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1 Improving Educational and Economic Achievement with Targeted Early Childhood Education Craig T. Ramey, Ph.D. Families First Summit: Tallahassee can be Best for Babies and Business Florida State University, Turnbull Center Tallahassee, FL- March 27, 2015 Contact:

2 Purpose of Today s Talk 1) Summarize the foundational facts about early childhood education (ECE) 2) Identify the hallmarks of successful ECE programs that produce large and lasting benefits for children, families, and communities

3 What the Scientific Evidence Shows The first 5 years create a critical infrastructure for later learning There are essential experiences all children need to become capable in contemporary societies Early childhood education (ECE) yields large and lasting benefits for both children and their parents

4 The First 3 Years of Life Rapid brain development Self-concept and secure attachment Critical language foundation Mutual influence of genes and experiences (the new field of epigenetics, moving beyond nature or nurture)

5 Synaptogenesis is Active in First 3 Yrs of Life Adapted from Huttenlocher in Ramey & Ramey Right from Birth (1999)

6 Adult Speech Determines Growth of Infant Vocabulary Huttenlocher et al, Developmental Psychology, (1991)

7 Responsive Transactions are Central to Children s Brain and Behavioral Development

8 Scientific Knowledge Base from Pioneering Targeted ECE Programs Perry Preschool Project (3-5 years) Abecedarian (ABC) Project (birth to 8 years) Chicago Parent-Child Centers (3-5 years) Project CARE (birth to 8 years) Infant Health and Development Program (birth to 3 years)

9 The Central Questions of The Abecedarian (ABC) Project To what extent can increasing the early educational and health supports for children from extremely impoverished homes prevent intellectual and learning disabilities? promote cognitive and social outcomes? improve lifelong health and well-being?

10 The Abecedarian Project (ABC) Treatment Group Prenatal & birth visits Good stable nutrition Family social services Free primary health care Child development assessed Control Group Prenatal and birth visits Good stable nutrition Family social services Free or low-cost health care Child development assessed

11 Cognitive Scores (3-54 months) for Abecedarian Treatment Groups Control Group ECE Group National Average months effect size Ramey et.al., 2000 Applied Developmental Science

12 COGNITIVE SCORES Pre-Kindergarten Education Exposure and Cognitive Development No ECE Community ECE ABC ECE AGE IN MONTHS Burchinal, Lee, and Ramey, 1989 Child Development

13 Abecedarian ECE Improves Kindergarten Readiness 100% 100% 100% 95% 95% 90% 93% Percent 80% 70% 60% 78% Control Group ECE Group 50% 40% 49% 45% 6 Months 18 Months 36 Months 48 Months Martin, Ramey, & Ramey, 1990 American Journal of Public Health

14 Abecedarian ECE Improves Reading Achievement (age 8-21) Campbell & Ramey, 2001 Developmental Psychology

15 Abecedarian ECE Prevents Grade Retention and Special Education Placement Ramey & Ramey, 1999 MR/DD Research Review

16 Significant Health and Education Benefits of Abecedarian (ABC) Early Childhood Education 15 Months to 35 Years Old Intelligence (IQ) Reading and math skills Academic locus-of-control Social Competence Years in school College attendance Earned 4 yr college degree Full-time employment Cardiometabolic health Return on Investment Mothers education Mothers employment Grade Repetition Special Education placement Teen Pregnancies Smoking & drug use Teen depression Welfare use Overweight/BMI Lower blood pressure Ramey, Sparling, & Ramey (2012); Science (2014)

17 Abecedarian ECE also benefits Low Birthweight, Premature Children The Infant Health and Development Program 985 infants in 8 cities Intervention combines home visiting, parenting skills, and ECE from birth to age 3 years

18 The ABC Intervention improved IQ scores for Premature, Low Birthweight Infants in 8 sites (Stanford-Binet at 36 mos for gm LBW Group) Infant Health and Development, JAMA, 1990 C. T. Ramey, AAAS, 1996

19 Targeted ECE Works Especially Well for Children from Low Maternal Education Groups Child IQ at Age Some High School High School Graduate Some College College Graduate (n=232) (n=162) (n=166) (n=104) (n=134) (n=63) (n=76) (n=48) Control ECE Adapted from Ramey, Sparling, & Ramey 2012

20 Outcomes Affected Positively (*p<.01) by the Infant Health & Development Program 12 Months 24 Months 36 Months Cognitive Development NS + + Adaptive and Prosocial Behavior + Reduction in Behavior Problems + + Vocabulary + + Receptive Language + + Children s Reasoning + Positive Home Environment NS + Maternal-Child Interactive Behavior + Maternal Problem Solving + Ramey 1999, adapted from Gross, Spiker, & Haynes, 1997, Helping Low Birth Weight, Premature Babies Note: No negative effects discovered

21 New Knowledge about Return on Investments (ROIs) in Human Capital 1. Early educational and health interventions can disrupt expected intergenerational patterns of low educational attainment, poverty, and poor health (The Abecedarian Project) 2. Biological risks for non-optimal development can be overcome by systematic early supports (The Infant Health & Development Project) 3. Return on Investment is at least 4:1dollars 4. Only high-quality, high-intensity programs provide a return on investment

22 Part 2: Hallmarks of Successful Programs 1. Leadership at the highest level was engaged and deeply knowledgeable about the content of the program. 2. Programs based on scientific findings and scientific theory about children s development, rather than ideology or philosophy alone. 3. Programs were intensive -- often engaging children and family members over multiple years.

23 Part 2: Hallmarks of Successful Programs 4. Staff received strong initial training and ongoing professional development and feedback. 5. Implementation was actively monitored to detect and resolve problems early. 6. Information gathered about the program and children s progress was analyzed and reported in an open, timely fashion to both the program leadership team and to external groups

24 Questions and Contact Information 1. What is the current situation regarding kindergarten readiness in my school system? 2. Are there specific gaps in our existing knowledge-base that need to be addressed? What do we need to know to act soon? 3. Can we identify some next steps on the road to improving kindergarten readiness for at-risk children? Contact Information: Craig Ramey 2 Riverside Circle, Roanoke VA Assistant: Laura Bateman

25 Selected References Ramey, C.T., Sparling, J.J., & Ramey, S.L. (2012). Abecedarian: The ideas, the approach, and the findings. Los Altos, CA: Sociometrics Corporation Ramey, C.T., Bryant, D.M., Wasik, B.H., Sparling, J.J., Fendt, K.H., & LaVange, L.M. (1992). Infant Health and Development Program for low birth weight, premature infants: Program elements, family participation, and child intelligence. Pediatrics, 89, PMID Ramey, C.T., Campbell, F.A., Burchinal, M., Skinner, M.L., Gardner, D.M., & Ramey, S.L. (2000). Persistent effects of early childhood education on high-risk children and their mothers. Applied Developmental Science, 4, Ramey, C.T., & Ramey, S.L. (2004). Early learning and school readiness: Can early intervention make a difference? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, Campbell, F.A., Wasik, B.H., Pungello, E., Burchinal, M., Barbarin, O., Kainz, K., Sparling, J.J., & Ramey, C.T. (2008). Young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian and CARE early childhood educational interventions. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, Campbell, F.A., Pungello, E., Kainz, K., Burchinal, M., Yi, P, Wasik, B.H., Barbarin, O., Sparling, J.J., & Ramey, C.T. (2012). Adult outcomes as a function of an early childhood educational program: An Abecedarian project follow-up. Developmental Psychology, 48, doi: /a Burchinal, M., Lee, M., & Ramey, C.T. (1989). Type of day-care and preschool intellectual development in disadvantaged children. Child Development, 60,

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