Application Portfolio Management

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1 Application Portfolio Management Vorlesung IT-Unternehmensarchitektur VL 03; Donnerstag, 15. Novemver 2012; Fachgebiet Software-Architekturen, Prof. Dr. Robert Hirschfeld Dipl.-Inform. (univ.) Wolfgang Keller, Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 0

2 Management Part of EAM - Goals Learn about the main Content of an IT-Strategy Learn how to set up an Application Portfolio Management Learn about the Range of a strategic IT plan Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 1

3 Prozessmodell für IT-Unternehmensarchitektur Überleitung IT-Strategie Modellierung und Durchsetzung von Standards & Richtlinien Modellierung Standardisierung Audit Planung Umsetzung der Planung IT-Strategie Entwicklung Monitoring des Projektportfolios IT-Portfolio Management Projektprozess Projektbegleitung Strategische IT-Planung Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 2

4 Agenda: Application Portfolio Management (APM)" Some Theory: What is Application Portfolio Management?" Question an IT Management might ask the IT Portfolio Manager?" Pragmatic ways to answer these questions?" Some examples for other types of analysis" Summary" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 3

5 What is an Application Portfolio?" What is a Portfolio" What is an Application?" Hence: What is an Application Portfolio?" And finally: What is Application Portfolio Management?" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 4

6 Comparably simple What is a portfolio?" " "The term portfolio refers to any collection of financial assets such as stocks, bonds and cash. Portfolios may be held by individual investors and/or managed by financial professionals, hedge funds, banks and other financial institutions. It is a generally accepted principle that a portfolio is designed according to the investor's risk tolerance, time frame and investment objectives. (Source: ( )" "For our father use: A portfolio is a collection of assets" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 5

7 Tougher to define: What is an Application?" Definition by Credit Suisse" Source: Dr. Heinrich Krause (Credit Suisse), Messbares Management der Applikationslandschaft" Talk at conference IT-Architektur Deutsche Kongress, Frankfurt/Main, Februar 2007" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 6

8 What is an Application? How about SOA?" Public Enterprise Services Broker Policy Service Back-Office UI Call Center UI User Interaction Services Process-Centric Services Life- Policy Admin Processes Life- Claims Processes Intermediary Services XY Adapter XY Facade XY Gateway Basic Services Business Partner Services General Ledger Services General Ledger Services SOA and multichannel apps make it almost impossible to talk use the term application Hence the portfolio will be a Service Portfolio Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 7

9 What is an Application Portfolio? What is Application Portfolio Management?" An Application Portfolio is the set of all software assets present in an enterprise (aka applications or services)" Asset managers manage their portfolio so that the return is hopefully maximized at an accepted level of risk! " Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 8

10 Another common term is IT Portfolio Management As an Enterprise Architect you are in charge of more than one portfolio Application Portfolio" Infrastructure Portfolio Project Portfolio Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 9

11 IT Portfolio Management may be compared to Investment Portfolio Mgmnt" Crucial Difference: Ever tried to sell the e.g. Austrian application for the cadastral register to China?" There is no stock exchange for applications due to so called high covariance " Source: Dileep Kasargod, Kalyan Chakravarthy Bondugula; Application Portfolio Management, White Paper Infosys, April 2005" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 10

12 More differences" Return for financial assets can be quantified: E.g. rising stock prices or dividends" For applications it is tough to impossible to quantify returns:" Application supports a business process" Application enables business" Business maybe impossible without an application of some type. But what is the precise, quantified return of that app? " Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 11

13 Agenda: Application Portfolio Management (APM)" Some Theory: What is Application Portfolio Management?" Question an IT Management might ask the IT Portfolio Manager?" Pragmatic ways to answer these questions?" Some examples for other types of analysis" Summary" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 12

14 Before we describe what to store about an app, we ask why store it (1/2)" Typical questions concerning an application portfolio:" Which apps are retirement candidates" Which apps are candidates for restructuring or optimization?" What are our costs for redundant basic services (wag. x times partner services)?" Which unsupported systems have I got in my portfolio" Which products are running out of maintenance?" Which are my rotting apps?" Which apps consume too many resources?" Which apps violate NFRs?" Risk Management" Which apps have to be considered unsafe?" Which apps compromise compliance?" Which business processes could profit the most from investments in IT apps?" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 13

15 Before we describe what to store about an app, we ask why store it (2/2)" Based on an application portfolio various impact analyses can be performed. E.g.:" Which applications need changes if I have to implement a compliance initiative the likes of Basel II, Solvency II, SOX, MIFID, telecom specific laws (data preservation (German: Vorratsdatenspeicherung) in the EC)" How well are my systems aligned with our business strategy: Alignment, Strategic fit." Which applications could be sourced?" Business Continuity: What happens if system X goes down for a period Y of time? " Project efficiency: Which apps have high project risks and which apps are the ones with best/worst development productivity" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 14

16 Agenda: Application Portfolio Management (APM)" Some Theory: What is Application Portfolio Management?" Question an IT Management might ask the IT Portfolio Manager?" Pragmatic ways to answer these questions?" Some examples for other types of analysis" Summary" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 15

17 Capturing the application portfolio Stage 1: Application Handbook" Per application, a set of predefined set of attributes, is recorded e.g. using a a questionnaire Examples of frequently used attributes to describe an application" Name" Unique ID (application number)" Responsibility of the application" People that have some role in managing the app" Responsible on business side" Responsible development" Responsible IT ops" Interfaces to other apps" Coverage of domain architecture" Support of business processes and activities (or capabilities)" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 16

18 Creating an Application Handbook should be comparably trivial?" Size: E.g. 200 apps * 2,5 pages => 500 pages" Coverage: How do I know O found all apps? Or are there any forgotten apps?" Up-to-dateness: How do I motivate app owners to provide the latest information on their apps" And remember: What is an app in times of SOA " Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 17

19 Sample for a large Application Landscape(1)" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved Source: Credit Suisse, Dr. Heinrich Krause, Vortrag auf Tagung 18 IT-Architekturen, Deutsche Kongress, Frankfurt 2007"

20 Capturing the Application Portfolio: Stage 2 Interfaces" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 19

21 Typical mid-size Insurance..." About 200 apps (systems)" About 4000 interfaces " If it is already tough to provide actual information for 200 app systems, it is even tougher to provide information about 4000 interfaces" => the only reasonable way to implement this is automation (scanning source code)" => maps like the previous one are not really instructive" Except you want to create political effects on your management" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 20

22 It is good to have a 1 slide picture of your app landscape (again Credit Suisse) Bekanntes Bild schaffen - Wieder: Credit Suisse" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved Quelle Bild: Credit Suisse, Dr. Heinrich Krause, Vortrag auf 21 Tagung IT-Architekturen, Deutsche Kongress, Frankfurt 2007"

23 Different Banks have different backgrounds for their maps" Domain Model HypoVereinsbank 2006 Banking Front-Office Branch, Sales & Services Direct Banking Banking Mid-Office Mortgage Special Loans Standard Loans Brokerage Mid Office Core Banking Back-Office Clearing / Settlement Credit Risk Management MM / FX Clearing Master Data Management International Payment Clearing Accounts, Savings,Back-Office National Payment Clearing Cards Securities Clearing & Settlement Enterprise Syst.& Compliance Support Systems HR Bank Management & Controlling Risk Controlling Quelle Bild: Dr. Elke Jung (HVB) Öffentlicher Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved Vortrag, Regensburg, 12./13. Dezember 2006" 22

24 Application Maps can be used to monitor scores via e.g. traffic lights " For more see separate part on CIO cockpits" Various gauges may be applied on top of software maps" Anwendung ist nicht standardkonform Anwendung ist > 99,5 % // 99,5 99,0 % // <99,0 % standardkonform Verfügbarkeit pro Tag Sources Vorlesung Software Engineering für betriebliche Anwendungen ; Veranstaltung Software-Kartographie, André Wittenburg, Technische Universität München, 2006" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 23

25 Agenda: Application Portfolio Management (APM)" Some Theory: What is Application Portfolio Management?" Question an IT Management might ask the IT Portfolio Manager?" Pragmatic ways to answer these questions?" Some examples for other types of analysis" Summary" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 24

26 APM is typically using portfolio analysis methods" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 25

27 Questions that can be answered using a Ward/Peppard Matrix Analysis" Which apps could be outsourcing candidates?" Poor Dogs below - right" Often they are not specific for core business. Should be cheap and reliable. Functionality is somewhat important but as long as overall process costs are as expected, no advanced funtionality is needed" Examples are (all as long as they are NOT part of core business): " The often cited accounting app" Inventory control" Payroll app" app"... " Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 26

28 Questions that can be answered using a Ward/Paper Matrix Analysis Which are the apps that need very high reliability?" Cash Cows" The core business is based on those apps. In most cases they are grown over 1-2 decades." Examples:" Contract apps of an insurance company" Credit product app of a bank" Quality requirements for such apps are often very high. Hence changing them often takes time (e.g. for extensive tests)" Are more often developped suing waterfall processes than agile processes, as development should be predictable" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 27

29 Questions that can be answered using a Ward/Paper Matrix Analysis" Which are the apps that should be developped in a highly flexible manner?" Question Marks" Prototype implementation that allow you to test drive new products" Functionality needed is not fully predictable at start of projects" Agile processes usually make a good fit for such products" Innovation is more important than highest reliability" Traditional waterfall processes could hurt innovation" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 28

30 Questions that can be answered using a Ward/Paper Matrix Analysis" Which apps need to be stabilized" Stars are yersterdays question marks and tomorrows cash cows" Depending on technical state it might be better to completely reimplement the content on one of the work horse platforms or to just reimplement or improve the app." Focus is on stabilizing such apps and to make them ready for mass production" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 29

31 Example: Life Cycle of a Contract App for an innovative Life Insurance Product" No success on market" 2" Stabilizing for low volume production" No success on market" 1" Migration to a heavy duty platform" Prototype has been stabilized and is able to handle production " A few contracts are sold" " " " Prototype of a new financial product" Example: New fund based life insurance using an automated investment strategy" Test system used to test drive the algorithms" " " 3" The new products are integrated into a main systems line" Reliability improves agility decreases" New product is completely integrated into mainstream software" " " " Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 30

32 How can you make use of a process support map" Explain structure of map" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 31

33 How can you make use of a process support map" 1" 2" Explain what an APM pro can derive from this map" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 32

34 How can you make use of a process support map" 3" Explain what an APM pro can derive from this map" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 33

35 How can you make use of a process support map" 4" ICS Integrated Contract System" Explain what an APM pro can derive from this map" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 34

36 How do I spend my project budget?" The method is rather vanilla: Draw projects and their budgets on a software map canvas" What you can see are" Allocations that fail to align with the strategy (maybe G)" Questionable risk distribution (D)" Budget fragmentation" And many more things" B" A" C" F" E" D" G" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 35

37 Agenda: Application Portfolio Management (APM)" Some Theory: What is Application Portfolio Management?" Question an IT Management might ask the IT Portfolio Manager?" Pragmatic ways to answer these questions?" Some examples for other types of analysis" Summary" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 36

38 Summary: Back to our initial questions what could we answer now? (1/2)" Typical questions concerning an application portfolio:" Which apps are retirement candidates" Which apps are candidates for restructuring or optimization?" What are our costs for redundant basic services (wag. x times partner services)?" Which unsupported systems have I got in my portfolio" Which products are running out of maintenance?" Which are my rotting apps?" Which apps consume too many resources?" Which apps violate NFRs?" Risk Management" Which apps have to be considered unsafe?" Which apps compromise compliance?" Which business processes could profit the most from investments in IT apps?" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 37

39 Summary: Back to our initial questions what could we answer now? (2/2)" Based on an application portfolio various impact analyses can be performed. E.g.:" Which applications need changes if I have to implement a compliance initiative the likes of Basel II, Solvency II, SOX, MIFID, telecom specific laws (Vorratsdatenspeicherung in the EC)" How well are my systems aligned with our business strategy: Alignment, Strategic fit." Which applications could be sourced?" Business Continuity: What happens if system X goes down for a period Y of time? " Project efficiency: Which apps have high project risks and which apps are the ones with best/worst development productivity" Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 38

40 APM - Summary APM is a permanent process You re never done with it APM is about continuous improvement of the portfolio and strategic fit and also about answering management questions and An application handbook is a useful base for many other forms of reports, like scorecards and the likes Implement to-be situation Define to-be situation Analyze as-is situation Wolfgang W. Keller - all rights reserved 39

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