1 Introduction Health Information and Quality Authority To drive continuous improvements in the quality and safety of health and social care in Ireland
2 Background Health Act 2007, establishment 15 May 2007 Independent - reporting to Minister for Health and Children Close relationship with people using the service, professionals, providers, public, communities, media, stakeholders Person-centred ethos of working with not doing to
3 Functions Set standards for Health and Social Care Monitor quality and safety in Healthcare Social Services Inspection Health Technology Assessment Protective Disclosure Health Information
4 Functions Set standards for Health and Social Care Monitor quality and safety in Healthcare Social Services Inspection Health Technology Assessment Protective Disclosure Health Information
5 Activities in Health Information Develop the standards for the collection and sharing of information across the health and social services Develop standards for interoperability of information systems Identify gaps in the collection and sharing of information and make recommendations on the corrective action to be taken Collaborate with key stakeholders to co-drive the development and implementation of ICT across the health system Evaluate, interpret and publish available information on our health and social care services and on population health
6 Current projects Information governance Information gaps Health information standards National standards for quality and safety UHI for individuals UHI for professionals and organisations Electronic health record
8 Towards a national electronic health record for Ireland Jane Grimson Director of Health Information
9 Paper records lack structure Fragmented and cumbersome fragile and degradable one task at a time one place at a time information inaccessible difficult to reuse information no decision support tools But. easily browsed portable and self-contained directly accessible
10 Advantages of the EHR availability, transfer and retrieval linkage multiple views enhanced security quality and safety embedded decision support abstraction, reporting, audit, research,
11 Challenges Controversial expensive evidence of cost-benefit not clear takes a long time complex multimedia data complex transactions lack of confidence in computers amongst users concerns about security and confidentiality clinical engagement change management
12 Confusion What s the best approach? How much will it cost? Will it deliver the benefits? How do we get there? What standards should we use?
13 Personal Health Record Electronic Patient Record Electronic Health Care Record Computerised (or Computer-based) Patient Record Electronic Medical Record Electronic Health Record ICEHR Integrated Care EHR Government Computer-based Patient Record Federated Health Care Record
14 Definition (ISO, 2005) The Integrated Care EHR: is a repository of information regarding the health of a subject of care in computer processable form, stored and transmitted securely, and accessible by multiple authorised users has a commonly agreed logical information model which is independent of EHR systems. primary purpose is the support of continuing, efficient and quality integrated health care and it contains information which is retrospective, concurrent and prospective.
15 International experience Successful implementations are typically homogenous and tightly integrated environments e.g. US Veterans Association, Partners Health, Kaiser Permanente Large HMO s with large populations and large numbers of diverse healthcare professionals all interacting with records Best evidence of cost-benefit of widespread deployment of EHRs Difficult to re-use this approach to national level e.g. greater heterogeneity in terms of systems, management and organisation
16 Critical success factors (Protti, 2008) 1. Leadership 2. Clinical Involvement 3. Information Governance 4. Commitment to Standards 5. Unique Identifiers 6. EHR Model 7. Reliable, rapid and secure infrastructure 8. Strong Project Management 9. Performance measurement and transparency 10. Appreciation of increasing patient involvement 11. Governance 12. Business Case and Benefits Realisation
17 EHR Model Federated model: logical view of EHR extracts Centralised: kept up to date at all times Pros and Cons Consensus is centralised approach is likely to be more robust, cost-effective most widely adopted approach at national level
18 Centralised Model Regional Level e.g. Canada National Level e.g. England, Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Turkey Two approaches to centralised model Centralised national repository where information is regularly uploaded and shared e.g. England (partially), Finland and Turkey Storing information locally typically as separate repository and accessing it via a central repository e.g. England (partially), Canada, Netherlands and Sweden Implementation may involve hybrid with most data stored centrally but large data stored locally and downloaded as required
19 Canada Health Inforway Interoperable EHR (iehr) Each jurisdiction is responsible for maintaining its own EHR but adheres to national standard replicated in each region where the individual has accessed services 4 alternative approaches considered: Big database in the sky Replication of data to all point of service systems (40k) Big Index in the sky Shared Reference Information Source
20 Big database in the sky
21 Big Index in the sky
23 Shared reference information source
24 Shared reference model chosen Main driver was cost of integration 40,000 IT systems could require 1.5 billion interfaces! Shared Reference Model reduces number of interfaces to 80,000 Maximises performance e.g. improved response time and consistent access to data across thousands of core systems Maximises ability to apply privacy and security policies Enables evolution of semantic interoperability of health info across service delivery points Enables high degree of scalability and flexibility
25 England: Connecting for Health Two components to England s EHR programme or Care Record Service -National -Local National component consists of Summary Care Record accessed via National Data Spine Local component consists of detailed interoperable records held locally
26 National context Type of approach e.g. Top-down vs bottom-up; Centralised vs Distributed depends on national context Turkey national health IT strategy initiated in 2004 in immature ehealth environment logical to adopt a centralised approach Netherlands and Denmark have many years experience in electronic messages more decentralised, bottom up approach more appropriate
27 Type of record Most common type of record is the summary record containing key health information Summary Care Record (England) Out-of-Hours / Emergency Care (Netherlands) Individual EHR (Australia) contains supported self managed care questionnaires
28 Summary Country Terminology Standard National Index Canada Interoperable EHR HL7 v3 Index England Care Record Service HL7 v3 Index + national DB and Summary Care Record Finland earchive eprescription eaccess HL7 v3, CDA R2 Index The Netherlands Sweden Turkey Waarneem Dossier Huisartsen (Summary Patient Record for Locuum GP) National Patient Oversight National Health Information System HL7 v3 CEN HL7 v3, CDA R2 Index Index National DB
29 Assumptions There is general agreement that some form of national EHR should be introduced This EHR should be patient-centred and should cover both the public and private sectors The EHR will be shareable The EHR will be based on a common model Individuals should be able to opt out of participating The solution should leverage emerging international best practice Individuals should have access to their own record and also be able to see who has accessed their record Unique identifiers for individuals and for health professionals and organisations are in place Appropriate privacy and security arrangements are in place The appropriate legislative framework and governance arrangements are in place. It should be possible to extract de-identified/anonymised data for secondary uses.
30 Questions 1. What type of record is envisaged i.e. a comprehensive cradle-to-grave record of all health information relating to an individual, a summary record, an emergency record, a medication record? 2. What is the most appropriate implementation model i.e. a single centralised repository of records, a single centralised index with records stored locally, or a combination?
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