership aptitudes and job performance Caring aptitudes and job performance Leadership aptitudes and turnover intention Caring aptitudes and turnover intention Æ4 Æ59** Æ8** Æ Æ5** Æ Æ8 Æ5 Æ9** F(, 6) ¼ Æ7 Æ6** Æ9** Æ5** Æ** Æ Æ Æ6** Æ** Æ9** F(, 5) ¼ 4Æ6* Æ** Æ** Æ7** Æ Æ6 Æ Æ Æ Æ7** F(, 6) ¼ Æ7 Æ** Æ47** Æ5** Æ46** Æ7** Æ Æ Æ9 Æ6** F(, 4) ¼ Æ PI, perceived public image; NI, nurses self-image. *P < Æ5; **P < Æ. The significance level was controlled by the sequential Bonferroni procedure. n ¼. In this analysis, outliers were screened out to improve the accuracy of the prediction. Data transformation to reduce the outliers was not favoured. This was because the regression equation involved higher order and interaction terms. Thus, data transformation would make the interpretation of the findings difficult. Deleting outliers reduces the generalizability of study findings. However, it should be noted that the overall findings without outliers were consistent with those with all the cases included. Constant is omitted in this table. Prior to the analysis, a linear data transformation was made to reduce multicolinearity by subtracting 4Æ5 from the scores of both nurses selfimage and their perception of the public image of nurses. Thus, the scales range from 4Æ5 toþæ5 in this analysis. coefficients on the quadratic terms had opposite signs to those identified in equation. The patterns of these coefficients did not follow the hypothesized model. In fact, the constraints were rejected [F(4, 5) ¼ 8Æ4, P < Æ] when they were imposed on the unconstrained quadratic model. The cubic terms were also rejected [F(4, ) ¼ Æ, P > Æ5]. This led to the conclusion that the relationship was quadratic, but it did not support the hypothesized model. Figure 5 shows the three-dimensional relationship between nurses self-image and the perceived public image of being caring, and organizational job performance. In this figure, a linear transformation of the scores for nurses selfimage and their perceived public image was made in a way that the scores ranged from Æ5 toþæ5, with higher scores indicating more positive images. This transformation makes it easier to compare the results of response surface analysis with the hypothesized model illustrated in Figure. Figure 5 shows that the surface along the Y ¼ X line was positively sloped (a x ¼ Æ54) and its curvature is a x ¼ Æ. Yet, response surface analysis shows that this slope and curvature were not statistically significantly different from, indicating that the surface along the Y ¼ X line is flat and linear. This result supports the hypothesized model, suggesting that nurses performance would be constant when they perceived the image fit. In contrast, the curvature along Y ¼ X line is upwards curved (a x ¼ Æ5, P < Æ5), instead of downwards, as illustrated in Figure. This upwards curvature suggests that respondents tended to perceive their organizational job performance positively Job performance 5 5 Public image: caring (x-axis) when they perceived either a more positive or a negative public image of themselves as being caring compared with their self-image. In reality, approximately 95% rated both 5 5 Self image: caring (y-axis) Figure 5 Relationship between respondents self-image and their perceived public image of nurses as being caring and nurses organizational job performance. This figure is based on the result of polynomial regression analysis. However, the result of polynomial regression analysis was linearly transformed in a way that the scales for the public image and self-image of nurses range from Æ5 to þæ5, to make the comparison between Figures and 5 easier Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 9

8 M. Takase et al. Self-image: caring (y-axis) their self-image and their public image above the midpoint of the scales. Only a few rated either their self-image or their public image negatively. Figure 6 displays the magnification of the contour plot of Figure 5 in the positive ranges of Æ5 in both nurses selfimage and the perceived public image. The thick line represents the bottom line of the upwards curvature in this surface. As shown in the figure, this bottom line is slightly rotated off the Y ¼ X line. This finding indicates that when respondents perceived themselves as being caring and perceived their public image even more positively than their self-image, they tended to evaluate their performance slightly lower than other nurses, who also had a positive self-image, but perceived their public image slightly more negatively than how they saw themselves. Discussion Study limitations Public image: caring (x-axis) Figure 6 Contour plot: magnification of Figure 5 in the positive ranges along the X and Y axes. The actual positive scores range from toæ5. The thick line represents the bottom line of the upwards curvature in this range. The thick dotted line represents the Y ¼ X line. A cautious interpretation is necessary for the findings on nurses job performance because job performance was rated by respondents whose self-evaluation may be different from the evaluation they might receive from their supervisors. A limited sample representation resulting from the low response rate also requires the careful application of the study findings because there is the possibility of bias in the results. In addition, small variances explained in regression analysis suggest room for improvement in the models. Nurses perceptions of their public image and self-image The results showed that overall nurses perceived themselves statistically significantly more positively than how they perceived the public viewed them. The factor level analysis revealed that, in particular, nurses perceived their self-image as leaders was not congruent with how they perceived the public viewed them. On the contrary, nurses view of their public image as being caring was in accordance with how they viewed themselves. These results illustrate the public s tendency to view nurses as one-dimensional. That is, nurses were viewed as feminine and caring professionals, but they were not recognized as leaders or professionals who were independent in their practice. The focus group participants also said that the public had a fuzzy image of nurses, and generally agreed that the public viewed them as being caring. However, participants also considered that the public had a lack of recognition and knowledge about nursing roles: They [the public] don t necessarily have an appreciation for what we actually do for patients I just don t necessarily think people do really know what we do. Buresh and Gordon () also agree that the public lack understanding of what nurses do at work, although they hold nursing in the highest regard. This lack of understanding of nursing roles may partly be a result of their expansion into other healthcare fields, which has blurred professional boundaries between nursing and other healthcare professionals (Lewis & Urmston, Buchanan & Considine ). In addition to the changing roles of nursing, the fuzzy image of nursing held by the public is also a result of nurses invisibility in the media. Indeed, an extensive review of the US media coverage on healthcare revealed that nurses were cited only 4% of the time in the over health-related articles from 6 news publications (Sigma Theta Tau International 998). As a consequence of the public s lack of understanding about the nature of current nursing work, there is still some adherence to the old image of nursing. It is apparent that fictional portrayals of nurses as being doctors handmaidens and angelic in the entertainment media (DeVries et al. 995, Greenwood 999) are reinforcing the traditional images of nurses. That the public is being caught up with the old image of nursing was also a concern in the focus group: The public s overall view of the nursing role is sitting by the bedside, holding the patient s hand, getting a glass of water. While the results suggest that nurses perceived a lack of understanding from the public, their own perception of their public image is moderately positive. This positive perception 4 Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

9 Nursing and healthcare management and policy may illustrate that the public image of nurses has been improving, partly as a result of the advancement of nursing towards professionalization; for example, transfer of nursing education from hospitals to universities is recognized by the public, particularly by high school students who are preparing themselves for their future career (Hemsley-Brown & Foskett 999, Tang et al. 999). The public image of nurses can also be improved by interactions with them. By being cared for by nurses during hospitalization, the public can learn what nurses do in their daily practice and develop a more accurate image of them: Once patients or visitors have some interaction with the RN they get to know them and respect them for their knowledge. However, Buresh and Gordon () assert that individual experiences with nursing care do not automatically translate into the public s understanding of nursing. This may be a reason why nurses still perceive an image misfit. Impact of image fit on nurses work behaviour The impact of the relationship between nurses self-image and their perceived public image was diverse. As was the case with the image of nurses as being leaders, nurses self-image had a positive effect on their organizational job performance, while the perceived public image did not have any effect. This is because nurses motivation to maintain a high standard of nursing practice guides their performance. A focus group participant stated: I don t think on a day-to-day basis about what the public out there think of me, I just have my own professional standards and I work according to those. Indeed, maintaining a high standard of patient-focused practice was a theme that was frequently identified in the focus group, and which characterized nurses professional orientation. Nurses self-image and their perception of the public image of them as being caring interacted with one another to predict nurses organizational job performance. Moreover, the relationship between them was curvilinear, although the hypothesized model was not supported. The results showed that the majority of nurses rated positively their self-image and the public image of them as being caring. Among those, nurses who perceived their public image more positively than their self-image tended to perceive their organizational job performance slightly more negatively than those who saw their self-image more positively than their public image. This phenomenon may result from the public s high expectation of nurses as being caring. The literature suggests that caring is Impact of the perceived public image of nursing an important aspect of nursing, not only for nurses (March & McPherson 996, Watson et al. 999), but also for the public and for organizational structures. Studies show that the public views caring as the primary and highly regarded role of nursing (Rossiter et al. 998, Hemsley-Brown & Foskett 999, Tang et al. 999). Hospitals also use quality nursing care in their promotional materials to attract many patients (Powers ). Indeed, one of the participating hospitals cited patients satisfaction with their nurses being courteous and compassionate in their report (Barwon Health ). Thus, nurses perception of themselves as not meeting the public s expectations may have led them to evaluate their job performance negatively. A high social expectation of nursing care may also have caused stress/pressure on nurses that resulted in actual low performance. This pressure may be characterized as the opposite of the stereotype threat. The stereotype threat is the fear individuals feel that their performances may happen to confirm the negative stereotypical beliefs about their group. This fear causes stress, and leads to low performance (Steele 997). Rather than being pressured not to reinforce a negative image of nursing, nurses in this study may have felt pressured to confirm the wellregarded public image of nurses as being caring and what hospitals advertise in regard to nursing care. Although maintaining a high standard of care is the focus of nurses, the pressure to be even more caring than how they feel they already are might have created stress and resulted in a reduction in job performance. On the contrary, nurses who rated their self-image of being caring more positively than their public image, tended to perceive their performance positively. This view is particularly true for those who rated their self-image highly, but also rated their public image negatively. The person environment fit theory maintains that when individuals experience the misfit, they may reduce their job performance or be motivated to change either themselves or the environment to avoid the misfit (French & Kahn 96, Dawis & Lofquist 984). In the present study, the results illustrated nurses motivation to change their public image by displaying excellent performance rather than reducing their performance or changing their self-image. Individuals efforts to achieve their goals by exhibiting better performance are also supported in other literature; for example, the Goal-Setting Theory and Control Theory maintain that a discrepancy between the goal and its achievement by individuals creates self-correcting motivation that subsequently enhances their job performance (Kernan & Lord 99, Donovan ). Nurses motivation to change the public image is further precipitated by their professional orientation. The literature suggests that the motivation to change their environment is Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 4

10 M. Takase et al. What is already known about this topic A stereotypical public image of nurses exists in many countries. The public image of nursing affects nursing recruitment. Cultivating nurses self-image as being caring further helps them to cope with the potential pressure from the public s high expectation of nursing care. The nursing profession needs to improve its public image if the self-image of nurses is to advance and turnover problems are to be resolved. What this paper adds It is important to consider nurses self-image and their perceived public image in relation to their intention to leave their jobs and their overall job performance. Nurses regard their self-image as leaders much higher than their perceived public image. When nurses perceive their public image as being caring less positively than their self-image, their job performance tends to improve. seen more strongly in employees who tend to be hardworking, self-disciplined (Simmering et al. ) and motivated (Tatum & Nebeker 995). Considering that nurses see themselves as professionals and value a high standard of care, it is likely that nurses professional orientation motivates them to improve their public image through better performance. In fact, changing the public image was a theme identified in the focus group: If there is a perception from a patient that they don t care too much about what we re doing, it probably only stimulates me to work harder [and] to demonstrate the wealth of things that we actually do for them. While a negative perception of the public images of nurses had either no or a positive effect on nurses organizational job performance, the results suggested that it could lead to increased turnover intention. This may be because changing the public image of nursing is a stressful process. Therefore, it may cause frustration and job dissatisfaction among nurses, and may eventually wear down their motivation to change their public image and maintain a high standard of care, leading to a greater intention to quit their jobs. Conclusion Lack of understanding of nursing as a profession by the general public is a common phenomenon that contributes to nurses turnover intention. Thus, it is important to improve the public image of nurses in order to mitigate the current nursing shortage. The results also emphasize the importance of reinforcing nurses professional value of maintaining high standard care, which sustains their job performance. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Associate Professor Ian Gordon from the Statistical Consulting Centre at the University of Melbourne and the Distinguished Professor of Management, Jeffry R. Edwards from the University of North Carolina for the statistical advice. However, responsibility for how their advice was used in this paper rests with the authors. Author contributions MT was responsible for the study conception and design, data analysis, drafting of the manuscript and obtaining funding. MT, PM and EM critically revised the paper. PM and EM supervised. MT and PM collected data. References Barwon Health () / Quality of Care Annual Report. Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Buchanan J. & Considine G. () Stop Telling Us to Cope: New South Wales Nurses Explain Why They Are Leaving the Profession. Retrieved from 4/extract on 5 November 5. Buresh B. & Gordon S. () From Silence to Voice: What Nurses Know and Must Communicate to the Public. Canadian Nurse Association, Ottawa. Dawis R.V. & Lofquist L.H. (984) A Psychological Theory of Work Adjustment. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. DeVries S., Dunlop M., Goopy S., Moyle W. & Sutherland-Lockhart D. (995) Discipline and passion: meaning, masochism and mythology in popular medical romances. Nursing Inquiry,. Donovan J.J. () Work motivation. In Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organisational Psychology: Volume. Organisational Psychology, nd edn (Anderson N., Ones D.S., Sinangil H.K. & Viswesvaran C., eds), SAGE Publications, London, pp Edwards J.R. () Ten difference score myths. Organisational Research Methods 4(), Edwards J.R. () Alternatives to difference scores: polynomial regression analysis and response surface methodology. In Advances in Measurements and Data Analysis (Drasgow F. & Schmitt N.W., eds), Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp Edwards J.R. & Parry M.E. (99) On the use of polynomial regression equations as an alternative to difference scores in organisational research. Academy of Management Journal 6(6), Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

11 Nursing and healthcare management and policy Impact of the perceived public image of nursing French J.R.P. Jr & Kahn R.L. (96) A programmatic approach to studying the industrial environment and mental health. Journal of Social Issues 8(), 47. Friedman I.A. & Harber B.A. (99) Professional self-concept as a predictor of teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Research 86(), 8 5. Fritzsche B.A., Powell A.B. & Hoffman R. (999) Person environment congruence as a predictor of customer service performance. Journal of Vocational Behaviour 54, Goodman S.A. & Svyantek D.J. (999) Person organisation fit and contextual performance: do shared values matter? Journal of Vocational Behaviour 55, Greenwood J. (999) All Saints or Nurse as Enquire? An irritable polemic. Contemporary Nurse 8(4), 8 5. Hemsley-Brown J. & Foskett N.H. (999) Career desirability: young people s perceptions of nursing as a career. Journal of Advanced Nursing 9(6), 4 5. Holland B.S. & Copenhaver M.C. (988) Improved Bonferroni-type multiple testing procedures. Psychological Bulletin 4(), Kernan M.C. & Lord R.G. (99) Effects of valence, expectancies, and goal-performance discrepancies in single and multiple goal environments. Journal of Applied Psychology 75(), 94. Lewis M. & Urmston J. () Flogging the dead horse: the myth of nursing empowerment. Journal of Nursing Management 8, 9. Livingstone L.P., Nelson D.L. & Barr S.H. (997) Person environment fit and creativity: an examination of supply-value and demandability versions of fit. Journal of Management (), March P.L. & McPherson A. (996) The important attributes of a nurse from the perspective of qualified and student nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 4, Mowday R.T., Koberg C.S. & McArthur A.W. (984) The psychology of the withdrawal process: a cross-validational test of Mobley s intermediate linkages model of turnover in two samples. Academy of Management Journal 7(), Nurse Recruitment and Retention Committee () Final Report. Department of Human Services, Policy and Strategic Project Division, Melbourne, Victoria. O Reilly C.A. III, Chatman J. & Caldwell D.F. (99) People and organisational culture: a profile comparison approach to assessing person-organisation fit. Academy of Management Journal 4(), Porter R.T. & Porter M.J. (99) Career development: our professional responsibility. Journal of Professional Nursing 7(4), 8. Powers P. () The image of nursing in hospital promotional materials: a discourse analysis. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal 5(), 9 8. Reiskin H. & Haussler S.C. (994) Multicultural students perceptions of nursing as a career. IMAGE: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 6(), Ritchie J. & Spencer L. (994) Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. In Analysing Qualitative Data (Bryman A. & Burgess R.G., eds.), Routledge, London, pp Rossiter J.C., Bidewell J. & Chan P.T. (998) Non-English speaking background high school students attitudes towards the nursing profession. Journal of Advanced Nursing 7, Sigma Theta Tau International (998) The Woodhul Study on Nursing and the Media: Health Care s Invisible Partner. Centre Nursing Press, Indianapolis, IN. Simmering M.J., Colquitt J.A., Noe R.A. & Porter C.O.L.H. () Conscientiousness, autonomy fit, and development: a longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology 88(5), Steele C.M. (997) A threat in the air. American Psychologist 5(6), Takase M., Kershaw E. & Burt L. () Nurse environment misfit and nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 5(6), Takase M., Kershaw E. & Burt L. () Does public image of nurses matter? Journal of Professional Nursing 8(4), Tang K.C., Duffield C., Chen J., Choucair S., Creegan R., Mark C. & Lesley G. (999) Nursing as career choice: perceptions of school students speaking Arabic, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Turkish or Vietnamese at home. Australian Health Review (), 7. Tatum B.C. & Nebeker D.M. (995) Effects of system control and feedback variability on job performance and affective reactions. Human Performance 8(4), Tomey A.M., Schwier B., Marticke N. & May F. (996) Students perceptions of ideal and nursing career choices. Nursing Outlook 44(), 7. Ton M.N. & Hansen J.C. () Using a person environment fit framework to predict satisfaction and motivation in work and martial roles. Journal of Career Assessment 9(4), 5. Walsh W.B. & Holland J.L. (99) A theory of personality types and work environments. In Person Environment Psychology: Models and Perspectives (Walsh W.B., Craik K.H. & Price R.H., eds), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale, NJ, pp Waltz C., Strickland O.L. & Lenz E.R. (984) Measurement in Nursing Research, nd edn. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA. Watson R., Deary I.J. & Lea A. (999) A longitudinal study into the perceptions of caring and nursing among students nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 9(5), 8 7. Ó 6 The Authors. Journal compilation Ó 6 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 4

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction ADVANCES IN EDUCATION VOL.1, NO.1 JANUARY 2012 4 Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2 Abstract- The study was

More information

INTERNAL MARKETING ESTABLISHES A CULTURE OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION

INTERNAL MARKETING ESTABLISHES A CULTURE OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION INTERNAL MARKETING ESTABLISHES A CULTURE OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION Yafang Tsai, Department of Health Policy and Management, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taiwan, (886)-4-24730022 ext.12127, avon611@gmail.com

More information

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Kamla-Raj 2012 Int J Edu Sci, 4(3): 209-213 (2012) The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 and Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2

More information

Workplace empowerment, job satisfaction and job stress among Italian mental health nurses: an exploratory study

Workplace empowerment, job satisfaction and job stress among Italian mental health nurses: an exploratory study Journal of Nursing Management, 2009, 17, 446 452 Workplace empowerment, job satisfaction and job stress among Italian mental health nurses: an exploratory study MARINA LAUTIZI RN, MMS 1, HEATHER K. S.

More information

THE ROLE OF OCCUPATIONAL VALUES IN ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS IMPLEMENTATION

THE ROLE OF OCCUPATIONAL VALUES IN ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS IMPLEMENTATION THE ROLE OF OCCUPATIONAL VALUES IN ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS IMPLEMENTATION Shanan G. Gibson, Department of Management College of Business, East Carolina University (252) 328-6354, gibsons@ecu.edu Elaine

More information

What Is the Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers?

What Is the Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers? What Is the Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers? Abstract Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar Universiti of Mazandaran Iran Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi Ministry

More information

Trust, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract

Trust, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract Trust, Job Satisfaction, Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract Becky J. Starnes, Ph.D. Austin Peay State University Clarksville, Tennessee, USA starnesb@apsu.edu Abstract Studies indicate

More information

The relationship between nurses' perceptions of empowerment and patient satisfaction

The relationship between nurses' perceptions of empowerment and patient satisfaction Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Applied Nursing Research 21 (2008) 2 7 Original Articles The relationship between nurses' perceptions of empowerment and patient satisfaction Moreen O. Donahue,

More information

Examining the Relationship of Performance Appraisal System and Employee Satisfaction

Examining the Relationship of Performance Appraisal System and Employee Satisfaction Examining the Relationship of Performance Appraisal System and Employee Satisfaction Abstract Rabia Karimi BBA - HRM Muhamad Imran Malik Lecturer Dr. Saddam Hussain Assistant Professor The current study

More information

Component Wise Comparison of the Degree of Organizational Commitment.

Component Wise Comparison of the Degree of Organizational Commitment. Component Wise Comparison of the Degree of Organizational Commitment. MOHAMMAD TUFAIL Lecturer, AWKUM, Buner Campus. Email: tuphail@yahoo.com NAVEED FAROOQ Assistant Professor, AWKUM, Pabbi Campus Abstract

More information

American Journal of Business Education February 2010 Volume 3, Number 2

American Journal of Business Education February 2010 Volume 3, Number 2 Gender Differences In Attitudes Toward Computers And Performance In The Accounting Information Systems Class Mary Jane Lenard, Meredith College, USA Susan Wessels, Meredith College, USA Cindi Khanlarian,

More information

High School Psychology and its Impact on University Psychology Performance: Some Early Data

High School Psychology and its Impact on University Psychology Performance: Some Early Data High School Psychology and its Impact on University Psychology Performance: Some Early Data John Reece Discipline of Psychology School of Health Sciences Impetus for This Research Oh, can you study psychology

More information

S. Khoury * ABSTRACT. http://ijiepr.iust.ac.ir/

S. Khoury * ABSTRACT. http://ijiepr.iust.ac.ir/ International Journal of Industrial Engineering & Production Research December 2011, Volume 22 Number 4 pp. 237-241 ISSN: 2008-4889 http://ijiepr.iust.ac.ir/ Perceptions Held by Community College Computer

More information

Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN 2249-9598, Volume-V, Issue-V, Sept-Oct 2015 Issue

Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN 2249-9598, Volume-V, Issue-V, Sept-Oct 2015 Issue Study of Employee Perception towards Performance Appraisal System with Special Reference to Education Sector in Pune City Sunanda Navale Founder Secretary, Sinhgad Technical Education Society, Ambegaon

More information

Is the choice of a degree program a factor of personality types and degree of congruence

Is the choice of a degree program a factor of personality types and degree of congruence IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 19, Issue 2, Ver. V (Feb. 2014), PP 49-54 e-issn: 2279-0837, p-issn: 2279-0845. Is the choice of a degree program a factor of personality

More information

Examining antecedents of satisfaction for marketing/management students in higher education

Examining antecedents of satisfaction for marketing/management students in higher education Examining antecedents of satisfaction for marketing/management students in higher education ABSTRACT Monica B. Fine Coastal Carolina University Paul W. Clark Coastal Carolina University Marketing and management

More information

Intercultural sensitivity of students from departments of nursing and healthcare administration. Abstract

Intercultural sensitivity of students from departments of nursing and healthcare administration. Abstract Intercultural sensitivity of students from departments of nursing and healthcare administration Abstract Since globalization requires people from diverse cultural backgrounds to communicate effectively,

More information

Drawings Of A Typical Psychologist

Drawings Of A Typical Psychologist Surveying Psychologists Public Image with Drawings of a Typical Psychologist Steve G. Hartwig University of South Australia Abstract Psychologists have traditionally surveyed their public image using structured

More information

Barriers to Advanced Education for Indigenous Australian Health Workers: An Exploratory Study

Barriers to Advanced Education for Indigenous Australian Health Workers: An Exploratory Study B R I E F C O M M U N I C A T I O N Barriers to Advanced Education for Indigenous Australian Health Workers: An Exploratory Study CM Felton-Busch, SD Solomon, KE McBain, S De La Rue James Cook University,

More information

A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Newcastle, N.S.W.

A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Newcastle, N.S.W. EVALUATION OF GRADUATE NURSE PROGRAMS Bruce Waldrip Darrell Fisher Allan Harrison & Grady Venville Curtin University, Perth A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for

More information

Role Model Behaviors of Nursing Faculty in Japan and the United States

Role Model Behaviors of Nursing Faculty in Japan and the United States 原 著 Role Model Behaviors of Nursing Faculty in Japan and the United States Tomomi Kameoka Naomi Funashima Patricia Ann. Gorzka Kumiko Hongo Nobuko Yamashita Toshiko Nakayama Mika Hattori National College

More information

Evaluating a fatigue management training program for coach drivers.

Evaluating a fatigue management training program for coach drivers. Evaluating a fatigue management training program for coach drivers. M. Anthony Machin University of Southern Queensland Abstract A nonprescriptive fatigue management training program was developed that

More information

THE LINK BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE OF IT COMPANIES FROM ROMANIA

THE LINK BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE OF IT COMPANIES FROM ROMANIA THE LINK BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE OF IT COMPANIES FROM ROMANIA Dobre Ovidiu-Iliuta The Bucharest University of Economic Studies (Institute of Doctoral

More information

Leadership Frames and Perceptions of Effectiveness among Health Information Management Program Directors

Leadership Frames and Perceptions of Effectiveness among Health Information Management Program Directors Leadership Frames and Perceptions of Effectiveness among Health Information Management Program Directors 1 Leadership Frames and Perceptions of Effectiveness among Health Information Management Program

More information

Building Online Learning Communities: Factors Supporting Collaborative Knowledge-Building. Joe Wheaton, Associate Professor The Ohio State University

Building Online Learning Communities: Factors Supporting Collaborative Knowledge-Building. Joe Wheaton, Associate Professor The Ohio State University For more resources click here -> Building Online Learning Communities: Factors Supporting Collaborative Knowledge-Building Joe Wheaton, Associate Professor David Stein, Associate Professor Jennifer Calvin,

More information

CURRENT RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html

CURRENT RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html CURRENT RESEARCH IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.html Volume 14, No. 10 Submitted: March 17, 2009 First Revision: March 25, 2009 Accepted: May 20, 2009 Published: June 10,

More information

Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level

Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level psyct.psychopen.eu 2193-7281 Research Articles Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level Shalini Sisodia* a, Ira Das a [a] Department of Psychology,

More information

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan ABSTRACT The focus of this research is to determine the impact of

More information

PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES. Cass Business School Department or equivalent UG Programme (Cass Business School) UCAS Code

PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES. Cass Business School Department or equivalent UG Programme (Cass Business School) UCAS Code PROGRAMME SPECIFICATION UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMMES KEY FACTS Programme name Business Studies Award BSc (Hons) School Cass Business School Department or equivalent UG Programme (Cass Business School) UCAS

More information

Students Attitudes about Online Master s Degree Programs versus Traditional Programs

Students Attitudes about Online Master s Degree Programs versus Traditional Programs Aberasturi, S., & Kongrith, K. (2006). Students attitudes about online master s degree programs versus traditional programs. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 2(1), 50-57. Students

More information

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348-5396 (e) ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) Volume 2, Issue 3, Paper ID: B00381V2I32015 http://www.ijip.in April to June 2015 ABSTRACT: Organizational Commitment

More information

DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT. Melissa Lehmann Work Solutions. Abstract

DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT. Melissa Lehmann Work Solutions. Abstract PO Box 12499 A Beckett Melbourne VIC 8006 t 03 9224 8800 f 03 9224 8801 DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT Melissa Lehmann Work Solutions Abstract The role of work and work-life balance in contributing to stress

More information

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE. Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements. EDU721 (3.

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE. Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements. EDU721 (3. DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements EDU710 (3.0 credit hours) Ethical and Legal Issues in Education/Leadership This course is an intensive

More information

Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention

Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention Rusli Ahmad Camelia Lemba Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development Universiti Malaysia Sarawak arusli@fcs.unimas.my Wan Khairuzzaman

More information

Applied Psychology. Dr. Marya Howell-Carter, Acting Chair Psychology Dept. Bachelor of Science Degree

Applied Psychology. Dr. Marya Howell-Carter, Acting Chair Psychology Dept. Bachelor of Science Degree Applied Psychology Dr. Marya Howell-Carter, Acting Chair Psychology Dept. Bachelor of Science Degree The Applied Psychology program leads to a Bachelor of Science degree with a concentration in Industrial/Organizational

More information

Impact of ICT on Teacher Engagement in Select Higher Educational Institutions in India

Impact of ICT on Teacher Engagement in Select Higher Educational Institutions in India Impact of ICT on Teacher Engagement in Select Higher Educational Institutions in India Bushra S P Singh 1, Dr. Sanjay Kaushik 2 1 Research Scholar, University Business School, Arts Block 3, Panjab University,

More information

The Use of Survey Research to Measure Student Satisfaction in Online Courses. Elaine Strachota. Abstract

The Use of Survey Research to Measure Student Satisfaction in Online Courses. Elaine Strachota. Abstract The Use of Survey Research to Measure Student Satisfaction in Online Courses Elaine Strachota Abstract Although student satisfaction in online courses is of concern to institutions of higher learning attempting

More information

The person-environment fit & employee outcomes: the contribution of Human Resource Management in schools

The person-environment fit & employee outcomes: the contribution of Human Resource Management in schools The person-environment fit & employee outcomes: the contribution of Human Resource Management in schools T. Janssen, MSc.(PhD student) Dr. L. den Dulk Prof. dr. A.J. Steijn Erasmus University Rotterdam

More information

Barriers & Incentives to Obtaining a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing

Barriers & Incentives to Obtaining a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing Southern Adventist Univeristy KnowledgeExchange@Southern Graduate Research Projects Nursing 4-2011 Barriers & Incentives to Obtaining a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing Tiffany Boring Brianna Burnette

More information

GRADUATES EVALUATIONS OF THE MASTER OF NURSING SCIENCE DEGREE PROGRAMME OFFERED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA

GRADUATES EVALUATIONS OF THE MASTER OF NURSING SCIENCE DEGREE PROGRAMME OFFERED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA GRADUATES EVALUATIONS OF THE MASTER OF NURSING SCIENCE DEGREE PROGRAMME OFFERED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA M.B. Sabone, Ph D University of Botswana School of Nursing Corresponding author: e-mail: sabonemb@mopipi.ub.bw

More information

An International Comparison of the Career of Social Work by Students in Social Work

An International Comparison of the Career of Social Work by Students in Social Work Acta Medicina et Sociologica Vol 5., 2014 5 An International Comparison of the Career of Social Work by Students in Social Work Gergely Fábián*, Thomas R. Lawson**, Mihály Fónai***, János Kiss*, Eric R.

More information

Instructor and Learner Discourse in MBA and MA Online Programs: Whom Posts more Frequently?

Instructor and Learner Discourse in MBA and MA Online Programs: Whom Posts more Frequently? Instructor and Learner Discourse in MBA and MA Online Programs: Whom Posts more Frequently? Peter Kiriakidis Founder and CEO 1387909 ONTARIO INC Ontario, Canada panto@primus.ca Introduction Abstract: This

More information

MA in Sociology. Assessment Plan*

MA in Sociology. Assessment Plan* MA in Sociology Assessment Plan* Submitted by The Graduate Assessment Committee: November, 2008 Sharon K. Araji, Chair Submitted to The Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences UC Denver * The

More information

User Acceptance of a Key Performance Indicators Monitoring System (KPI-MS) in Higher Education: An Application of the Technology Acceptance Model

User Acceptance of a Key Performance Indicators Monitoring System (KPI-MS) in Higher Education: An Application of the Technology Acceptance Model 2011 2nd International Conference on Education and Management Technology IPEDR vol.13 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore User Acceptance of a Key Performance Indicators Monitoring System (KPI-MS) in

More information

HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT NEEDS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT NEEDS IN HIGHER EDUCATION HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT NEEDS IN HIGHER EDUCATION Osoian Codruţa, Senior Lecturer PhD Babeş-Bolyai University Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Management Department codruta.osoian@econ.ubbcluj.ro

More information

A comparison of education in Greek and English nurses

A comparison of education in Greek and English nurses Blackwell Science, LtdOxford, UKINRInternational Nursing Review1466-7657International Council of Nurses, 20035128893Original ArticleA comparison of education in Greek and English nursesn. A. Bakalis et

More information

Brand Loyalty in Insurance Companies

Brand Loyalty in Insurance Companies Journal of Economic Development, Management, IT, Finance and Marketing, 4(1), 12-26, March 2012 12 Brand Loyalty in Insurance Companies Sancharan Roy, (B.E., MBA) Assistant Professor, St. Joseph's College

More information

E-STUDENT RETENTION: FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER LOYALTY FOR ONLINE PROGRAM SUCCESS

E-STUDENT RETENTION: FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER LOYALTY FOR ONLINE PROGRAM SUCCESS E-STUDENT RETENTION: FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER LOYALTY FOR ONLINE PROGRAM SUCCESS Queen E. Booker, Minnesota State University, Mankato, queen.booker@mnsu.edu Carl M. Rebman, Jr., University of San Diego,

More information

IMAGE OF NURSING PROFESSION AS VIEWED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILALA DISTRICT, DAR ES SALAAM

IMAGE OF NURSING PROFESSION AS VIEWED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILALA DISTRICT, DAR ES SALAAM IMAGE OF NURSING PROFESSION AS VIEWED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILALA DISTRICT, DAR ES SALAAM BY KIWANUKA ACHILLES, School of Nursing, 2009. ABSTRACT Objectives: The Broad objective: To assess knowledge

More information

A Qualitative Investigation of the Clinician Experience of Working with Borderline Personality Disorder

A Qualitative Investigation of the Clinician Experience of Working with Borderline Personality Disorder A Qualitative Investigation of the Clinician Experience of Working with Amanda J. Commons Treloar, Monash University The current research provided opportunity for 140 clinicians across emergency medicine

More information

Principal & Programme Director Indus Business Academy,

Principal & Programme Director Indus Business Academy, Employee Job Satisfaction With Reference To IT Companies in Bangalore by Ms. Ameer Asra Ahmed [a], Dr. M.S. Ramachandra [b] & Ms. Akshata M.S. [c] Abstract This paper aims at studying the level of Job

More information

An Empirical Study on the Influence of Perceived Credibility of Online Consumer Reviews

An Empirical Study on the Influence of Perceived Credibility of Online Consumer Reviews An Empirical Study on the Influence of Perceived Credibility of Online Consumer Reviews GUO Guoqing 1, CHEN Kai 2, HE Fei 3 1. School of Business, Renmin University of China, 100872 2. School of Economics

More information

Examining Science and Engineering Students Attitudes Toward Computer Science

Examining Science and Engineering Students Attitudes Toward Computer Science Examining Science and Engineering Students Attitudes Toward Computer Science Abstract Concerns have been raised with respect to the recent decline in enrollment in undergraduate computer science majors.

More information

E-Commerce Digital Learning by Commercial Vocational Students in Taiwan

E-Commerce Digital Learning by Commercial Vocational Students in Taiwan E-Commerce Digital Learning by Commercial Vocational Students in Taiwan Ching-San Lai, Professor, Department of Science Education, National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan ABSTRACT The study investigates

More information

De Pourcq K., De Caluwe G., Gemmel P., Verleye K., Trybou J

De Pourcq K., De Caluwe G., Gemmel P., Verleye K., Trybou J : Impact on Customer Oriented Behaviour and the Moderating Effects of Organizational and Professional Identification. De Pourcq K., De Caluwe G., Gemmel P., Verleye K., Trybou J Caregiver-oriented model

More information

COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES.

COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 277 CHAPTER VI COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES. This chapter contains a full discussion of customer loyalty comparisons between private and public insurance companies

More information

Professional Self-Esteem of Secondary School Teachers

Professional Self-Esteem of Secondary School Teachers Professional Self-Esteem of Secondary School Teachers Fouzia Tabassum PhD Scholar (Education) Institute of Education and Research University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan Tel: 96-334-525-8086 E-mail:

More information

2013 Survey of registered nurses

2013 Survey of registered nurses We ve earned The Joint Commission s Gold Seal of Approval 2013 Survey of registered nurses Generation Gap Grows as Healthcare Transforms AMN Healthcare, Inc., 2013 12400 High Bluff Drive, San Diego, CA

More information

EXPLORING ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF WEB-BASED HOMEWORK IN DEVELOPMENTAL ALGEBRA

EXPLORING ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF WEB-BASED HOMEWORK IN DEVELOPMENTAL ALGEBRA EXPLORING ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF WEB-BASED HOMEWORK IN DEVELOPMENTAL ALGEBRA Kwan Eu Leong Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Malaysia rkleong@um.edu.my Nathan Alexander Columbia University

More information

Determining Future Success of College Students

Determining Future Success of College Students Determining Future Success of College Students PAUL OEHRLEIN I. Introduction The years that students spend in college are perhaps the most influential years on the rest of their lives. College students

More information

I want to be a nurse! : A Qualitative Descriptive Study on the Impact of an Introduction to Nursing Course

I want to be a nurse! : A Qualitative Descriptive Study on the Impact of an Introduction to Nursing Course I want to be a nurse! : A Qualitative Descriptive Study on the Impact of an Introduction to Nursing Course Michelle L. Edmonds PhD, ARNP-BC, CEN Jacksonville University School of Nursing Jacksonville,

More information

The Essentials of Critical Care Orientation (ECCO) Program's Impact on New Graduate Nurses' Critical Thinking Development

The Essentials of Critical Care Orientation (ECCO) Program's Impact on New Graduate Nurses' Critical Thinking Development The Essentials of Critical Care Orientation (ECCO) Program's Impact on New Graduate Nurses' Critical Thinking Development Sigma Theta Tau International s 21 st International Nursing Research Congress Mahmoud

More information

Abstract. Introduction

Abstract. Introduction Predicting Talent Management Indices Using the 16 Primary Personality Factors John W. Jones, Ph.D.; Catherine C. Maraist, Ph.D.; Noelle K. Newhouse, M.S. Abstract This study investigates whether or not

More information

Cloud Computing: A Comparison Between Educational Technology Experts' and Information Professionals' Perspectives

Cloud Computing: A Comparison Between Educational Technology Experts' and Information Professionals' Perspectives Noa Aharony 1 Cloud Computing: A Comparison Between Educational Technology Experts' and Information Professionals' Perspectives Noa Aharony Department of Information Science, Bar-Ilan University Noa.aharony@biu.ac.il

More information

Motivational Factors of Albanian Graduate Students Pursuing a Master Degree in Education

Motivational Factors of Albanian Graduate Students Pursuing a Master Degree in Education Ana Uka Beder University Motivational Factors of Albanian Graduate Students Pursuing a Master Degree in Education Abstract This study explained the reasons why Albanian students decide to pursue graduate

More information

Turnover on Information Security Professionals: Findings from Korea

Turnover on Information Security Professionals: Findings from Korea HyeWon Yoo, TaeSung Kim 169 Turnover on Information Security Professionals: Findings from Korea HyeWon Yoo *, TaeSung Kim Department of Management Information Systems College of Business, Chungbuk National

More information

Journal of College Teaching & Learning November 2007 Volume 4, Number 11

Journal of College Teaching & Learning November 2007 Volume 4, Number 11 Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior To Understand In-Service Kindergarten Teachers Behavior To Enroll In A Graduate Level Academic Program I Ju Chen, (E-mail: crissa@cyut.edu.tw), Chal Yang University

More information

Standards for the School Counselor [23.110]

Standards for the School Counselor [23.110] II. STANDARDS FOR THE SCHOOL SERVICE PERSONNEL CERTIFICATE Standards for the School Counselor [23.110] STANDARD 1 - Academic Development Domain The competent school counselor understands the learning process

More information

Learner Self-efficacy Beliefs in a Computer-intensive Asynchronous College Algebra Course

Learner Self-efficacy Beliefs in a Computer-intensive Asynchronous College Algebra Course Learner Self-efficacy Beliefs in a Computer-intensive Asynchronous College Algebra Course Charles B. Hodges Georgia Southern University Department of Leadership, Technology, & Human Development P.O. Box

More information

Procrastination in Online Courses: Performance and Attitudinal Differences

Procrastination in Online Courses: Performance and Attitudinal Differences Procrastination in Online Courses: Performance and Attitudinal Differences Greg C Elvers Donald J. Polzella Ken Graetz University of Dayton This study investigated the relation between dilatory behaviors

More information

Graduate Student HANDBOOK. Rehabilitation Counseling Program

Graduate Student HANDBOOK. Rehabilitation Counseling Program Graduate Student HANDBOOK Rehabilitation Counseling Program 2014-2015 Dear Rehabilitation Counseling Students, On behalf of the Rehabilitation Counseling faculty, staff, and second year students, I would

More information

Progress Report Phase I Study of North Carolina Evidence-based Transition to Practice Initiative Project Foundation for Nursing Excellence

Progress Report Phase I Study of North Carolina Evidence-based Transition to Practice Initiative Project Foundation for Nursing Excellence Progress Report Phase I Study of North Carolina Evidence-based Transition to Practice Initiative Project Foundation for Nursing Excellence Prepared by the NCSBN Research Department INTRODUCTION In 2006,

More information

Expectancy Value Theory: Motivating Healthcare Workers

Expectancy Value Theory: Motivating Healthcare Workers Expectancy Value Theory: Motivating Healthcare Workers Stefania De Simone Researcher in Organizational Behavior Institute for Research on Innovation and Services for Development National Research Council

More information

What about us? Student Life Research and Assessment. Connie Boehm, Director Student Wellness Center. Justin Moses, Assistant Director

What about us? Student Life Research and Assessment. Connie Boehm, Director Student Wellness Center. Justin Moses, Assistant Director What about us? Engaging Second year Students Lance Kennedy Phillips Phillips, Ph.D., Director Student Life Research and Assessment Connie Boehm, Director Student Wellness Center Justin Moses, Assistant

More information

MASTERS IN COUNSELOR EDUCATION PROGRAM EVALUATION REPORT

MASTERS IN COUNSELOR EDUCATION PROGRAM EVALUATION REPORT MASTERS IN COUNSELOR EDUCATION PROGRAM EVALUATION REPORT Prepared by Leanne Walker Paula Gravelle Center for Education Policy, Applied Research and Evaluation College of Education & Human Development University

More information

Computer Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Computer Experience: An investigation throughout a Computer Science degree

Computer Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Computer Experience: An investigation throughout a Computer Science degree Computer Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, Computer Experience: An investigation throughout a Computer Science degree Eileen Doyle 1, Ioanna Stamouli 2, and Meriel Huggard 3 Abstract - Considerable research has

More information

Perception of Nurse Interns about Clinical Assignment Preparation Requirements

Perception of Nurse Interns about Clinical Assignment Preparation Requirements Perception of Nurse Interns about Clinical Assignment Preparation Requirements Abdel Kader AM 1, Mohamed EA 2 and Abood SA 3 Departments of 1 Nursing Education; 2 Medical Surgical Nursing and 3 Nursing

More information

Statistics for Managing Human Resources

Statistics for Managing Human Resources A P P E N D I X Statistics for Managing Human Resources Throughout this book, references to numerous research studies provide documentation for its assertions. Readers who wish to learn more about the

More information

THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING PRESENCE IN ONLINE AND HYBRID CLASSROOMS

THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING PRESENCE IN ONLINE AND HYBRID CLASSROOMS Allied Academies International Conference page 7 THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING PRESENCE IN ONLINE AND HYBRID CLASSROOMS Richard Bush, Lawrence Technological University Patricia Castelli, Lawrence Technological

More information

Summary. Introduction

Summary. Introduction General discussion, Summary, Samenvatting Summary Introduction Nursing students are taught to provide client-centred, so-called holistic nursing care to patients. Taking a holistic approach means that

More information

in nigerian companies.

in nigerian companies. Information Management 167 in nigerian companies. Idris, Adekunle. A. Abstract: Keywords: Relationship Marketing, Customer loyalty, Customer Service, Relationship Marketing Strategy and Nigeria. Introduction

More information

Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Its Outcomes and Detriments in Pakistani Organizations

Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Its Outcomes and Detriments in Pakistani Organizations Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Its Outcomes and Detriments in Pakistani Organizations Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan E-mail:

More information

Course Descriptions. Seminar in Organizational Behavior II

Course Descriptions. Seminar in Organizational Behavior II Course Descriptions B55 MKT 670 Seminar in Marketing Management This course is an advanced seminar of doctoral level standing. The course is aimed at students pursuing a degree in business, economics or

More information

Leader s Interpersonal Skills and Its Effectiveness at different Levels of Management

Leader s Interpersonal Skills and Its Effectiveness at different Levels of Management International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 4 [Special Issue - February 2012] Leader s Interpersonal Skills and Its Effectiveness at different Levels of Management Aamir Khan Dr. Wisal

More information

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study where the

CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study where the CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS 3.1. Research Design A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study where the caregivers Compassion Fatigue levels were assessed in relation to their

More information

College of Psychology and Humanistic Studies (PHS) Curriculum Learning Goals and PsyD Program Learning Goals, Objectives and Competencies (GOCs)

College of Psychology and Humanistic Studies (PHS) Curriculum Learning Goals and PsyD Program Learning Goals, Objectives and Competencies (GOCs) College of Psychology and Humanistic Studies (PHS) Curriculum Learning Goals and PsyD Program Learning Goals, Objectives and Competencies (GOCs) College of PHS Learning Goals PsyD Program Learning Goals

More information

EFL LEARNERS PERCEPTIONS OF USING LMS

EFL LEARNERS PERCEPTIONS OF USING LMS EFL LEARNERS PERCEPTIONS OF USING LMS Assist. Prof. Napaporn Srichanyachon Language Institute, Bangkok University gaynapaporn@hotmail.com ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to present the views, attitudes,

More information

Despite the Barriers Men Nurses are Safisfied with Career Choices

Despite the Barriers Men Nurses are Safisfied with Career Choices Despite the Barriers Men Nurses are Safisfied with Career Choices J. Creina Twomey & R. J. Meadus Memorial Univeristy of Newfoundland Abstract Men remain a minority in the nursing profession. In 2005,

More information

J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 5(5)220-226, 2015 2015, TextRoad Publication

J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 5(5)220-226, 2015 2015, TextRoad Publication 2015, TextRoad Publication ISSN: 2090-4274 Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences www.textroad.com Evaluation of the Impact of Change Management Dimensions on Increasing Organizational

More information

A STUDY ON ONBOARDING PROCESS IN SIFY TECHNOLOGIES, CHENNAI

A STUDY ON ONBOARDING PROCESS IN SIFY TECHNOLOGIES, CHENNAI A STUDY ON ONBOARDING PROCESS IN SIFY TECHNOLOGIES, CHENNAI ABSTRACT S. BALAJI*; G. RAMYA** *Assistant Professor, School of Management Studies, Surya Group of Institutions, Vikravandi 605652, Villupuram

More information

Initial Teacher Education: Selection Criteria for Teacher Education Candidates

Initial Teacher Education: Selection Criteria for Teacher Education Candidates Initial Teacher Education: Selection Criteria for Teacher Education Candidates Prepared by: The Australian Secondary Principals Association on behalf of the peak national principal associations June 2015

More information

Re-thinking attrition in student nurses

Re-thinking attrition in student nurses Journal of Health and Social Care Improvement, February 2011 Issue Re-thinking attrition in student nurses Sophie Orton- Research Assistant, Centre for Health and Social Care Improvement, School of Health

More information

KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF VIRGINIA SECONDARY AGRICULTURE EDUCATORS TOWARD THE AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM AT VIRGINIA TECH

KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF VIRGINIA SECONDARY AGRICULTURE EDUCATORS TOWARD THE AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM AT VIRGINIA TECH KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF VIRGINIA SECONDARY AGRICULTURE EDUCATORS TOWARD THE AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM AT VIRGINIA TECH Dennis W. Duncan, Assistant Professor Virginia Tech Abstract Identifying

More information

Assessing Online Asynchronous Discussion in Online Courses: An Empirical Study

Assessing Online Asynchronous Discussion in Online Courses: An Empirical Study Assessing Online Asynchronous Discussion in Online Courses: An Empirical Study Shijuan Liu Department of Instructional Systems Technology Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana, USA shijliu@indiana.edu

More information

Self-Other Agreement on a 360-Degree Leadership Evaluation. Stefanie K. Halverson Rice University. Scott Tonidandel Rice University

Self-Other Agreement on a 360-Degree Leadership Evaluation. Stefanie K. Halverson Rice University. Scott Tonidandel Rice University Self-Other Agreement on a 360-Degree Leadership Evaluation Stefanie K. Halverson Rice University Scott Tonidandel Rice University Cassie Barlow United States Air Force Robert L. Dipboye Rice University

More information

Validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure for Diabetes Treatment and Device: TRIM-Diabetes and TRIM-Device

Validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure for Diabetes Treatment and Device: TRIM-Diabetes and TRIM-Device Validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure for Diabetes Treatment and Device: TRIM-Diabetes and TRIM-Device Authors Meryl Brod President, The Brod Group Mette Hammer Associate Director, Health

More information

METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS

METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS METACOGNITIVE AWARENESS OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS Emine ŞENDURUR Kocaeli University, Faculty of Education Kocaeli, TURKEY Polat ŞENDURUR Ondokuz Mayıs University, Faculty of Education Samsun, TURKEY Neşet

More information

Teaching Beliefs of Graduate Students in Adult Education: A Longitudinal Perspective

Teaching Beliefs of Graduate Students in Adult Education: A Longitudinal Perspective Teaching Beliefs of Graduate Students in Adult Education: A Longitudinal Perspective Edward W. Taylor Penn State University Capital College, USA Abstract This longitudinal study explores the influence

More information

The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education Volume 3, Issue 3

The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education Volume 3, Issue 3 Undergraduates Who Have a Lower Perception of Controlling Time Fail To Adjust Time Estimation Even When Given Feedback Yoshihiro S. OKAZAKI [1], Tomoya IMURA [2], Masahiro TAKAMURA [3], Satoko TOKUNAGA

More information

2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education

2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education Role of Social Presence, Choice of Online or Face-to-Face Group Format, and Satisfaction with Perceived Knowledge

More information