The short supply chain in France: a response to consumers expectations?

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1 Symposium of the Scientific Committee of the Belgian Food Safety Agency FOOD SAFETY OF THE SHORT SUPPLY CHAIN Brussels, The short supply chain in France: a response to consumers expectations? Pierre SANS INP Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse (France)

2 Content Definition and importance of SC Consumers expectations regarding SC Adaptation of safety regulation to SC 2/21

3 Short channel: what does it mean in France? a way to market agricultural products either through direct sales from producer to consumer, or by indirect sales provided if there is only one intermediate" (2009) Close relationships producer/consumer - Relational proximity - Geographic proximity (local) 3/21

4 SC: Direct sale Producer(s) directly sell(s) his/their production Individual Collective Producers/Consumers (with commitment) Collective (group of producers) Fair Mail order Farm Open market AMAP (Community supported Agriculture) Fair Farm Open market Box scheme Collective store Source : adapted from (Chaffotte et Chiffoleau, 2007) 4/21

5 SC: One intermediary sale Sale to one intermediary Individual Collective (group of producers) Retailer Restaurant Consignment Supermarket Catering Association (local products) Cooperative Source : adapted from (Chaffotte et Chiffoleau, 2007) 5/21

6 Importance of SC (1) 2010 : 21% of farmers (90 500) (16% in 2005 ; 15% in 2000) 13-14% without wine (66 500) Number of farms selling at least one product (except wine) through short channels by region Source : data from (General Census of Agriculture, 2010) 6/21

7 Importance of SC (2) Share of farms selling at least one product (except wine) through short channels by department Source : data from (General Census of Agriculture, 2010) 7/21

8 Importance of SC (2) Relative importance of SC selling forms (except wine ; ranking regarding turnover) Type Selling form % of farms involved 1st rank 2 nd ** 3rd** Direct Farm 50% 31% 23% Direct Open market 19% 19% 10% One intermediary Type 13% 16% 18% Direct Round selling 6% 7% 7% Direct Producers collective store 5% 8% 8% One intermediary Supermarket 4% 5% 7% Direct Box schemes 2% 4% 5% Direct Fair 1% 4% 7% One intermediary Restaurants 1% 4% 8% Direct Mail order 0,5% 2% 4% One intermediary Catering 0,3% 1% 3% * : percentage of farms selling more than one product in short channels. Source : (General Census of Agriculture, 2010) 8/21

9 Consumers expectations (1) 3 main drivers to buy SC products: Looking for tasty and authentic products Reducing safety hazards Making sense by the way of civic engagement and creating social links (Merle and Piotrowski, 2012) Hedonism/Social commitment Proximity & confidence 9/21

10 Consumers expectations (2) Survey in France (and Spain) sept 2010-April 2011 Regular consumers of beef meat 4 regions of the SP/FR borders Representative sample: FR: n=617 / SP: n=603 Direct sale (only FR) Knowledge Use Perception Consumer profiles (Sanjuan et al, Appetite) 10/21

11 Knowledge (FR) Have you ever heard about direct sale? (n=617) 74% 26% No Yes How did you hear about direct sale channel? (n=457) Family/Friends Open markets Flyers Internet TV spot Other 2% 5% 8% 15% 42% 63% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% % consumers 11/21

12 Use (FR) What type of foods have you ever bought by direct sale? Fruits & Vegetables Beef meat Other Meat Fish/Sea products Other Cheese Eggs Honey Wine Delicatessen 6% 6% 3% 2% 1% 0% 22% 36% 46% 81% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % consumers 12/21

13 Perception (FR) Consumers' perceptions about direct sales in beef in comparison to a traditional channel (n=528) Income for the producer Freshness Benefit for the local Food Miles Quality Natural breeding Environmental impact Prod Process Guaranty Varieties Originality Food safety Information Price Delivery convenience Packaging Purchase convenience Product amount Easyness at preparation Better The same Worse I don't know 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % of consumers 13/21

14 Profile of users and non-users of beef direct market Users (n=192 / 31%) Non users (n=426 / 69%) Frequency of beef consumption at home Frequency of beef consumption away from home Declared experience with beef (extremely or fairly expert): Consumption Purchase Cooking Knowledge of beef brands and labels ++ - Purchase of beef brands and labels ++ - Perceptions of beef direct sales (green group) ++ - Sociodemographic char. (rent, education, ) = = /21

15 Safety regulation (1) Direct sales ex: meat products Mandatory registration of activity - DDPP «Any establishment preparing, processing, handling, storing or selling animal products is subject to mandatory registration». Registration form.pdf EU approved slaughterhouse No more derogation (since ) Traceability 15/21

16 Processing (cutting ) On farm: Safety regulation (2) Direct sales ex: meat products Like a traditional butcher Facilities/Equipment Risk analysis (HACCP method) GBP Butcher In an EU approved processing plant In a butcher store: Special derogation Cuts must be packaged / labeled in accordance with regulation 16/21

17 Direct sales ex: meat products Storing and sale: Safety regulation (2) Cold chain management 0-4 C Monitoring/recording Isotherm vehicle if distance between farm and market place does not exceed 80 km (as the crow flies). Refrigerated vehicle Beyond this distance Cuts must not be unpacked and repacked

18 Safety regulation (3) On intermediary sales ex: meat products The farmer is retailer Because he does not sell directly to end-consumer He should have a sanitary approval (EU regulation) But National derogation: Derogation form.pdf Max. quantity by week sold to retailers for each product category. Sale to retailers does not represent more than 30% of sales for each category product. Distance form - store: < 80 km 18/21

19 Safety regulation (4) On intermediary sales ex: meat products Rule 1 : Max quantity if < 30% of sales Category of products Fresh meat (cattle, sheep, pork, horse) (minced/ground meat excluded) Processed meat (minced/ground meat excluded), sausages, fresh meat (poultry, rabbit ) Max. Quantity delivered to retailers 800 kg per week 250 kg per week 19/21

20 Safety regulation (5) On intermediary sales ex: meat products Rule 1 : Max quantity if > 30% of sales Category of products Fresh meat (cattle, sheep, pork, horse) (minced/ground meat excluded) Processed meat (minced/ground meat excluded), sausages, fresh meat (poultry, rabbit ) Max. Quantity delivered to retailers 250 kg per week 100 kg per week 20/21

21 Conclusion Significant development of SC New data (General census 2010) Devoted research programs Hot topics Logistics (slaughterhouses ) Producers training (marketing, regulation ) Consumer demand Diversity of SC Will of proximity A way to build confidence 21/21

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