HACCP in Meat, Poultry and Fish Processing

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1 Advances in Meat Research - Volume 10 HACCP in Meat, Poultry and Fish Processing Edited by A.M. PEARSON Courtesy Professor Department of Animal Sciences Oregon State University and T.R. DUTSON Dean, College of Agricultural Sciences Director of Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State University BLACKIE ACADEMIC & PROFESSIONAL An Imprint of Chapman & Hall London Glasgow Weinheim New York Tokyo Melbourne Madras

2 Contents 1 The origin and concept of HACCP 1 H.E. BAUMAN 1.1 Introduction Development of the HACCP concept HACCP - A new approach HACCP - A preventative system Acceptance of HACCP by the food industry Establishment of HACCP by other companies Role of various agencies Summary The HACCP system and how it fits into FSIS programs 8 M.G. MANIS 2.1 Introduction FSIS background Industrial responsibility and HACCP FSIS and HACCP HACCP study Background Consultations and public hearings Workshops Critical control points for various models Refrigerated foods (cooked and assembled) critical control points Raw beef pattie critical control points Whole young chickens critical control points Cooked sausage critical control points Pork slaughter market hogs critical control points In-plant testing of HACCP models Background Plant specific plan Inspection during phases Hand III Phase II: Implementation Phase III: Operational Evaluation Background Limitations HACCP model checklist National profiles Quantitative plant data Qualitative plant data Inspector and plant personnel survey Workshop evaluation Training In-plant changes 27

3 CONTENTS 2.6 Current HACCP issues Voluntary/mandatory Review of HACCP plans Transition period Plan approval Critical limits Generic models Training Plan failure Safety/economic Other quality systems Scientific validity 2.7 Quadrilateral discussions on food safety Introduction HACCP working group H ACCP working group report 2.8 Summary Implementation of HACCP program on farms and ranches H.F. TROUTT, J. GILLESPIE and B.I. OSBURN 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Livestock quality assurance programs 3.3 Implementing HACCP on livestock units Initiating on-farm HACCP preventive medicine programs Hazard identification Flow diagrams 3.4 Conclusion Implementation of the HACCP program by meat and poultry slaughterers S.J. GOODFELLOW 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Purpose of HACCP Selectionof team members Training of HACCP team 4.3 Development of the HACCP program Selection of the HACCP team coordinator Development of the master HACCP program 4.4 Implementation of the HACCP program Support of management Fitting HACCP plan into operations Focusing attention on hazards Product specific HACCP programs 4.5 Summary The use of HACCP for producing and distributing processed meat and poultry products R.B. TOMPKIN 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Reasons for using HACCP

4 CONTENTS XI 5.3 Developing HACCP plans 5.4 Hazard analysis and risk assessment Product recalls Epidemiological data Chemical hazards Physical hazards Biological hazards 5.5 Critical control points and critical limits Formulating Cooking Cooling Holding Packaging Preventing recontamination Storing and distributing 5.6 Monitoring 5.7 Corrective action 5.8 Record keeping 5.9 Verification 5.10 Should HACCP be mandatory? 5.11 Summary Addendum - Guideline for writing operating instructions/haccp plans for processed meat and poultry products A.I Headings A.2 Critical Control Point (CCP) A.3 Control Point (CP) Implementation of the HACCP program by the fresh and processed seafood industry 109 E.S. GARRETT, M. HUDAK-ROOS and D.R. WARD 6.1 Introduction Significance of the seafood industry Resources Fishery habitats US imports of fishery products US exports of fishery products Challenges facing the US seafood industry Food safety in the US fishery system HACCP in the seafood industry Background Benefits of HACCP History of HACCP in the seafood industry HACCP and seafood safety CDC seafood safety data Seafood industry workshops Purpose of workshops Outcome of workshops NMFS HACCP program Program components Substantial and low risk products Difference between NMFS and FDA programs FDA's HACCP program HACCP-based system Seven or five principles? Mandatory training Records access 126

5 Xll CONTENTS Obligations of importers General sanitation control procedures 6.8 Impact of FDA's proposed HACCP regulation - an example 6.9 Summary 7 Risk analysis, HACCP and microbial criteria in meat and poultry systems K.B. HARRIS, H.R. CROSS, G.R. ACUFF and N.B. WEBB 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Risk analysis Risk assessment Risk management Risk communication 7.3 How risk analysis and HACCP contribute to food safety Interventions are required to reduce risk Appropriate use of interventions 7.4 HACCP versus end-product microbial testing 7.5 The role of microbiological criteria Microbiological standards Microbiological guidelines Microbiological specifications Microbiological criteria and safety Sampling procedures Disposition of product Establishment and implementation Cost of implementation Application to raw meat and poultry Application to cooked meat and poultry 7.6 Statistical process control Statistical process control measures critical control points Control charts Types of control charts Capability 7.7 Summary Acknowledgements 8 Relationship of the HACCP system to Total Quality Management N.B. WEBB andj.l MARSDEN 8.1 The importance of quality What do we mean by quality? The need for a culture change 8.2 Total Quality Management (TQM): the key to continuous quality improvement TQM defined TQM as a vehicle for corporate quality innovation 8.3 The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system 8.4 Modern quality management: striving for continuous quality improvement Steps for successful transition: philosophies of quality management leaders

6 CONTENTS Xlll Quality leadership for the future 8.5 The economics of quality The impact of quality on company finances Quality audits 8.6 Implementation of TQM and HACCP Phases of TQM implementation Crosby's Quality Improvement Process (QIP) Quality circles HACCP implementation in a TQM company Application of a HACCP system in a TQM meat processing company 8.7 ISO The National Quality Award 8.9 Summary Acknowledgements HACCP for delicatessens and meat, poultry and seafood retailers 182 R.J. PRICE 9.1 Introduction Potential hazards Raw materials and ingredients Handling and storage practices Hazard controls Food sources Specifications for receiving Controls at receiving Controls for storage Controls for food preparation Controls for thawing frozen foods Controls for cooking Controls for cooling Controls for reheating Controls for display Controls for sanitation Monitoring Corrective actions Records Verification A deli HACCP plan Recipe review Flowcharts Hazard analysis Receiving Preparation, storage and display Example HACCP plans Summary HACCP-TQM for retail and food service operations 230 O.P. SNYDER, Jr Introduction What is quality? The safety assurance component of quality 232

7 XIV CONTENTS 10.3 HACCP principles for food production Food science HACCP principles The unit as a food process system The HACCP-based TQM process The system for HACCP-based food safety TQM Hazards in the food system Risk clientele What constitutes a hazard? Government microbiological standards for raw and pasteurized food Foodborne illness: Annual estimated cases and deaths in the USA Food operations hazard analysis Pasteurized-chilled food process hazard control flow diagram The seven recipe processes Recipe flow charting Quality-assured HACCP recipe procedures, the critical hazard control document Components of an effective HACCP program Food safety through Quality Assurance: policies, procedures and standards manual Summary The HACCP program and the consumer 300 M.R. ROBERTS 11.1 Introduction 11.2 The HACCP program The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system The goal of HACCP Application of HACCP principles by consumers 11.3 HACCP and consumers Defining the elusive customer Target populations for HACCP application 11.4 HACCP incorporation into everyday life Education and training of consumers in HACCP Effective modes of communication and training Base line knowledge of consumers on food safety 11.5 Application of HACCP principles for consumers HACCP implementation Pilot community Consumer practices HACCP principles applied by the consumer Formation of a HACCP plan for households 11.6 Conclusions 12 Organization and management of HACCP programs D.M. THENO 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Documentation of HACCP systems 12.3 Phases of HACCP system implementation and management requirements Design and introduction Integrating the HACCP system into total operation Operations of the HACCP program

8 CONTENTS XV 12.4 Producing the framework/structure to ensure that the HACCP program is a success Role of personnel to success of HACCP programs A few painful lessons and helpful hints Summary Predictive microbiology and HACCP 330 T. ROSS andt.a. MCMEEKIN 13.1 Introduction Predictive microbiology Relationship of predictive modelling to HACCP History of predictive microbiology Modelling approaches Quantitative microbiology? Predictive modelling and and HACCP Sources of models Principle 1. Risk and hazard assessment Principle 2. Determination of CCPs Principle 3. Establishing critical limits Principle 5. Corrective action specification Examples of the application of predictive models in HACCP systems Use of the HACCP approach Variability of responses Conclusions National and international cooperation on governmental regulations for meat, poultry and fish inspection 358 B.F. DENNIS 14.1 Overview Agencies and functions Main agencies Other agencies Domestic interests and cooperation Common interests, philosophies and mechanisms Rulemaking FSIS and FDA inspection techniques Use of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system by the federal agencies Cooperation in developing policies and regulations International interests and cooperation Bilateral agreements with an individual country, or multilateral with a small group of countries International agreements Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) Opportunities to increase cooperation Domestic International Summary Index 385

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