Research Base of Targeted Early Childhood Education Craig T. Ramey, Ph.D.

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1 Research Base of Targeted Early Childhood Education Craig T. Ramey, Ph.D. The Economics of Early Childhood: Smart Beginnings for Virginia s Workforce Pipeline Richmond, VA October 14, 2014 Contact:

2 Purpose of today s talk Summarize the foundational facts about early childhood education (ECE) Identify the hallmarks of successful ECE programs that have produced large and lasting benefits for children, families, and communities

3 Scientific knowledge base from pioneering targeted ECE programs Perry Preschool Project (3-5 years) Abecedarian (ABC) Project (birth to 8 years) Chicago Parent-Child Centers (3-5 years) Project CARE (birth to 8 years) Infant Health and Development Program (birth to 3 years)

4 The Abecedarian Project (ABC): An experiment about improving school readiness and academic achievement Treatment Group Prenatal & birth visits Good stable nutrition Family social services Free primary health care Child development assessed Control Group_ Prenatal and birth visits Good stable nutrition Family social services Free or low-cost health care Child development assessed

5 Percent of Abecedarian Sample Ready for Kindergarten Martin, Ramey, & Ramey, 1990 American Journal of Public Health

6 Children of intellectually disabled mothers (<71 IQ) benefit at high rates in IQ outcomes Intellectual disabilities

7 Early education changes the effects of maternal education on child IQ by age 3: From an 8-site replication of ABC (n=232) (n=162) (n=166) (n=104) (n=134) (n=63) (n=76) (n=48) Adapted from Ramey, Sparling, & Ramey 2012

8 Notable Outcomes of Birth to Age 5: Abecedarian Intensive Education Approach vs. Controls Age 8 1 ES Improved Reading Achievement 102 vs Improved Math Achievement 100 vs Age 15 1 Improved Reading Achievement 95 vs Improved Math Achievement 92 vs Reduced Special Education (%) 12 vs. 48 Reduced Grade Retention (%) 30 vs. 55 Increased Maternal Employment for Teen Mothers (%) 92 vs. 66

9 Summary of major benefits of pioneering targeted early childhood education programs Increased Kindergarten readiness Increased reading and math achievement Reduced Special Education placement Reduced retention in grade Reduced teen parenthood Increased college attendance and graduation Increased income and job prestige

10 Summary of major benefits of pioneering targeted early childhood education programs (cont.) Reduced marijuana use Reduced crime Lower risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders Cost-benefit analyses suggest ROIs in the range of 1:3 1:7

11 (19 August 2011) Science Issue devoted to early education because of its criticality to understanding human development on a global scale. KEY QUESTIONS: 1. Why are we not applying what we know? 2. Can large-scale, real world applications yield more than short-term, small magnitude effects?

12 Louisiana s LA4 Program The state of Louisiana implemented a pre-k program that has consistently produced both short-term effects and lasting benefits for multiple cohorts. Ramey, Ramey, & Stokes, 2009; Ramey & Ramey, 2010

13 High quality Pre-K leads to higher achievement on 3 rd grade tests for 4 successive cohorts in LA Findings also replicated for Science and Social Studies

14 LA-4 results 3 rd grade: Special Education Placement

15 Foundational facts about ECE Several large-scale federal, state, and local programs have failed to produce the expected benefits. Why? Inadequate research protocols Failure to implement intended programs

16 Hallmarks of successful early childhood education (ECE) programs

17 1. Leadership at the highest level was engaged and deeply knowledgeable about the content of the program.

18 2. Programs based on scientific findings and scientific theory about children s development, rather than ideology or philosophy alone.

19 3. Programs were intensive -- often engaging children and family members over multiple years.

20 4. Features were specified in a clear protocol, yet there also were plans for flexibility.

21 5. Staff received strong initial training and ongoing professional development and feedback.

22 6. Implementation was actively monitored to detect and resolve problems early.

23 7. High levels of participation among all children and families were strongly supported to overcome the most likely potential barriers to full participation.

24 8. Information gathered about the program and children s progress was analyzed and reported in an open, timely fashion to both the program leadership team and to external groups, including presentations at leading professional organizations.

25 9. Leadership had sufficient resources and direct control over expenditures so key components could be delivered fully, yet could be quickly adjusted as problems were encountered.

26 Virginia has many assets to build upon as it strengthens its early childhood commitment.

Contact: CTRAMEY@VT.EDU

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