# Draft: Life insurance mathematics in discrete time

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1 1 Draft: Life insurance mathematics in discrete time Tom Fischer Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany Lecture at the METU Ankara, Turkey April 12-16, 2004

2 2 A recent version of the lecture notes can be downloaded under tfischer/ankara.pdf This version is from April 27, Dr. Tom Fischer Technische Universität Darmstadt Fachbereich Mathematik, AG 9 Schloßgartenstr Darmstadt Germany tfischer

3 3 About these notes This is the preliminary (slide-form) version of the notes of a lecture at the Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey, held by the author from April 12 to 16, As the audience was quite inhomogeneous, the notes contain a brief review of discrete time financial mathematics. Some notions and results from stochastics are explained in the Appendix. The notes contain several internet links to numerical spreadsheet examples which were developed by the author. The author does not (and cannot) guarantee for the correctness of the data supplied and the computations taking place. Tom Fischer

4 CONTENTS 4 Contents 1 Introduction Life insurance mathematics? Preliminary remarks Intention Warning Benefits Introductory examples Valuation in classical life insurance Valuation in modern life insurance A review of classical life insurance mathematics Non-stochastic finance

5 CONTENTS The model The present value of a cash flow Classical valuation The model The Expectation Principle The fair premium Life insurance contracts The Principle of Equivalence Mortalities - The notation The reserve Definition and meaning A recursive formula Some contract forms

6 CONTENTS Spreadsheet examples Historical remarks Basic concepts of discrete time financial mathematics The model Portfolios and strategies No-arbitrage and the Fundamental Theorem Valuation Market completeness Numeric example: One-period model Example: The Cox-Ross-Rubinstein model (CRR) Numeric example with spreadsheet Valuation in modern life insurance mathematics 58

7 CONTENTS An introduction to modern valuation Principles of modern life insurance mathematics The model The main result on valuation Hedging and some implications Examples Preliminaries Interest rates and zero-coupon bonds Real data The present value of a deterministic cash flow Traditional contracts with stochastic interest rates Historical pricing and valuation

8 CONTENTS Unit-linked pure endowment with guarantee Premium and reserve with CRR (spreadsheet) Conclusion Appendix Stochastic independence and product spaces A corollary of Fubini s Theorem The Strong Law of Large Numbers Conditional expectations and martingales

9 1 INTRODUCTION 9 1 Introduction

10 1 INTRODUCTION Life insurance mathematics? How will you finance your living standard after having retired? If you have children - who will finance their education if you and your partner die prematurely? How much would you pay per month during your working life for the guarantee of 2000 EUR per month after you have retired? today for the guarantee of 0.5 Mio. EUR paid on your death when you die within the next 20 years? What kind of information would you like to have before giving an answer?

11 1 INTRODUCTION 11 It s the economy, stupid. (Carville and Clinton, 1992) In 2003, the total capital hold by German LI-companies was 615, 000, 000, 000 EUR. In 2003, the aggregate sum of premiums paid to German life insurers was 67, 000, 000, 000 EUR. The aggregate sum of benefits was 75, 400, 000, 000 EUR where 11 billion EUR were used for reserve purposes.

12 1 INTRODUCTION 12 Imagine the total capital hold by LI-companies all over the world! How would you invest 67 billion EUR yearly in order to be prepared to pay off even bigger guaranteed(!) sums, later? First time in history, the German Protector had to save an LI-company from bankruptcy. - How could that happen? Notation: life insurance (mathematics) = LI(M)

13 1 INTRODUCTION Preliminary remarks concerning the lecture Intention A brief introduction to life insurance mathematics in discrete time, with a focus on valuation and premium calculation which are considered in both, a classical framework with deterministic financial markets, as well as in a modern framework with stochastic financial markets. The emphasis lies on a rigorous stochastic modelling which easily allows to embedd the classical into the modern theory.

14 1 INTRODUCTION Warning This is not a standard course in life insurance mathematics. Notation may differ from standard textbooks (e.g. Gerber, 1997) or papers (e.g. Møller and Norberg). We will not use expressions of ä-type. Modern life insurance in discrete, and not continuous time - in contrast to most recent publications Some important topics cannot be considered, e.g. mortality statistics, enhanced premium principles or bonus theory. Lack of time - usually, one year courses are necessary.

15 1 INTRODUCTION Benefits Classical standard literature should easily be understood after this course. Modern LIM in continuous time should be better accessible, basic concepts should be clear. Consistent framework for classical and modern LIM in discrete time Basic principles of modern LIM are extensively discussed. Embedding of modern and classical LIM into modern financial mathematics State-of-the-art numeric examples for premium calculation and contract valuation with real data

16 1 INTRODUCTION Introductory examples Valuation in classical life insurance 1 year time horizon, fixed interest rate r, i.e. 1 EUR today will be worth 1 + r EUR in 1 year, 1 EUR in 1 year is worth 1 1+r EUR today. Persons i N = independent Bernoulli variables B i 1 if i is dead after 1 year B i = 0 if i is alive after 1 year (1) Pr(B i = 1) = p 1 > 0, Pr(B i = 0) = p 0 > 0 and p 1 + p 0 = 1 Life insurance contracts with payoffs c i B i, where c i R + and 0 c i const for all i

17 1 INTRODUCTION 17 Classical LIM states that P V i = (1 + r) 1 c i E[B i ] (2) = (1 + r) 1 c i p 1 present value = discounted expected payoff Reason: Present values/minimum fair prices allow hedging 1 m m ((1 + r)p V i c i B i ) m 0 a.s. (3) i=1 Strong Law of Large Numbers by Kolmogorov s Criterion (cf. Section 7.3) Contracts are balanced in the mean. The present value (2) of the contract at time 0 is also called single net premium.

18 1 INTRODUCTION Valuation in modern life insurance 1 year time horizon, stochastic financial market Persons i = independent Bernoullis B i (dead = 1, alive = 0) Payoffs: c i B i shares S, e.g. S = 1 IBM share ( unit-linked ) S 0 = present (market) value of 1 share S at time 0 Modern LIM states that P V i = S 0 c i E[B i ] (4) Kolmogorov s Criterion (Strong Law of Large Numbers) cannot be applied as contracts (payoff variables) can be highly dependent. Question: Why (4)?

19 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 19 2 A review of classical life insurance mathematics

20 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Non-stochastic finance The model Discrete finite time axis T = {t 0, t 1,..., t n }, t 0 = 0 < t 1 <... < t n Deterministic financial markets Prices of securities are deterministic positive functions on T, e.g. S : t (1 + r) t Absence of arbitrage (No-arbitrage = NA) Riskless wins are excluded! Prices of securities are identical except for scaling (proof trivial!) We can assume that there is only one deterministic security with price process S = (S t ) t T and S 0 = 1 in the market.

21 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 21 EXAMPLE 2.1. Fixed yearly interest rate of 5% T = {0, 1, 2, 3} in years S = (1, 1.05, , ) (1, 1.05, , ) (compound interest) The present value of a cash flow Cash flow X T = (X t0,..., X tn ) R n, i.e. at time t i one has the deterministic payoff X ti Under condition (NA), the present value of the cashflow X T at time t T is P V t (X T ) = n k=0 S t S tk X tk = S t s T S 1 s X s. (5)

22 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 22 EXAMPLE 2.2. Fixed yearly interest rate of 5% T = {0, 1, 2, 3} in years S = (1, 1.05, , ) (1, 1.05, , ) X T = (0, 1, 1, 1) Present value of X T at t = 0 P V 0 = Present value of X T at t = 3 P V 3 = = EXAMPLE 2.3 (Spreadsheet example). tfischer/ CompoundInterest.xls

23 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Classical valuation The model Discrete finite time axis T = {0, 1,..., T } Deterministic financial market (cf. Subsection 2.1) Probability space (B, B T, B) for the biometry Notation: Biometric(al) data- data concerning the biological and some of the social states of human beings (e.g. health, age, sex, family status, ability to work) Evolution of biometric information is modelled by a filtration of σ-algebras (B t ) t T, i.e. B 0 B 1... B T (Information develops - to some extent - like a branching tree, an example follows below.) B 0 = {, B}, i.e. at t = 0 the state of the world is known for sure.

24 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 24 Cash flow: X T = (X 0,..., X T ) where X t is B t -measurable, i.e. a cash flow is a sequence of random payoffs Example: Claim of an insured person, e.g. X t = 1000 if person died in (t 1, t], X t = 0 otherwise

25 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS The Expectation Principle See Section 7.4 for a short introduction to conditional expectations (including a detailed example). The classical present value of a t-payoff X at s T is Π t s(x) := S s E[X/S t B s ] (6) The classical present value of a cashflow X T at s T is P V s (X T ) := t T Π t s(x t ) (7) = t T S s E[X t /S t B s ] Reason: The Strong Law of Large Numbers! A detailed justification follows later, in the general case.

26 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 26 EXAMPLE 2.4 (Term insurance). Market and time axis as in Example 2.2, i.e. T = {0, 1, 2, 3} and 5% interest per year X T = (X 0, X 1, X 2, X 3 ) X t = 1000 if the person died in (t 1, t] (t = 1, 2, 3) X t = 0 else Mortality per year: 1% The single net premium P V 0 (X T ) = t T E[X t /S t ] (8) = / / /1.05 3

28 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 28 Example 2.4 (continued) P V 2 (X T ) = t T S 2 E[X t /S t B 2 ] = t T(S 2 /S t ) E[X t B 2 ] (9) First, consider 1000 if b = ddd E[X 1 B 2 ](b) = X 1 (b) = 0 else 1000 if b = add E[X 2 B 2 ](b) = X 2 (b) = 0 else 0 if b {add, ddd} E[X 3 B 2 ](b) = 10 else (10) (11) (12)

29 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 29 Example 2.4 (continued) P V 2 (X T ) 1000 if b {add} 1050 if b {ddd} 9.52 else (13) The contract X T is worth/costs 9.52 EUR at time t = 2 if the person has not yet died. Test: E[P V 2 (X T )]! = S 2 P V 0 (X T ) OK t = (a) a a a d d d

30 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS The fair premium Life insurance contracts Claims/benefits: Cash flow X T = (X 0,..., X T ), paid from the insurer to the insurant Premiums: Cash flow Y T = (Y 0,..., Y T ), paid from the insurant to the insurer Contract from the viewpoint of the insurer: Y T X T, i.e. (Y 0 X 0,..., Y T X T ) Usually, premiums are paid in advance. Premiums can be one-time single premiums. periodic with constant amount. periodic and varying.

31 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS The Principle of Equivalence The net premium or minimum fair premium is chosen such that P V 0 (X T ) = P V 0 (Y T ), (14) i.e. the present value of the premium flow has to equal the present value of the flow of benefits (fairness argument!). The Principle of Equivalence (14) and the Expectation Principle (7) are the cornerstones of classical life insurance mathematics. In the beginning, the value of the contract is P V 0 (Y T X T ) = 0.

32 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 32 EXAMPLE 2.5 (Term insurance with constant premiums). Extend Example 2.4 by assuming for the premiums Y T = (Y 0, Y 1, Y 2, Y 3 ) Y t = D > 0 if the person is alive at t (t = 0, 1, 2) Y t = 0 else From the Principle of Equivalence we obtain P V 0 (Y T ) = D ( / / ) (15)! = P V 0 (X) The minimum fair annual premium is D 9.52 EUR.

33 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Mortalities - The notation t q x := probability that an x year old will die within t years s t q x := probability that an x year old will survive till s and die in (s, s + t] t p x := probability that an x year old will survive t years Observe: s+t p x = s p x tp x+s and s t q x = s p x tq x+s If t = 1, t is often omitted in the above expressions. Example: Present value of X T from Example 2.4 in new notation P V 0 (X T ) = 1000 (S1 1 q x + S2 1 1 q x + S3 1 2 q x ) Caution: Insurance companies usually use two different mortality tables depending whether a death is in financial favour (e.g. pension), or not (e.g. term insurance) for the company.

34 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 34 Reason for the different tables: In actuarial practice mortality tables contain safety loads. In our examples, t q x, s t q x and t p x will be taken from (or computed by) the DAV (Deutsche Aktuarvereinigung) mortality tables 1994 T (Loebus, 1994) and 1994 R (Schmithals and Schütz, 1995) for men. Hence, the used mortality tables are first order tables. The use of internal second order tables of real life insurance companies would be more appropriate. However, for competitive reasons they are usually not published. All probabilities mentioned above are considered to be constant in time. Especially, to make things easier, there is no aging shift applied to table 1994 R.

35 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS The reserve Definition and meaning The reserve at time s is defined by R s (X T, Y T ) := Π t s(x t Y t ), (16) t s i.e. (16) is the negative value of the contract cash flow after t (including t; notation may differ in the literature). In preparation of future payments, the company should have (16) in reserve at t (due to the definition, before contractual payments at t take place). Whole LI (cf. page 38): Mortality increases with time. Hence, constant premiums mean positive and increasing reserve. (The 20 year old pays the same premium as the 60 year old!)

36 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS A recursive formula By definition (16), R s (X T, Y T ) = t s S s E[(X t Y t )/S t B s ] (17) = X s Y s + (S s /S s+1 ) t>s S s+1 E[(X t Y t )/S t B s ] = X s Y s + (S s /S s+1 )E[R s+1 (X T, Y T ) B s ] Note that R s is B s -measurable (s T). The reserve at t is usually considered under the assumption that the insured individual still lives. Assume for (B t ) t T the model of Example 2.4, i.e. at t T the person can be dead or alive - no other states are considered. We denote R a s = R s (X T, Y T ) {alive at s}, R d s, X a s, Y a s analogously.

37 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 37 Observe that the events {alive at s + 1} and {alive at s, but dead at s + 1} are minimal sets in B s+1. Hence, one obtains for an insured person of age x R a s = (S s /S s+1 )[p x+s R a s+1 + q x+s R d s+1 {alive at s} ] + X a s Y a s. (18) All expressions above are constant! For the contracts explained in Section 2.6, R d s+1 {alive at s} is simple to compute and (18) therefore suitable for applications (cf. Section 2.7). s = (a) p x q x p x+1 p x+2 a a a q x+1 q x+2 d d d

38 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Some contract forms Payments (benefits) are normed to 1 (cf. Gerber, 1997). Whole life insurance: Provides the payment of 1 EUR at the end of the year of death. As human beings usually live not longer than 130 years, the next contract type may be used instead. Term insurance of duration n: Provides n years long the payment of 1 EUR at the end of the year of death (Example 2.4). Pure endowment of duration n: Provides the payment of 1 EUR at n if the insured is alive. Endowment: Combination of a term insurance and pure endowment with the same duration Life annuity: Provides annual payments of 1 EUR as long as the beneficiary lives (pension).

39 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Spreadsheet examples tfischer/ ClassicalPremiums+Reserves.xls Observe the differences between 1994 T and 1994 R. Use different interest rates to observe how premiums depend on them. Implement flexible interest rates. Why is R a 0, the reserve at t = 0, always identical to 0?

40 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Historical remarks Edmond Halley ( ) An Estimate of the Degrees of the Mortality of Mankind, drawn from curious Tables of the Births and Funerals at the City of Breslaw; with an Attempt to ascertain the Price of Annuities upon Lives, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1693 Contains the first modern mortality table. Proposes correctly the basics of valuation by the Expectation and the Equivalence Principle. Halley had a very good intuition of stochastics though not having the measure theoretical foundations of the theory.

41 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 41 Figure 2: Edmond Halley ( )

42 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 42 Pierre-Simon Marquis de Laplace ( ) Was the first to give probability proper foundations (Laplace, 1820). Applied probability to insurance (Laplace, 1951). Life insurance mathematics is perhaps the oldest science for which stochastic methods were developed and applied.

43 2 A REVIEW OF CLASSICAL LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 43 Figure 3: Pierre-Simon de Laplace ( )

44 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS 44 3 Basic concepts of discrete time financial mathematics

45 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS The model Frictionless financial market Discrete finite time axis T = {0, 1, 2,..., T } (F, (F t ) t T, F) a filtered probability space, F 0 = {, F } Price dynamics given by an adapted R d -valued process S = (S t ) t T, i.e. d assets with price processes (S 0 t ) t T,..., (S d 1 t ) t T are traded at times t T \ {0}. (S 0 t ) t T is called the money account and features S 0 0 = 1 and S 0 t > 0 for t T. M F = (F, (F t ) t T, F, T, S) is called a securities market model.

46 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Portfolios and strategies Portfolio due to M F : θ = (θ 0,..., θ d 1 ), real-valued random variables θ i (i = 0,..., d 1) on (F, F T, F) A t-portfolio θ t is F t -measurable. The value of θ t at s t θ, S s = d 1 j=0 θ j S j s. (19) F t is interpreted as the information available at time t. Economic agents take decisions due to the available information. A trading strategy is a vector θ T = (θ t ) t T of t-portfolios θ t. A self-financing strategy θ T is a strategy such that θ t 1, S t = θ t, S t for each t > 0, i.e. at any time t > 0 the trader does not invest or consume any wealth.

47 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS No-arbitrage and the Fundamental Theorem S satisfies the so-called no-arbitrage condition (NA) if there is no s.f.-strategy such that θ 0, S 0 = 0 a.s., θ T, S T 0 and F( θ T, S T > 0) > 0 no riskless wins! S := (S t /S 0 t ) t T = discounted price process THEOREM 3.1 (Dalang, Morton and Willinger, 1990). The price process S satisfies (NA) if and only if there is a probability measure Q equivalent to F such that under Q the process S is a martingale. Moreover, Q can be found with bounded Radon-Nikodym derivative dq/df. Q is called equivalent martingale measure (EMM). 3.1 is called the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing. The proof needs a certain form of the Hahn-Banach Theorem.

48 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Valuation A valuation principle on a set Θ of portfolios is a linear mapping π F : θ (π F t (θ)) t T, where (π F t (θ)) t T is an adapted R-valued stochastic process (price process) such that π F t (θ) = θ, S t = d 1 i=0 for any t T for which θ is F t -measurable. θ i S i t (20) Fundamental Theorem S = ((St 0,..., St d 1, πt F (θ))) t T fulfills (NA) if and only if there exists an EMM Q for S - that means π F t (θ) = S 0 t E Q [ θ, S T /S 0 T F t ]. (21) If we price a portfolio under (NA), the price process must have the above form for some Q. (Question: Which Q?)

49 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS 49 Considering a t-portfolio θ, it is easy to show that for s < t π F s (θ) = S 0 s E Q [ θ, S t /S 0 t F s ]. (22) Sometimes it is more comfortable to use a valuation principle directly defined for payoffs. An F t -measurable payoff X always corresponds to a t-portfolio θ and vice versa. E.g. for θ = X/S 0 t e 0 one has X = θ, S t, where e i denotes the (i 1)-th canonic base vector in R d. So, with X = θ, S t, (22) becomes Compare (23) with (6)! Π t s(x) := S 0 s E Q [X/S 0 t F s ]. (23)

50 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Market completeness A securities market model is said to be complete if there exists a replicating strategy for any portfolio θ, i.e. there is some self-financing θ T = (θ t ) t T such that θ T = θ. (NA) implies unique prices and therefore a unique EMM Q. THEOREM 3.2 (Harrison and Kreps (1979); Taqqu and Willinger (1987); Dalang, Morton and Willinger (1990)). A securities market model fulfilling (NA) is complete if and only if the set of equivalent martingale measures is a singleton. 3.2 is sometimes also called Fundamental Theorem. A replicating strategy is a perfect hedge.

51 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Numeric example: One-period model Time axis T = {0, 1} F = {ω 1, ω 2, ω 3 }, i.e. 3 states of the world at T = 1 S 0 1 S 1 1 S 2 1 S 0 = (1, 1, 1) and ω ω ω We want to compute the price of an option with payoff X given by x = (X(ω 1 ), X(ω 2 ), X(ω 3 )) = (0.5, 1.5, 2.5) by two methods: 1. by the - as we will see - uniquely determined EMM. 2. by the respective replicating strategy/portfolio. For technical reasons we define the (full-rank) matrix S M := (S i,j ) i,j=1,2,3 := (S i 1(ω j )) i,j=1,2,3

52 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS The condition for a EMM Q is S M (Q(ω 1 ), Q(ω 2 ), Q(ω 3 )) T = (1, 1, 1)T. The solution is Q(ω 1 ) = Q(ω 2 ) = Q(ω 3 ) = 1/3 and unique, as S M has full rank. x/s 0 1 = (1/3, 1, 5/3) Π 1 0(X) = E Q [X/S 0 1] = 1/9 + 1/3 + 5/9 = The hedge θ with S T M θt = x T is uniquely given by θ = (1, 1, 1). Its price is S 0 θ t = 1. As expected (NA!), both methods determine the same price.

53 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Example: The Cox-Ross-Rubinstein model (CRR) 1 bond: S 0 t = (1 + r) t for t {0, 1,..., T } and r > 0 1 stock as in Figure 4, i.e. S 1 0 > 0, F(S 1 2 = uds 1 0) = p 2 (1 p) 2, etc. with 0 < d < u and 0 < p < 1 Condition for EMM: S 1 0 = 1 1+r (p us (1 p )ds 1 0) p = 1+r d u d Indeed, p gives a unique EMM as long as u > 1 + r > d. The CRR model is arbitrage-free and complete. p does not depend on the real-world probability p!

54 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS 54 t = S 1 0 u 3 S0 1 u u 2 S0 1 p u d 1 p us0 1 p u2ds1 u d u 0 p 1 p uds0 d 1 p u d 1 p 1 p ds0 1 p ud d 2 S0 1 u 1 p d 2 S0 1 p d 1 p d 3 S0 1 Figure 4: Binomial tree for the stock in the CRR model (T=3).

55 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS 55 The CRR model is complete! Replicating strategies for all types of options can be computed by backward induction. Imagine being at t = 2 in the state uu and having to hedge an option with payoff X at T (one-period sub-model!). We simply have to solve the following equation for s and b: s S 1 3(uuu) + b S 0 3(uuu) = X(uuu) (24) s S 1 3(uud) + b S 0 3(uud) = X(uud). s is the number of stocks, b the number of bonds. The hedge portfolios at other times and states can be computed analogously (going back in time). Observe, that (23) and the computed hedge automatically generate the same value process (if not arbitrage!).

56 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Numeric example with spreadsheet S 1 0 = 100; u = 1.06, d = 1.01, r = 0.05 p = 0.8 Consider a European call option with maturity t = 3 and strike price K = 110 EUR, i.e. with value X = (S ) + at t = 3. Compute the price process (Π T t (X)) t T of the option by Equation (23) (see Figure 5 for the solution). tfischer/crr.xls Try to understand the spreadsheet, expecially the computing of and the tests for the replicating strategy! Use the spreadsheet to price and replicate an arbitrarily chosen payoff (option) at time t = 3.

57 3 BASIC CONCEPTS OF DISCRETE TIME FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS 57 t = Figure 5: The price process (Π T t (X)) t T of the European call

58 4 VALUATION IN MODERN LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 58 4 Valuation in modern life insurance mathematics Literature: F. (2003, 2004)

59 4 VALUATION IN MODERN LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS An introduction to modern valuation Product space (F, (F t ) t T, F) (B, (B t ) t T, B); T = {0,..., T } d assets with price process(es) S = ((St 0,..., St d 1 )) t T Complete arbitrage-free financial market, unique EMM Q Portfolio θ = (θ 0,..., θ d 1 ) (vector of integrable F T B T -measurable random variables) Random payoff θ, S T = d 1 j=0 θj S j T at time T P V 0 (θ) = π 0 (θ) = E Q B [ θ, S T /S 0 T ] (25) Fubini = E Q [ E B [θ], S T /S 0 T ] fair/market price of biometrically expected portfolio History: Brennan and Schwartz (1976), Aase and Persson (1994), Persson (1998) and others

60 4 VALUATION IN MODERN LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 60 EXAMPLE 4.1 (cf. Section 1.3.2). 1 year time horizon (T = 1) Person modelled as a Bernoulli variable B i (dead = 1, alive = 0) Payoff: X = c i B i S 1 T = c ib i shares of type 1 at T ( unit-linked ) S 1 0 = present (market) value of 1 share at time 0 The present value of X Π T 0 (X) = E Q B [X/S 0 T ] (26) Fubini = E Q [c i E B [B i ] (S 1 T /S 0 T )] = c i E B [B i ] E Q [S 1 T /S 0 T ] = S 1 0 c i E B [B i ]

61 4 VALUATION IN MODERN LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 61 Reasons for the product measure approach (25) risk-neutrality towards biometric risks minimal martingale measure Q B F T = {, F } implies classical Expectation Principle Questions Does the product measure approach follow from the demand for hedges such that mean balances converge to 0 a.s.? Can we find a system of axioms for modern life insurance? Result 8 principles (7 axioms) are a reasonable framework for modern life insurance and imply the product measure approach

62 4 VALUATION IN MODERN LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Principles of modern life insurance mathematics 1. Independence of biometric and financial events Death or injury of persons independent of financial events (e.g. Aase and Persson, 1994) Counterexamples may occur in real life 2. Complete arbitrage-free financial markets Reasonable from the viewpoint of insurance In real life, purely financial products are bought from banks or can be traded or replicated in the financial markets. Literature: Assumption of a Black-Scholes model (cf. Aase and Persson (1994), Møller (1998)) 3. Biometric states of individuals are independent Standard assumption also in classical life insurance Counterexamples like e.g. married couples are irrelevant.

63 4 VALUATION IN MODERN LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS Large classes of similar individuals Large classes of individuals of the same age, sex and health status (companies have thousands of clients). A company should be able to cope with such a large class even if all individuals have the same kind of contract. 5. Similar individuals can not be distinguished Similar individuals (in the above sense) should pay the same premiums for the same types of contracts (fairness!). Companies pursue e.g. the same hedges for the same kind of contracts with similar individuals. 6. No-arbitrage pricing It should not be able to make riskless wins when trading with life insurance contracts (e.g. Delbaen and Haezendonck, 1989). 7. Minimum fair prices allow (purely financial) hedging such that

64 4 VALUATION IN MODERN LIFE INSURANCE MATHEMATICS 64 mean balances converge to 0 almost surely Compare with the examples in the Sections and Analogy to the classical case: The minimum fair price (net present value) of any contract (from the viewpoint of the insurer) should at least cover the price of a purely financial hedging strategy that lets the mean balance per contract converge to zero a.s. for an increasing number of clients. 8. Principle of Equivalence Future payments to the insurer (premiums) should be determined such that their present value equals the present value of the future payments to the insured (benefits). The liabilities (benefits) can somehow be hedged working with the premiums. Cf. the classical case (14)

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