NASA STI Program... in Profile

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2 NASA STI Program... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role. The NASA STI Program provides access to the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database, the largest collection of aeronautical and space science in the world. The STI Program is also NASA s institutional mechanism for disseminating the results of its research and development activities. These results are published by NASA in the NASA STI Report Series, which includes the following report types: TECHNICAL PUBLICATION. Reports of completed research or major significant phases of research that present the results of NASA programs and include extensive data or theoretical analysis. Includes compilations of significant scientific and technical data and information deemed of continuing reference value. NASA counterpart of peer-reviewed formal professional papers, but has less stringent limitations on manuscript length and extent of graphic presentations. TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM. Scientific and technical findings that are of preliminary or specialized interest, e.g., quick release reports, working papers, and bibliographies that contain minimal annotation. Does not contain extensive analysis. CONTRACTOR REPORT. Scientific and technical findings by NASA-sponsored contractors and grantees. CONFERENCE PUBLICATION. Collected papers from scientific and technical conferences, symposia, seminars, or other meetings sponsored or co-sponsored by NASA. SPECIAL PUBLICATION. Scientific, technical, or historical information from NASA programs, projects, and missions, often concerned with subjects having substantial public interest. TECHNICAL TRANSLATION. Englishlanguage translations of foreign scientific and technical material pertinent to NASA s mission. Specialized services that help round out the STI Program s diverse offerings include creating custom thesauri, building customized databases, organizing and publishing research results... even providing videos. The NASA STI Program is managed by the NASA STI Program Office (STIPO). STIPO is the administrative office at Langley Research Center for the NASA STI Program. For more information about the NASA STI Program, you can: Access the NASA STI Program Home Page at your question via the Internet to Fax your question to the NASA STI Help Desk at (301) Telephone the NASA STI Help Desk at (301) Write to: NASA STI Help Desk NASA Center for AeroSpace Information 7121 Standard Drive Hanover, MD

3 Introduction Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) is an online information resource listing citations and abstracts of NASA and world wide aerospace-related STI. Updated biweekly, STAR highlights the most recent additions to the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Through this resource, the NASA STI Program provides timely access to the most current aerospace-related Research & Development (R&D) results. STAR subject coverage includes all aspects of aeronautics and space research and development, supporting basic and applied research, and application, as well as aerospace aspects of Earth resources, energy development, conservation, oceanography, environmental protection, urban transportation and other topics of high national priority. The listing is arranged first by 11 broad subject divisions, then within these divisions by 76 subject categories and includes two indexes: subject and author. STAR includes citations to Research & Development (R&D) results reported in: NASA, NASA contractor, and NASA grantee reports Reports issued by other U.S. Government agencies, domestic and foreign institution, universities, and private firms Translations NASA-owned patents and patent applications Other U.S. Government agency and foreign patents and patent applications Domestic and foreign dissertations and theses The NASA STI Program The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program was established to support the objectives of NASA s missions and research to advance aeronautics and space science. By sharing information, the NASA STI Program ensures that the U.S. maintains its preeminence in aerospace-related industries and education, minimizes duplication of research, and increases research productivity. Through the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), the NASA STI Program acquires, processes, archives, announces and disseminates both NASA s internal STI and worldwide STI. The results of 20th and 21st century aeronautics and aerospace research and development, a worldwide investment totaling billions of dollars, have been captured, organized, and stored in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. New information is continually announced and made available as it is acquired, making this a dynamic and historical collection of value to business, industry, academia, federal institutions, and the general public. The STI Program offers products and tools that allow efficient access to the wealth of information derived from global R&D efforts. In addition, customized services are available to help tailor this valuable resource to meet your specific needs. For more information on the most up to date NASA STI, visit the STI Program s website at

4 NASA STI Availability Information NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) Through NASA CASI, the NASA STI Program offers many information products and services to the aerospace community and to the public, including access to a selection of full text of the NASA STI. Free registration with the program is available to NASA, U.S. Government agencies and contractors. To register, contact CASI at Others should visit the program at The search selected databases button provides access to the NASA Technical Reports Server (TRS) the publicly available contents of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Each citation in STAR indicates a Source of Availability. When CASI is indicated, the user can order this information directly from CASI using the STI Online Order Form or contact or telephone the CASI Help Desk at Before ordering you may access price code tables for STI documents and videos. When information is not available from CASI, the source of the information is indicated when known. NASA STI is also available to the public through Federal information organizations. NASA CASI disseminates publicly available NASA STI to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) and to the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) through the Government Printing Office (GPO). In addition, NASA patents are available online from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) The National Technical Information Service serves the American public as a central resource for unlimited, unclassified U.S. Government scientific, technical, engineering, and business related information. For more than 50 years NTIS has provided businesses, universities, and the public timely access to well over 2 million publications covering over 350 subject areas. Visit NTIS at The Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) The U.S. Congress established the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) to ensure access by the American public to U.S. Government information. The program acquires and disseminates information products from all three branches of the U.S. Government to nearly 1,300 Federal depository libraries nationwide. The libraries maintain these information products as part of their existing collections and are responsible for assuring that the public has free access to the information. Locate the Federal Depository Libraries The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office provides online access to full text patents and patent applications. The database includes patents back to 1976 plus some pre-1975 patents. Visit the USPTO at

5 Table of Contents Subject Divisions/Categories Document citations are grouped by division and then by category, according to the NASA Scope and Coverage Category Guide. Aeronautics 01 Aeronautics (General) Aerodynamics Air Transportation and Safety Aircraft Communications and Navigation Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance Aircraft Propulsion and Power Aircraft Stability and Control Research and Support Facilities (Air) Astronautics 12 Astronautics (General) Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space) Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations Space Transportation and Safety Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance Spacecraft Propulsion and Power Chemistry and Materials 23 Chemistry and Materials (General) Composite Materials Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry Metals and Metallic Materials Nonmetallic Materials Propellants and Fuels Space Processing Engineering 31 Engineering (General) Communications and Radar Electronics and Electrical Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics Instrumentation and Photography Lasers and Masers Mechanical Engineering Structural Mechanics... 60

6 Geosciences 43 Earth Resources and Remote Sensing Energy Production and Conversion Environment Pollution Geophysics Meteorology and Climatology Life Sciences 51 Life Sciences (General) Aerospace Medicine Behavioral Sciences Man/System Technology and Life Support Exobiology Mathematical and Computer Sciences 59 Mathematical and Computer Sciences (General) Computer Operations and Hardware Computer Programming and Software Computer Systems Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Numerical Analysis Statistics and Probability Systems Analysis and Operations Research Theoretical Mathematics Physics 70 Physics (General) Atomic and Molecular Physics Optics Plasma Physics Solid-State Physics Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields Social and Information Sciences 80 Social and Information Sciences (General) Administration and Management Documentation and Information Science Law, Political Science and Space Policy Space Sciences 89 Astronomy Astrophysics Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration Space Radiation

7 General 99 General Indexes Two indexes are available. You may use the find command under the tools menu while viewing the PDF file for direct match searching on any text string. You may also select either of the two indexes provided for linking to the corresponding document citation from NASA Thesaurus terms and personal author names. Subject Term Index Personal Index

8 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL AEROSPACE REPORTS A Biweekly Publication of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration VOLUME 43, JANUARY 14, AERONAUTICS (GENERAL) Includes general research topics related to manned and unmanned aircraft and the problems of flight within the Earth s atmosphere. Also includes manufacturing, maintenance, and repair of aircraft. For specific topics in aeronautics, see categories 02 through 09. For information related to space vehicles see 12 Astronautics NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Noise Benefits of Increased Fan Bypass Nozzle Area Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.; November 2004; 24 pp.; In English; 43rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Jan. 2005, Reno, NV, USA Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS Report No.(s): NASA/TM ; AIAA Paper ; E-14899; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy An advanced model turbofan (typical of current engine technology) was tested in the NASA Glenn 9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9-by 15-Foot LSWT) to explore far field acoustic effects of increased bypass nozzle area. This fan stage test was part of the NASA Glenn Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test, second entry (SDT2) which acquired aeroacoustic results over a range of test conditions. The baseline nozzle was sized to produce maximum stage performance for the engine at a high altitude, cruise point condition. However, the wind tunnel testing is conducted near sea level conditions. Therefore, in order to simulate and obtain performance at other aircraft operating conditions, two additional nozzles were designed and tested-one with a +5 percent increase in weight flow (+5.4 percent increase in nozzle area compared with the baseline nozzle), sized to simulate the performance at the stage design point conditions, and the other with a +7.5 percent increase in weight flow (+10.9 percent increase in nozzle area), sized for maximum weight flow with a fixed nozzle at sea level conditions. Measured acoustic benefits with increased nozzle area were very encouraging, showing overall sound power level (OAPWL) reductions of 2 or more db while the stage thrust actually increased by several percentage points except fro the most open nozzle at takeoff rotor speed where stage performance decreased. These noise reduction benefits were seen to primarily affect broadband noise, and were evident throughout the range of measured sideline angles. Aeroacoustics; Aircraft Noise; Noise Reduction; Broadband 02 AERODYNAMICS Includes aerodynamics of flight vehicles, test bodies, airframe components and combinations, wings, and control surfaces. Also includes aerodynamics of rotors, stators, fans, and other elements of turbomachinery. For related information see also 34 Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Whirl Flutter Studies for a SSTOL Transport Demonstrator Acree, C. W., Jr.; Hoffman, Krishna; [2004]; 11 pp.; In English; American Helicopter Society 4th Decennial Specialist s Conference on Aeromechanics, Jan. 2004, San Francisco, CA, USA; Copyright; Avail: Other Sources A proposed new class of aircraft - the Advanced Theater Transport (ATT) will combine strategic range and high payload with Super-STOL (short take-off and landing) capability. It is also proposed to modify a YC-15 into a technology demonstrator with a 20-deg tilt wing; four, eight-bladed propellers; cross-shafted gearboxes and V-22 engines. These constitute a unique combination of design features that potentially affect performance, loads and whirl-mode stability (whirl flutter). NASA Ames Research Center is working with Boeing and Hamilton Sundstrand on technology challenges presented by the concept; the purpose of NASA involvement is to establish requirements for the demonstrator and for early design guidance, 1

9 with emphasis on whirl flutter. CAMRAD II is being used to study the effects of various design features on whirl flutter, with special attention to areas where such features differ from existing aircraft, notably tiltrotors. Although the stability margins appear to be more than adequate, the concept requires significantly different analytical methods, principally including far more blade modes, than typically used for tiltrotors. Flutter; Rotor Aerodynamics; Tilt Wing Aircraft; Tilt Rotor Aircraft NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Historical Overview of Research on Lift-Generated Vortex Wakes Rossow, Vernon J.; June 15, 2001; 1 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): RTOP ; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only A historical overview is presented of research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. Although primarily presented from an experimental point of view, the use of relatively compact theoretical formulations and concepts are used to indicate the progress made. It is pointed out that the first objective of the research is to reduce the magnitude of the hazard potential posed by the wakes of aircraft by modifying the aerodynamics of the wake-generating aircraft. A secondary objective is to develop the technology that will make it possible to safely avoid vortex wakes in the airport environment for increased capacity. If either or both objectives are achieved, the hazard posed by vortex wakes should have a greatly reduced impact on the operational capacity of airports for landings and takeoffs. Since a satisfactory solution to either of these two goals have not yet been achieved, the last part of the presentation will be devoted to a discussion of some requirements that have been placed on any prospective solution to either goal, if is to be acceptable. The material to be used in the presentation is published in the open literature. Vortices; Transport Aircraft; Subsonic Speed; Aerodynamics; Takeoff NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Historical Overview of Research on Lift-Generated Vortex Wakes Rossow, Vernon J.; June 15, 2001; 1 pp.; In English; Colloquium on the Dynamics of Trailing Vortices, Mar. 2002, Aachen, Germany Contract(s)/Grant(s): RTOP ; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only A historical overview is presented of research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. Although primarily presented from an experimental point of view, the use of relatively compact theoretical formulations and concepts are used to indicate the progress made. It is pointed out that the first objective of the research is to reduce the magnitude of the hazard potential posed by the wakes of aircraft by modifying the aerodynamics of the wake-generating aircraft. A secondary objective is to develop the technology that will make it possible to safely avoid vortex wakes in the airport environment for increased capacity. If either or both objectives are achieved, the hazard posed by vortex wakes should have a greatly reduced impact on the operational capacity of airports for landings and takeoffs. Since a satisfactory solution to either of these two goals have not yet been achieved, the last part of the presentation will be devoted to a discussion of some requirements that have been placed on any prospective solution to either goal, if is to be acceptable. The material to be used in the presentation is published in the open literature. Vortices; Transport Aircraft; Subsonic Speed; Aerodynamics; Takeoff National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, DC Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations, Calendar Year 2000 Jun. 17, 2004; 76 pp.; In English Report No.(s): PB ; NTSB/ARC-04/01; NOTATION-7502A; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A05, Hardcopy The National Transportation Safety Board s Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations is a statistical review of U.S. commercial aviation accidents that occurred in calendar year In addition to accident statistics, the review provides general economic and aviation industry indicators that may have influenced aircraft activity during the year. Accident data for the 9 years proceeding calendar year 2000 provide an historical context. NTIS Aircraft Accidents; Air Transportation; Airline Operations 2

10 Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC USA The Influence of Fin Rigidity on the Force Production in the Bird-Wrasse: A Computational Study Ramamurti, Ravi, ; Sandberg, William C., ; Nov. 2004; 21 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427783; NRL/MR/ ; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy The three-dimensional unsteady computations of fish swimming with oscillating and deforming fins of varying rigidity were carried out. The objective of these variable rigidity computations was to investigate the importance of fin deformation of the fluid dynamics of force production. An unstructured grid-based unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive remeshing was used to compute the flow about the wrasse through several complete cycles of pectoral fin oscillation for each of the fins studied. The computations show that when the fin is made rigid by specifying the motion with just the leading edge of the fin tip, the thrust produced during the upstroke is less than half of the peak thrust produced by the flexible cases. During the downstroke, the rigid fin and the fin with the motion prescribed with only the leading and trailing edges produced no positive thrust, while all the flexible cases considered reproduced the thrust production of the fully deformable fin. In the case of the rigid fin, there is a substantial penalty in lift during the upstroke. Fins; Fishes Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Victoria, Australia DSPFRC - Force and Moment Data Display and Monitoring Program for the Low Speed Wind Tunnel at DSTO Lam, Stephen, ; Blandford, Adam, ; Jun. 2004; 25 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A428042; DSTO-GD-0396; DODA-AR ; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy DSTO operates a low speed wind tunnel within the Air Vehicles Division of the Platforms Sciences Laboratory. Airspeeds up to approximately 100 m/s can be produced in the empty test section which is 2.7 m wide by 2.1 m high. Realtime display of acquired test data from the wind tunnel is important for providing feedback to the project manager and test engineer. A software package called DSPFRC was developed for this purpose, giving a graphical display of the force and moment coefficients. This document provides details of the software and its operation. It also provides information on programming and development considerations of the software. Low Speed Wind Tunnels; Rates (Per Time); Wind Tunnels NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Benchmark Solutions for Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Code Validation Scott, James R.; December 2004; 20 pp.; In English; 2004 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and RD/D Exposition, Nov. 2004, Anaheim, CA, USA Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS Report No.(s): NASA/TM ; IMECE ; E-14894; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy NASA has conducted a series of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshops on Benchmark Problems to develop a set of realistic CAA problems that can be used for code validation. In the Third (1999) and Fourth (2003) Workshops, the single airfoil gust response problem, with real geometry effects, was included as one of the benchmark problems. Respondents were asked to calculate the airfoil RMS pressure and far-field acoustic intensity for different airfoil geometries and a wide range of gust frequencies. This paper presents the validated that have been obtained to the benchmark problem, and in addition, compares them with classical flat plate results. It is seen that airfoil geometry has a strong effect on the airfoil unsteady pressure, and a significant effect on the far-field acoustic intensity. Those parts of the benchmark problem that have not yet been adequately solved are identified and presented as a challenge to the CAA research community. Aeroacoustics; Gusts; Aircraft Noise; Airfoils; Dynamic Response; Airfoil Profiles 3

11 03 AIR TRANSPORTATION AND SAFETY Includes passenger and cargo air transport operations; airport ground operations; flight safety and hazards; and aircraft accidents. Systems and hardware specific to ground operations of aircraft and to airport construction are covered in 09 Research and Support Facilities (Air). Air traffic control is covered in 04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation. For related information see also 16 Space Transportation and Safety and 85 Technology Utilization and Surface Transportation NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Noise Mitigation Controller Tools Tobias, Leonard; [2001]; 1 pp.; In English; Air Traffic Control Association 2001 International Technical Conference and Exhibits, 19 Jul. 2001, Dublin, Ireland, UK; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only During the past decade, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and evaluating a suite of decision support tools (DSTs) to aid the air traffic controller in the management of traffic. These tools are known collectively as the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The primary focus of CTAS is increased capacity. As part of a new NASA program called Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT), the following question is being addressed: Can CTAS technology also support the noise mitigation requirements imposed by the community? Controllers currently support a variety of low noise procedures in low traffic densities but, as traffic increases, these must be abandoned due to excessive spacing requirements for vectoring or inter-arrival spacing requirements needed to handle a spectrum of low noise procedures. NASA is currently investigating how to provide controllers with noise-mitigation-based advisories which address these issues without negatively impacting capacity. These issues are of global concern which must be addressed as the demand for air travel continues to increase. Air Traffıc Controllers (Personnel); Decision Support Systems; Low Noise; NASA Programs NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA The Development of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (MCTMA): Traffic Flow Management Research in a Multi-Facility Environment Lee, Katharine K.; Davis, Thomas J.; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.; [2001]; 1 pp.; In English; 4th International USA/Europe ATM R and D Seminar, 2001; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is a decision-support tool for traffic managers and air traffic controllers that provides traffic flow visualization and other flow management tools. TMA creates an efficiently sequenced and safely spaced schedule for arrival traffic that meets but does not exceed specified airspace system constraints. TMA is being deployed at selected facilities throughout the National Airspace System in the US as part of the FAA s Free Flight Phase 1 program. TMA development and testing, and its current deployment, focuses on managing the arrival capacity for single major airports within single terminal areas and single en route centers. The next phase of development for this technology is the expansion of the TMA capability to complex facilities in which a terminal area or airport is fed by multiple en route centers, thus creating a multicenter TMA functionality. The focus of the multi-center TMA (McTMA) development is on the busy facilities in the Northeast comdor of the US. This paper describes the planning and development of McTMA and the challenges associated with adapting a successful traffic flow management tool for a very complex airspace. Free Flight; Traffıc Control; National Airspace System; Air Transportation NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA En route Descent Advisor Concept for Efficient Arrival Metering Conformance Green, Steven; Vivona, Robert; Coppenbarger, Richard; [2005]; 1 pp.; In English; AIAA GNC Conference, August 2001, USA Contract(s)/Grant(s): RTOP ; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only The En-route Descent Advisor (EDA) is a suite of decision support tool (DST) capabilities for en route sector subject to metering restrictions such as those generated by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) Traffic Management Advisor. EDA assists controllers with high-density arrival metering by providing fuel-efficient metering-conformance advisories, integrated with conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capabilities, to minimize deviations from the user s preferred trajectory. These DST capabilities will enable controllers to change their procedures from ones that are oriented towards sector management to procedures oriented towards trajectory management. Although adaptable to current procedures and airspace structure, EDA is intended as a tool for transitioning traffic from a Free Flight environment to an efficiently 4

12 organized flow into terminal airspace. This paper describes the transition airspace problem and EDA concept, defines the key benefit mechanisms that will be enabled by EDA capabilities, and presents a traffic scenario to illustrate the use of the tool. Automatic Control; Decision Support Systems; Descent; Arrivals; Routes; Airspace NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Incorporation of EGPWS in the NASA Ames Research Center Flight Simulator Sallant, Ghislain; DeGennaro, Robert A.; March 19, 2001; 1 pp.; In English; AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, 6-9 Aug. 2001, Montreal, Canada; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only The NASA Ames Research Center CAE Boeing flight simulator is used primarily for the study of human factors in aviation safety. The simulator is constantly upgraded to maintain a configuration match to a specific United Airlines aircraft and maintains the highest level of FAA certification to ensure credibility to the results of research programs. United s fleet and hence the simulator are transitioning from the older Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) to the state-of-the-art Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS). GPWS was an early attempt to reduce or eliminate Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT). Basic GPWS alerting modes include: excessive descent rate, excessive terrain closure rate, altitude loss after takeoff, unsafe terrain clearance, excessive deviation below glideslope, advisory callouts and windshear alerting. However, since GPWS uses the radar altimeter which looks straight down, ample warning is not always provided. EGPWS retains all of the basic functions of GPWS but adds the ability to look ahead by comparing the aircraft position to an internal database and provide additional alerting and display capabilities. This paper evaluates three methods of incorporating EGPWS in the simulator and describes the implementation and architecture of the preferred option. Flight Simulators; Aircraft Safety; Flight Control; Flight Safety; Warning Systems NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA A Vision of the Future Air Traffic Control System Erzberger, Heinz; [2000]; 1 pp.; In English; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only The air transportation system is on the verge of gridlock, with delays and cancelled flights this summer reaching all time highs. As demand for air transportation continues to increase, the capacity needed to accommodate the growth in traffic is falling farther and farther behind. Moreover, it has become increasingly apparent that the present system cannot be scaled up to provide the capacity increases needed to meet demand over the next 25 years. NASA, working with the Federal Aviation Administration and industry, is pursuing a major research program to develop air traffic management technologies that have the ultimate goal of doubling capacity while increasing safety and efficiency. This seminar will describe how the current system operates, what its limitations are and why a revolutionary shift in paradigm is needed to overcome fundamental limitations in capacity and safety. For the near term, NASA has developed a portfolio of software tools for air traffic controllers, called the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), that provides modest gains in capacity and efficiency while staying within the current paradigm. The outline of a concept for the long term, with a deployment date of 2015 at the earliest, has recently been formulated and presented by NASA to a select group of industry and government stakeholders. Automated decision making software, combined with an Internet in the sky that enables sharing of information and distributes control between the cockpit and the ground, is key to this concept. However, its most revolutionary feature is a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities assigned to air traffic controllers. Air Traffıc Control; Air Traffıc Controllers (Personnel); Automatic Control; Decision Making; Safety NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools for Noise Mitigation Tobias, Leonard; [2001]; 1 pp.; In English; Airport Noise Symposium 2001, Feb. 2001, San Diego, CA, USA; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only NASA has initiated a new five year program this year, the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program, a program which will investigate airframe and engine system noise reduction. QAT will also address community noise impact. As part of this community noise impact component, NASA will investigate air traffic management (ATM) challenges in reducing noise. In particular, controller advisory automation aids will be developed to aid the air traffic controller in addressing noise concerns as he/she manages traffic in busy terminal areas. NASA has developed controller automation tools to address capacity concerns and the QAT strategy for ATM Low Noise Operations is to build upon this tool set to create added advisories for noise 5

13 mitigation. The tools developed for capacity will be briefly reviewed, followed by the QAT plans to address ATM noise concerns. A major NASA goal in global civil aviation is to triple the aviation system throughput in all-weather conditions while maintaining safety. A centerpiece of this activity is the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), an evolving suite of air traffic controller decision support tools (DSTs) to enhance capacity of arrivals and departures in both the enroute center and the TRACON. Two of these DSTs, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final approach Spacing Tool (pfast), are in daily use at the Fort Worth Center and the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON, respectively, where capacity gains of 5-13% have been reported in recent NASA evaluations. Under the Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Free Flight Phase One Program, TMA and pfast are each being implemented at six to eight additional sites. In addition, other DSTs are being developed by NASA under the umbrella of CTAS. This means that new software will be built upon CTAS, and the paradigm of real-time simulation evaluation followed by field site development and evaluation will be the pathway for the new tools. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract. Air Traffıc Control; Decision Support Systems; Noise Reduction; Aircraft Noise NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Development and Validation of the Controller Acceptance Rating Scale (CARS): Results of Empirical Research Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall; [2001]; 1 pp.; In English; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE s Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided. Air Traffıc Control; Decision Support Systems; Pilot Ratings; Cooper-Harper Ratings; Systems Engineering NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Next Generation CTAS Tools Erzberger, Heinz; [2000]; 1 pp.; In English; Technical Interchange Meeting, May 2000, Amsterdam, Netherlands Contract(s)/Grant(s): RTOP ; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only The FAA s Free Flight Phase 1 Office is in the process of deploying the current generation of CTAS tools, which are the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) and the passive Final Approach Spacing Tool (pfast), at selected centers and airports. Research at NASA is now focussed on extending the CTAS software and computer human interfaces to provide more advanced capabilities. The Multi-center TMA (McTMA) is designed to operate at airports where arrival flows originate from two or more centers whose boundaries are in close proximity to the TRACON boundary. McTMA will also include techniques for routing arrival flows away from congested airspace and around airspace reserved for arrivals into other hub airports. NASA is working with FAA and MITRE to build a prototype McTMA for the Philadelphia airport. The active Final Approach Spacing Tool (afast) provides speed and heading advisories to help controllers achieve accurate spacing between aircraft on final approach. These advisories will be integrated with those in the existing pfast to provide a set of comprehensive advisories for controlling arrival traffic from the TRACON boundary to touchdown at complex, high-capacity airports. A research prototype of afast, designed for the Dallas-Fort Worth is in an advanced stage of development. The Expedite Departure Path (EDP) and Direct-To tools are designed to help controllers guide departing aircraft out of the TRACON airspace and to climb to cruise altitude along the most efficient routes. Software Development Tools; Air Traffıc Control; Free Flight; Airports Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL USA Air-to-Ground Battle for Italy McCarthy, Michael C., ; Aug. 2004; 112 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A427734; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A06, Hardcopy 6

14 The story of a young fighter pilot from basic training through the end of the war in Europe, this short memoir is a welcome addition to the literature of World War II aviation. It is noteworthy for a number of reasons. It illuminates the world of tactical aviation, which has taken a backseat to stories of strategic bombing and air superiority combat. It takes place in a theater of war often considered a backwater when compared to the events in Western Europe or the Central Pacific. Perhaps most importantly, it combines the immediacy of contemporary impressions with the reflections possible after a long and distinguished Air Force career. Italy; Military Operations Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, CA USA The Development of a Hands-On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/Remotely Piloted Vehicle Flight Test and Evaluation Adelgren, Russell, ; Minor, John, ; Warner, David, ; Doster, Jason, ; Nov. 2004; 9 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A428090; AFFTC-PA-04211; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A02, Hardcopy The USA Air Force (USAF) Test Pilot School, the Engineering Directorate, and the 452nd Flight Test Squadron all within the 412th Test Wing of the Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, have teamed together to develop an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight test training course. This paper briefly describes the development of the course and presents the major elements of the course. Evaluation; Flight Tests; Flight Training; Pilotless Aircraft; Remotely Piloted Vehicles; System Effectiveness Logistics Management Inst., McLean, VA USA Reducing Aircraft Down for Lack of Parts with Sporadic Demand Bachman, Tovey C., ; Jun. 2004; 20 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): Report No.(s): AD-A428159; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy In the military aerospace environment, certain repair parts are infrequently demanded, but stocked because they are essential to maintaining a weapon system critical to the war-fighter. Because of their sporadic demand, it is difficult to decide when to buy these items and in what quantities. As systems become more reliable and failure rates decrease, the number of these infrequently demanded parts is likely to grow. Earlier studies found the Peak ordering policy the author invented significantly reduced wholesale wait-time and backorders. Rigorous new experiments confirm the benefits of the Peak policy, and show it can reduce retail wait-time and backorders as well. By considering the distribution of retail backorders over an aircraft squadron, we estimate the resulting reduction in the number of aircraft down for lack of parts. We also analyze the policy s near-term effect on inventory value and procurement workload after 5 years of development and review, the Peak policy is mature enough for implementation. Downtime; Policies; Spare Parts Rand Arroyo Center, Santa Monica, CA USA Dual-Use Technology Program for a Passenger-Cargo Rotorcraft Dreyfuss, David, ; Shipbaugh, Calvin, ; Hagen, Jeff, ; Buenneke, Richard, ; Jan. 1995; 74 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): MDA C-0006 Report No.(s): AD-A428204; RAND/DB-138-A; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A04, Hardcopy Declining budgets are reducing the number of new military acquisition starts. The Army needs to consider new ways of doing business that will permit it to get the most from the acquisition dollars available. One possibility is to exploit dual-use technology programs. The Arroyo Center investigated the feasibility of the notion that the commercial aircraft industry could develop a rotorcraft for the civilian market that would also have application to the military, primarily as a replacement for the CH-47 helicopter. The authors identified and analyzed three likely markets: commuter passenger service in conjunction with same-day cargo deliveries; servicing of offshore oil rigs; and emergency medical services (EMS). The commercial passenger-cargo market is not likely to be viable because the rotorcraft s costs exceed by a wide margin those of the competing fixed-wing aircraft, even if the cost analysis counts the potential savings accruing from the convenience of vertiport locations in or near downtown areas. The offshore oil rig market and the EMS market both prefer a vehicle size of about 7-15 passengers, smaller than the Army s most pressing replacement needs. Further, neither of these markets looks feasible from 7

15 the standpoint of rate of return on invested capital, if the total investment costs had to be recovered (no subsidies). The authors cannot recommend dual-use as a clear remedy for the Army s need for a near-term medium-heavy rotorcraft, but do suggest the examination of several cost-reducing technologies. Cargo; Market Research; Passengers; Rotary Wing Aircraft NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA NASA Ames ATM Research Denery, Dallas G.; [2000]; 1 pp.; In English; ATCA 2000 International Technical Conference, Vancouver, Canada Contract(s)/Grant(s): RTOP ; No Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only The NASA Ames research Center, in cooperation with the FAA and the industry, has a series of major research efforts underway that are aimed at : 1) improving the flow of traffic in the national airspace system; and 2) helping to define the future air traffic management system. The purpose of this presentation will be to provide a brief summary of some of these activities. Air Traffıc Control; NASA Programs; Air Transportation; Research and Development Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA General Aviation Security: Increased Federal Oversight Is Needed, but Continued Partnership with the Private Sector Is Critical to Long-Term Success Nov. 2004; 70 pp.; In English Report No.(s): PB ; GAO ; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A04, Hardcopy Federal intelligence agencies have reported that in the past, terrorists have considered using general aviation aircraft (all aviation other than commercial and military) for terrorist acts, and that the September 11th terrorists learned to fly at general aviation flight schools. The questions GAO answered regarding the status of general aviation security included (1) What actions has the federal government taken to identify and assess threats to, and vulnerabilities of, general aviation; and communicate that information to stakeholders. (2) What steps has the federal government taken to strengthen general aviation security, and what, if any, challenges does the government face; and (3) What steps have nonfederal stakeholders taken to enhance the security of general aviation. GAO recommends, among other things, that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) develop a plan for implementing a risk management approach to strengthen general aviation security, and that the Federal Aviation Administration establish a documented process to review and revalidate flight restrictions. TSA and FAA generally concurred with GAOs recommendations. NTIS General Aviation Aircraft; Terrorism; Airport Security 04 AIRCRAFT COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION Includes all modes of communication with and between aircraft; air navigation systems (satellite and ground based); and air traffic control. For related information see also 06 Avionics and Aircraft Instrumentation, 17 Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking, and 32 Communications and Radar NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm Chatterji, Gano B.; December 20, 1999; 1 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): RTOP ; Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers and air traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control imctions.this paper describes a conflict detection and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical 8

16 examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection and resolution method. Algorithms; Air Traffıc Control; Aircraft Control; Proportional Navigation NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA In-Flight Assessment of a Pursuit Guidance Display Format for Manually Flown Precision Instrument Approaches Moralex, Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Hindson, William S.; Frost, Chad R.; Hardy, Gordon H.; April 07, 2004; 13 pp.; In English; American Helicopter Society 60th Annual Forum, 8-10 Jun. 2004, Baltimore, MD, USA; Copyright; Avail: Other Sources In-flight evaluations of a pursuit guidance display system for manually flown precision instrument approaches were performed. The guidance system was integrated into the RASCAL JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The applicability of the pursuit guidance disp1afs to the operation of Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) is made evident because the displays allow the pilot to fly a complex, multi-segment, descending, decelerating approach trajectory. The complex trajectory chosen for this in-flight assessment began from a downwind abeam position at 110 knots and was hand-flown to a 50 ft decision altitude at 40 knots using a rate-command/attitude-hold plus turn-coordination control system. The elements of the pursuit guidance format displayed on a 10-inch liquid crystal display (LCD) flat panel consisted of a flightpath vector and a leader aircraft as the pursuit guidance element. Approach guidance was based primarily on carrier-phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and secondarily on both medium accuracy inertial navigation unit states and air data computer states. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concepts were applied to the construction of display elements such as lateral/vertical deviation indicators and a tunnel that indicated to the pilot, in real-time, the performance with respect to RNP error bounds. The results of the flight evaluations of the guidance display show that precise path control for operating within tight RNP boundaries (RNP 0.007NM/24ft for initial approach, RNP 0.008NM/19ft for intermediate approach, and RNP 0.002NM/9ft for final approach) is attainable with minimal to moderate pilot workload. UH-60A Helicopter; Instrument Approach; Global Positioning System; Attitude (Inclination); Flight Paths; Airborne/ Spaceborne Computers; Display Devices 05 AIRCRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE Includes all stages of design of aircraft and aircraft structures and systems. Also includes aircraft testing, performance, and evaluation, and aircraft and flight simulation technology. For related information see also 18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; and 39 Structural Mechanics. For land transportation vehicles see 85 Technology Utilization and Surface Transportation NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Using Dynamic Interface Modeling and Simulation to Develop a Launch and Recovery Flight Simulation for a UH-60A Blackhawk Sweeney, Christopher; Bunnell, John; Chung, William; Giovannetti, Dean; Mikula, Julie; Nicholson, Bob; Roscoe, Mike; February 22, 2001; 1 pp.; In English; I/ITSEC Conference, Nov. 2001, Orlando, FL, USA; Copyright; Avail: Other Sources; Abstract Only Joint Shipboard Helicopter Integration Process (JSHIP) is a Joint Test and Evaluation (JT&E) program sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). Under the JSHDP program is a simulation effort referred to as the Dynamic Interface Modeling and Simulation System (DIMSS). The purpose of DIMSS is to develop and test the processes and mechanisms that facilitate ship-helicopter interface testing via man-in-the-loop ground-based flight simulators. Specifically, the DIMSS charter is to develop an accredited process for using a flight simulator to determine the wind-over-the-deck (WOD) launch and recovery flight envelope for the UH-60A ship/helicopter combination. DIMSS is a collaborative effort between the NASA Ames Research Center and OSD. OSD determines the T&E and warfighter training requirements, provides the programmatics and dynamic interface T&E experience, and conducts ship/aircraft interface tests for validating the simulation. NASA provides the research and development element, simulation facility, and simulation technical experience. This paper will highlight the benefits of the NASA/JSHIP collaboration and detail achievements of the project in terms of modeling and simulation. The Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center offers the capability to simulate a wide range of simulation cueing configurations, which include visual, aural, and body-force cueing devices. The system flexibility enables switching configurations io allow back-to-back evaluation and comparison of different levels of cueing fidelity in determining minimum training requirements. The investigation required development and integration of several major simulation system at the VMS. 9

17 A new UH-60A BlackHawk interchangeable cab that provides an out-the-window (OTW) field-of-view (FOV) of 220 degrees in azimuth and 70 degrees in elevation was built. Modeling efforts involved integrating Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) generated data of an LHA ship airwake and integrating a real-time ship motion model developed based on a batch model from Naval Surface Warfare Center. Engineering development and integration of a three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) dynamic seat to simulate high frequency rotor-dynamics dependent motion cues for use in conjunction with the large motion system was accomplished. The development of an LHA visual model in several different levels of resolution and an aural cueing system in which three separate fidelity levels could be selected were developed. VMS also integrated a PC-based E&S simfusion system to investigate cost effective IG alternatives. The DIMSS project consists of three phases that follow an approved Validation, Verification and accreditation (VV&A) process. The first phase will support the accreditation of the individual subsystems and models. The second will follow the verification and validation of the integrated subsystems and models, and will address fidelity requirements of the integrated models and subsystems. The third and final phase will allow the verification and validation of the full system integration. This VV&A process will address the utility of the simulated WOD launch and recovery envelope. Simulations supporting the first two stages have been completed and the data is currently being reviewed and analyzed. Dynamic Models; Flight Simulation; UH-60A Helicopter; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Launching NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Performance and Flowfield Measurements on a 10-inch Ducted Rotor VTOL UAV Martin, Preston; Tung, Chee; [2004]; 20 pp.; In English; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy A ducted fan VTOL UAV with a 10-inch diameter rotor was tested in the US Army 7-by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test conditions covered a range of angle of attack from 0 to 110 degrees to the freestream. The tunnel velocity was varied from 0 (simulating a hover condition) to 128 ft/sec in propeller mode. A six-component internal balance measured the aerodynamic loads for a range of model configurations. including the isolated rotor, the isolated duct, and the full configuration of the duct and rotor. For some conditions, hotwire velocity surveys were conducted along the inner and outer surface of the duct and across the downstream wake. In addition, fluorescent oil flow visualization allowed the flow separation patterns inside and outside of the duct to be mapped for a few test conditions. Two different duct shapes were tested to determine the performance effects of leading edge radius. For each duct, a range of rotor tip gap from 1%R to 4.5%R was tested to determine the performance penalty in hover and axial flight. Measured results are presented in terms of hover performance, hover performance in a crosswind, and high angle of attack performance in propeller mode. In each case, the effects of both tip gap and duct leading edge radius are illustrated using measurements. Some of the hover performance issues were also studied using a simple analytical method, and the results agreed with the measurements. Vertical Takeoff Aircraft; Aerodynamic Loads; Angle of Attack; Flow Distribution NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA Assessment of Comprehensive Analysis Calculation of Structural Loads on Rotors Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne; [2004]; 26 pp.; In English; American Helicopter Society 60th Annual Forum, 7-10 Jun. 2004, Baltimore, MD, USA; Copyright; Avail: Other Sources Blade flap bending moments are investigated for six rotors operating at transition and high speeds: H-34 in flight and wind tunnel, SA 330 (research Puma), SA 349/2, UH-60A full-scale, and BO-105 model (HART-I). The measured data from flight and wind tunnel tests are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. The calculations mere made using two free wake models: rolled-up and multiple-trailer with consolidation models. At transition speed, there is fair to good agreement for the flap bending moment between the test data and analysis for the H-34, research Puma, and SA 349/2 with the rolled-up wake. The calculated flap bending moments differ significantly from measurements for the UH-60A and BO-105. Better correlation is obtained for the UH-60A by using the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model. Although the multiple-trailer with consolidation wake model shows good correlation on the normal force for the BO-105, the same analysis shows poor correlation on the flap bending moment. In the high speed condition, the analysis shows generally good agreement with the research Puma flight data in both magnitude and phase. However, poor agreement is obtained for the other rotors examined. Although the analysis significantly underpredicts the vibratory normal force on the advancing side for the H-34, the vibratory bending moment correlation is fair to good on both magnitude and phase. Bending Moments; BO-105 Helicopter; Flapping; Flight Tests; Rotors 10

18 NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA USA Automatic Air Collision Avoidance System (Auto-ACAS) Skoog, Mark A.; Sep. 2003; 11 pp.; In English; UAV 2002 Conference and Exhibition, Jun. 2002, Paris, France; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427453; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy Briefing charts from presentation on the Automatic Air Collision Avoidance System(Auto-ACAS). Collision Avoidance; Drone Vehicles Dornier-Werke G.m.b.H., Friedrichshafen, Germany Reconnaissance System UAV CL 289 Status and Programme Upgrade Sep. 2003; 19 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427556; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () Briefing charts of presentation on the history, past performance and upgrades of the reconnaissance UAV CL 289. Drone Vehicles; Reconnaissance; Retrofitting; Surveillance; Targets Elbit Systems Ltd., Israel HERMES 180 UAV Development Program Keren, Yair, ; Sep. 2003; 11 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427559; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () Briefing charts from presentation on the development of the HERMES 180 UAV. Drone Vehicles; Systems Engineering Sinovia, France SINOVIA: An Open Approach for Heterogeneous ISR Systems Inter-Operability Moreno, Carlos, ; Belot, S., ; Sep. 2003; 25 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427564; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () Briefing charts from presentation by Sinovia; offering an open system approach for heterogeneous ISR(Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance) systems interoperability with their Plug and Net(R) technology. Drone Vehicles; Heterogeneity BAI Aerosystems, Inc., Easton, MD USA Dragon Drone UAV System Sep. 2003; 8 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427572; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () Technical publication containing information on the development and application of the Dragon Drone UAV system. Drone Aircraft; Drone Vehicles; Systems Engineering METEOR Costruzioni Aeronautiche ed Elettroniche S.p.A., Ronchi dei Legionari, Italy A Modular, Reconfigurable Surveillance UAV Architecture Valentinis, Francis, ; Cistriani, Luca, ; Trentadue, Luciano, ; Sep. 2003; 19 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427573; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () Briefing charts from presentation on a modular, reconfigurable surveillance UAV architecture. Drone Vehicles; Surveillance 11

19 Black Art Composites Ltd, UK RAVEN-2: Around-The-World UAV Project Burleigh, Chris, ; Sep. 2003; 29 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427574; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () The Raven around-the-world UAV project is part of an on-going effort to build up a significant European capability in the design, construction and operation of large UAVs and manned reconnaissance aircraft. The goal of the project is to fly a large high-altitude jet UAV non-stop and un-refueled around the world using the trans-polar route. The project will demonstrate the technology of long-range reconnaissance UAVs. It will develop the procedures and capability of operating large UAVs from conventional air bases in the conventional air traffic environment. It will establish an industrial grouping of companies capable of becoming prime-contractors for future military UAV procurements. Drone Vehicles; Reconnaissance Aircraft Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA USA Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Contributions to Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Missions for Expeditionary Operations Raffetto, Mark, ; Sep. 2004; 100 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427707; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () This study analyzes the impact of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capabilities on intelligence gathering missions for a Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) commander in The Marine Corps Warfighting Lab (MCWL) is developing requirements for an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) UAV that supports rapid planning and decision making for multiple concurrent operations and facilitates maneuver and precision engagement. The acquisition of a 2008 Pioneer replacement also is underway at Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCORSYSCOM). However, the importance of various capabilities for this replacement UAV presently lacks quantitative analysis. Through modeling, agent-based simulation, and data mining, this study explores the validity of current requirements and provides insights into the importance of various UAV characteristics, such as airspeed, endurance, sweep width, and sensor capability. Each year, the Navy/Marine Corps conducts Fleet Battle Experiment Sea Viking in Southern California. The primary objective is Command and Control and ISR development. This study looks at UAV operations in the Sea Viking scenario provided by MCWL in the MANA agent-based modeling environment utilizing robust design, Latin hypercubes, data farming techniques, the Maui High Performance Computing Center, and the JMP Statistical Discovery Software package. The Sea Viking Experiment, the Marine Corps largest annual experiment, provides a credible scenario for model development. The advantages of tactical routing, a 7 hour (or greater) on-station time, a minimum 4,500 meter sweep width, and a probability of classification of at least 0.4 are verified for the Sea Viking scenario. This analysis indicates that a UAV in this scenario does not need to travel in excess of 200 knots. The results have design consequences for MCWL s Sea Viking 20XX and provide key parameters for physics-based simulations such as COMBAT XXI. A 15-item bibliography is included. (26 figures, 26 refs7 Airspeed; Classifications; Computerized Simulation; Detection; Drone Vehicles; Intelligence; Pilotless Aircraft; Reconnaissance; Surveillance; Target Acquisition; Targets Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Randolph AFB, TX USA Occupational Survey Report AFSC 2M0X1 Missile and Space Systems Electronic Maintenance Smalley, Joshua, ; Jun. 2004; 41 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427757; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () Briefing charts from presentation on findings of the Occupational Survey Report AFSC 2M0X1 for Missile and Space Systems Electronic Maintenance. Aerospace Systems; Armed Forces (United States); Maintenance; Military Personnel; Missile Systems; Personnel; Surveys; Tasks Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Randolph AFB, TX USA Occupational Survey Report, AFSC 2A7X3, Aircraft Structural Maintenance Pickett, Bryan, ; Jun. 2004; 47 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A427761; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () 12

20 Briefing charts from presentation of findings from Occupational Survey Report AFSC 2A7X3, Aircraft Structural Maintenance. Armed Forces (United States); Maintenance; Military Personnel; Personnel; Surveys; Tasks Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL USA First-In-Flight Full-Scale Application of Active Flow Control: The XV-15 Tiltrotor Download Reduction Nagib, Hassan M., ; Kiedaisch, John W., ; Wygnanski, Israel J., ; Stalker, Aaron D., ; Wood, Tom, ; Oct. 2004; 35 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): W911NF Report No.(s): AD-A427772; RMAC/CD/NC EG; No Copyright; Avail: Defense Technical Information Center () No abstract available Tilt Rotor Aircraft; XV-15 Aircraft Braim Image Tech, Inc., Coral Gables, FL USA Novel Airborne Video Sensors. Super-Resolution Multi-Camera Panoramic Imaging System for UAVs Negahdaripour, Shahriar, ; Oct. 2004; 115 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): W31P4Q-04-C-R105; ARPA ORDER-P Report No.(s): AD-A427823; BTI-0002; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A06, Hardcopy Application of a camera array as a flexible, reconfigurable, inexpensive high-resolution panoramic motion-imagery sensor for low-altitude reconnaissance aircrafts is investigated. Assuming multiple-view noisy image position measurements of terrain features and known camera projection matrices by calibration, terrain feature localization and UAV positioning are analyzed by computer simulations, with/without supplementary gyro and GPS. How various system parameters impact the achievable precision of panoramic system in 3-D terrain feature localization and UAV motion estimation is determined for the A=0.5-2 KM) FLIGHT ALTITUDE RANGE. Enhancement of estimation accuracy from GPS and gyro is explored. Estimation error variance plots are given as a function of camera resolutions, viewing angles, flight altitudes, GPS and altitude measurement errors, number of views, etc. Selected results, from point correspondences in 4Kpixx4Kpix images and utilizing GPS readings with one-meter error variance at KM) ALTITUDES, COMPRISE: Estimating 3-D coordinates of ground features tracked in 1-2 dozen images with A/10 baselines at sub-meter accuracy; Determining UAV pose with DEG variance by matching 2-3 dozens of features in two views. The results provide valuable guidelines for the integration of camera-array images into one super resolution panorama, registering multiple panoramas to construct a single composite view, integration of visual survo with onboard sensors, map-based navigation and AUV positioning. Computed performance charts enable the design of optimal high-resolution imaging system based on the UAV size and capability constraints. Airborne Equipment; Cameras; Drone Vehicles; High Resolution; Imaging Techniques; Video Equipment Air War Coll., Maxwell AFB, AL USA Tanker Force Structure: Recapitalization of the KC-135 Narvid, Juan C., ; Aug. 2004; 40 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A427890; No Copyright; Avail: CASI; A03, Hardcopy The USA Air Force KC-135 fleet is nearly 50 years old; recent studies show that it is time for the recapitalization of this tanker fleet. The present inventory of aircraft went through many upgrades and modifications, but all are still the basic A-model aircraft initially purchased by the Air Force in the late 1950s. The Air Force needs to replace this aged aircraft by designing a new tanker from the ground up, capable of responding to the threat environment of today and the future. The KC-135 aircraft has been an outstanding platform for aerial refueling, and through some enhancements it has been able to leverage some of its capabilities in airlift and communication. However, the Air Force has the opportunity with its next class of tankers to field a new tanker with capabilities that can serve all the services in the more demanding joint and coalition warfare of the future. In this paper, the author challenges air mobility warriors to develop a tanker force structure that overcomes the thinking of old to launch new concepts and capabilities for the future tanker. He argues that the future of warfare will require a tanker that is able to operate as a force enabler across the full spectrum of operations. This research is timely in that the Boeing 767 is being looked at as a replacement for some of the older KC-135s. In contrast to some of the 767 s capabilities, he outlines a conceptual tanker that combines airlift and aerial-refueling capabilities and is able to survive 13

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