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1 HP Open Source Middleware Stacks Blueprint: Database Server on HP Server Platforms with MySQL and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 10 HP Part Number: Published: August 2007 Edition: 2.0

2 Copyright 2007 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. Legal Notice Confidential computer software. Valid license from HP required for possession, use or copying. Consistent with FAR and , Commercial Computer Software, Computer Software Documentation, and Technical Data for Commercial Items are licensed to the U.S. Government under vendor's standard commercial license. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. HP shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. Acknowledgments Java is a U.S. trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. Microsoft and Windows are U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. RED HAT is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc.

3 Table of Contents Introduction...5 Executive Summary...5 Intended Audience...5 Scope and Purpose...5 HP Services...5 HP Open Source Database Server Stack...6 Stack Components...6 Hardware Environment...6 Installing and Configuring the MySQL Database...7 Removing the Old Version...7 Installing MySQL...8 Configuring MySQL...8 Managing the MySQL Database...10 Starting and Stopping the MySQL Database...10 Creating and Deleting the MySQL Database...11 Administering User Accounts...11 Verifying Database Operation...13 Creating the Sample Database for MySQL...14 Configuring MySQL Server Replication...15 Configuring the Master Server and Slave Servers...16 Configuring the Master Server...16 Configuring the Slave Servers...17 Synchronizing Data...18 Monitoring Replication Status...19 Scaling MySQL Using Replication...20 MySQL High Availability Using HP Serviceguard...22 Introduction to HP Serviceguard and MySQL Toolkit...22 Testing Assumptions...22 Testing the MySQL Serviceguard Cluster...23 Testing the Cluster Connection...23 Testing the Cluster Stability...24 Testing Cluster Failover...25 Monitoring the Database with the HP OpenView MySQL Gallery SPI...25 HP OpenView Operations Architecture...25 Software Prerequisites and Reference Guides...26 Using the SPIs...26 Backing Up Your Database...28 Installing and Configuring a Database Backup Tool...28 Backing Up Data...29 Restoring Data...31 Connecting External Systems to the MySQL Database...31 Connectors Included and Excluded from the Stack...31 JDBC Connector (Connector/J)...32 Connecting with Tomcat...32 Installing the MySQL Connector/.NET Application...36 Configuring the MySQL Connector/.NET Application...37 MySQL Connector/ODBC...39 Importing and Exporting MySQL Data in Microsoft Excel...39 Frequently Asked Questions...41 Table of Contents 3

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5 Introduction Executive Summary HP Open Source Integrated Portfolio (HP OSIP) comprises a range of products and services designed to ensure that customers can successfully realize the cost and feature benefits of adopting open source software in their IT environments. This document provides general instructions for installing and using a MySQL database server with a SUSE distribution. Intended Audience The intended audience for this document is customers that are seriously evaluating or deploying an open source MySQL database server running SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 10 (SLES10) This blueprint is intended for customers who are familiar with HP Management Tools, such as HP Serviceguard and HP OpenView Operations (HP OVO), and have some general knowledge about relational database management systems. Scope and Purpose HP Services This technical blueprint provides information for implementation of the HP Open Source Database Server Stack. It covers installation, configuration, replication, backup and recovery, high availability (HA), monitoring, and the use of MySQL connectors. The software components described in this blueprint are tested and validated to run on HP server platforms and HP StorageWorks devices. HP and MySQL have partnered to deliver open source database solutions for Linux, Windows, and HP-UX running on a wide range of HP hardware platforms. MySQL is a viable option for customers who are considering open source software or low-cost database software, from Web applications to large-scale enterprise applications and data warehouses. HP also provides several MySQL-related documents such as Sizing for MySQL Database Server on HP ProLiant BL35p, BL25p, and BL45p Servers; HP BladeSystem Configuration for MySQL Cluster Database; and HP ProLiant Server Configurations for MySQL in a Scale-Out Architecture. These documents can be viewed and downloaded at the following website: HP Open Source Consulting Services can help you build and integrate open source and commercial software across multiple OS environments. Additionally, HP Open Source Support Services provide industry leading technical support for all the products HP sells, including hardware, operating systems, and open source middleware. HP offers annual subscriptions and a range of HP customer support options for the MySQL Network. The MySQL Network is a comprehensive subscription service that provides database developers and administrators with everything they need to successfully develop and deploy database solutions using MySQL. The MySQL Network includes access to certified MySQL software, updates and upgrades, proactive alerts, software advisors, the online MySQL knowledgebase, and full production-level technical support from HP and MySQL. Additionally, HP acts as the single source of accountability for sales and support, enabling you to confidently choose and deploy open source technology into your environment. To learn more about HP Open Source Consulting and Support Services, contact your local HP sales representative or visit the HP Business and IT Services website at: Introduction 5

6 HP Open Source Database Server Stack Stack Components The MySQL database server stack was tested using the MySQL Network Pro Certified binaries running on the SLES10 distribution, and it contains the components listed in Table 1. NOTE: The instructions in this blueprint are tested and validated using the MySQL Network Pro Certified binaries, which include professional support and service from HP. Customers interested in testing the stack in their environment for proof-of-concept purposes should consider contacting HP Services. HP support is not available without a MySQL Network subscription. Table 1 Commercial Open Source Packages Component MySQL Database (The MySQL Pro Certified binary is available through the MySQL Network.) MySQL Connector/J MySQL Connector/ODBC MySQL Connector/.NET Version Location Table 2 lists the HP value-add software. Table 2 HP Value-Add Software Software HP Serviceguard HP OpenView Operation for Windows (OVOW) NOTE: You can use also use the HP-UX version. HP OpenView MySQL Gallery Smart Plug-In (SPI) HP DataProtector Version A Location highavailability/linux/serviceguard/ HP ProLiant Support Pack or HP Integrity Essentials Foundation Pack for Linux, which includes: HP Systems Insight Manager (SIM) Agents HP System Health Application and Insight Management Agents Use the latest versions from one of the following sources: HP ProLiant Support Pack HP Integrity Essentials Foundation Pack for Linux HP ProLiant Support Pack: HP Integrity Essentials Foundation Pack for Linux: Hardware Environment 6 The software listed in Table 2 is installed on HP server platforms with HP StorageWorks MSA 1000 or EVA Storage Area Network (SAN). The supported Linux distribution is SLES10. Figure 1 depicts the hardware environment for the MySQL database server stack. HP recommends installation of the HP Systems Insight Manager (HP SIM) Agents for SLES10 to enable rich system-management features.

7 Figure 1 Hardware Environment Installing and Configuring the MySQL Database The MySQL Database is a robust, scalable, open-source product that provides a high-performance, low-cost, SQL-based enterprise relational database. This section describes how to install and configure the MySQL database server on HP server platforms with SLES10. Additionally, a sample database is created, and is used in all the examples in this blueprint. NOTE: This blueprint uses the MySQL Network commercial version of the MySQL packages. Removing the Old Version Before you begin installing the MySQL components, verify that you have not selected the MySQL database server or client packages as part of the SLES installation. The SLES10 distribution contains an older version of MySQL that causes errors if you attempt to install another version of the MySQL software. Use the RPM system tools to assist in removing any older versions of the MySQL software. 1. To check the system for earlier versions of the software, enter the following command: # rpm -qa grep -i mysql Installing and Configuring the MySQL Database 7

8 2. If an older version of the MySQL software exists, remove it by entering the following command: Installing MySQL # rpm e package_name NOTE: Because dependent relationships exist between RPM packages, you might encounter errors such as error: Failed dependencies. If this error message is displayed, you must first remove the dependent packages before proceeding with removal of the MySQL software. Install all the MySQL components listed in Table 3 using the appropriate version, displayed as sles10.<arch>. Table 3 MySQL Components MySQL Component MySQL-server-pro-cert MySQL-client-pro-cert MySQL-devel-pro-cert MySQL-shared-pro-cert MySQL-test-pro-cert Description MySQL server package MySQL client package MySQL development libraries package MySQL shared libraries MySQL Test Suite 1. Install each MySQL package by entering the following command while logged in to the target system as the root user: rpm ivh package_name For example: # rpm ivh MySQL-client-enterprise-gpl sles10.x86_64.rpm 2. Verify that the MySQL server is running by entering the following command: # mysqladmin version 3. Enter the following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the MySQL server: # mysqlshow # mysqlshow mysql For more information about installing Linux RPMs, see Installing MySQL on Linux in the MySQL 5.0 Reference Manual, located at: Configuring MySQL After the MySQL installation is complete, perform the following essential configuration steps to optimize the installation. MySQL creates a database server account named root during the installation, which is the superuser administrator account that has unlimited privileges to modify the MySQL system. By default, the root user account's password is empty. Before using MySQL, secure the default account by assigning a root password. 8

9 1. To assign a password to the root account, enter the following command: # mysqladmin -u root -p password 'your_password' NOTE: The MySQL database maintains its own user names and passwords, distinct and separate from the Linux operating system s users and passwords. Therefore, the MySQL root user account is not the same as the Linux system root account, and to enhance system security, should not use the same password. 2. To specify other MySQL configurations, use a configuration file. The sample configuration files are located in the /usr/share/doc/mysql directory. Select the appropriate configuration file, based on your system's memory size, from the following list: my-huge.cnf 1GB or more of memory my-innodb-heavy-4g.cnf 4GB or more of memory, using only InnoDB tables my-large.cnf Up to 512MB of memory 3. For the configuration examples in this document, you configure and validate both the MyISAM and InnoDB storage engines. To do this, choose the appropriate system configuration, then copy, edit, and rename the file /etc/my.cnf. Installing and Configuring the MySQL Database 9

10 NOTE: Storage Area Networks (SANs) provide flexibility in system management, configuration, connectivity, and performance to meet the needs of changing business environments. The HP StorageWorks SAN architecture provides open network storage solutions for all sizes and types of businesses, including small to large IT departments and enterprise environments. For more information about SAN solutions from HP, see the HP SAN Infrastructure website at: 4. For this example, change the default MySQL data directory to a file system located on an HP SAN by following these steps: a. Mount the file system, which resides on the SAN, to the /home/mysql directory. b. Shut down the MySQL server by entering the following command: # /etc/init.d/mysql stop c. Move the entire data directory and all its contents to the new data directory by entering the following command: # mv /var/lib/mysql /home/mysql/ d. Because the data directory was changed, you must update the /etc/my.cnf file to add the new data directory. To do this, under the [mysqld] section, change the socket= line to refer to the new data directory location, and add the datadir= line to refer to the correct path. Under the [client] section, change the socket= line to refer to the new data directory location. The sections should look similar to the following: [client] #password = your_password port = 3306 #socket = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock socket = /home/mysql/mysql.sock [mysqld] datadir = /home/mysql port = 3306 #socket = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock socket = /home/mysql/mysql.sock e. Start the MySQL server by entering the following command: # /etc/init.d/mysql start f. Verify the changes by entering the following commands: # mysqlshow u root p # mysqladmin u root p version Managing the MySQL Database Starting and Stopping the MySQL Database To start the MySQL database and verify the daemon is started, enter the following commands as the MySQL root user: # /etc/init.d/mysql start # ps ef grep mysqld To stop the MySQL database and verify the MySQL daemon has disappeared, enter the following commands as the MySQL root user: 10

11 NOTE: If you have a large amount of data, shutting down the database might take several minutes. # /etc/init.d/mysql stop # ps ef grep mysqld Creating and Deleting the MySQL Database In this section, you create a database, delete a database, and add a table. 1. Use the mysqladmin command to create a database. For this example, create a database named osmsdb by entering the following command: # mysqladmin u root p create osmsdb 2. At the prompt, enter the MySQL root password. 3. Start the MySQL client by entering the following command: # mysql u root p osmsdb 4. Create a sample table by entering the following: mysql> create table sample ( id int(10) auto_increment not null primary key, name char(20), index(id) ); This creates a new table named sample with two columns, one called id of type integer and the other called name of type string. The table is indexed by the id column, which is also the table's primary key. 5. If the table is created without any errors, the following is displayed: Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec) For a detailed explanation of the SQL commands available in MySQL, see SQL Statement Syntax in the MySQL 5.0 Reference Manual, which can be found at: 6. To delete the database, use the mysqladmin command as follows: # mysqladmin u root p drop osmsdb CAUTION: This command permanently removes all the tables and data contained in the specified database. Use the mysqladmin drop command with caution. 7. Enter the database root password, at the prompt. 8. Enter y to confirm deletion of the database. The following should be displayed: # mysqladmin -u root -p drop osmsdb Enter password: Dropping the database is potentially a very bad thing to do. Any data stored in the database will be destroyed. Do you really want to drop the 'osmsdb' database [y/n] y Database "osmsdb" dropped Administering User Accounts This section describes how to administer user accounts on the MySQL server, including how to set up new accounts, remove existing accounts, and grant access rights to a user account. Managing the MySQL Database 11

12 NOTE: In general, should set up a new account for any user or application that accesses the MySQL server. This allows different users to have access to only the specific databases and tables they need. Setting Up a New Account 1. Start the MySQL command-line client by entering the following command: # mysql u root p 2. At the prompt, enter the MySQL root password. 3. To create a database user, use the following command: mysql> create user username ; For example, enter the following: mysql> create user osmsusr ; CAUTION: This command creates a user named osmsusr, which can connect to the MySQL database from any system. 4. To verify creation of the database user account, the following command is used: mysql> show grants for username ; For example, enter the following: mysql> show grants for osmsusr ; Removing a User Account 1. Start the MySQL command-line client by entering the following command: # mysql u root p At the prompt, enter the MySQL root password. 2. To delete a database user, use the following command: mysql> drop user username ; For example, enter the following: mysql> drop user osmsusr ; NOTE: The drop user command removes privilege rows for the user account from all grant tables, but it does not automatically close any open user sessions. Therefore, if a user with an open session is dropped, the command does not take effect until that user session is closed. After the session is closed, the user is dropped. Thereafter, any attempts by the user to log in fail. Granting Access Rights Use the grant command to manage the access rights for a database user. You can grant each MySQL user specific read and write permissions for every table and database stored in the MySQL system. Additionally, you must run the flush command in order for the grant command to take effect. 1. Start the MySQL command-line client by entering the following command: # mysql u root p At the prompt, enter the MySQL root password. 12

13 2. To grant privileges to a database user account, use the following command: mysql> grant all privileges on database.* to \ identified by 'password' ; For example, enter the following: mysql> grant all privileges on osmsdb.* to \ identified by 'osmspass' ; NOTE: The preceding command grants access to any table in the osmdb database for the user with the password osmpass, connecting from any host name. In the command, the percent character (%) acts as a wildcard and grants access to the user from any host name. A user in MySQL is identified by If you do not provide a value for the hostname during the creation of the database, the default value is any host Similarly, a value of %.%.%.% matches any IP address, such as or For more information about the grant command, see MySQL Access System in the MySQL 5.0 Reference Manual located at: Verifying Database Operation System administrators can query the MySQL server to obtain a number of current status values, which indicate basic health and performance, by running the following mysqladmin command: # mysqladmin u root p status At the prompt, enter the database password. Figure 2 shows the results. Figure 2 Check Basic Status Values Alternatively, enter the following mysqladmin command to view a more detailed status report: # mysqladmin u root p extended-status Figure 3 shows the results. Managing the MySQL Database 13

14 Figure 3 Checking Extended Status Values Creating the Sample Database for MySQL To perform the tests in this blueprint, you need a sample database that uses multiple storage engines and is already populated with sample data. Use the following procedure to create the sample database: 1. Using your favorite text editor, create the following SQL script to generate the sample database: drop database if exists osmsdb; create database osmsdb ; use osmsdb ; create table customer ( customerid int(10) auto_increment not null primary key, name char(20), purchased datetime not null, product varchar(30), productid int, INDEX (customerid) ) TYPE = InnoDB; create table employee ( id int(5) auto_increment not null primary key, depno int(5), name varchar(20) not null, cardnumber bigint(15) not null ); insert into customer(name,purchased,product,productid) \ values( 'Jenny',' :00:33','HP Laptop nc6220',5001), \ ('Kate',' :38:12', 'HP LaserJet 5M',9076); insert into employee(depno,name,cardnumber) values( 10,'Mike',100081),\ (10,'Tom',100082),(10,'Jack',100083), (20,'Mary',100084),(20,'Cherry',100085),\ (20,'Jones',100086); select * from customer ; select * from employee ; grant all on osmsdb.* to identified by 'osmspass'; grant all on osmsdb.* to identified by 'osmspass'; grant select on osmsdb.* to identified by 'osmspass2' ; grant select on osmsdb.* to identified by 'osmspass2' ; flush privileges; 2. Save the script as osmsample.sql. 14

15 3. Import the script by entering the following command: # mysql u root p < osmsample.sql 4. At the prompt, enter the database password. The following results are displayed: # mysql -u root -p < osmsample.sql Enter password: customerid name purchased product productid 1 Jenny :00:33 HP Laptop nc Kate :38:12 HP LaserJet 5M 9076 id depno name cardnumber 1 10 Mike Tom Jack Mary Cherry Jones # NOTE: For security, after testing is complete, you must destroy all sample objects, such as the sample database, user accounts, and tables. Configuring MySQL Server Replication The MySQL replication feature allows the database on one server to be precisely duplicated on one or more other servers. This capability is enabled through an asynchronous master/slave relationship. Each slave server starts out with an exact copy of the data held on the master server. The master server publishes a binary log to the slave servers of all changes made to the data in the database. The slave servers read changes to the binary logs that have occurred since the last successful update. In this way, the slave servers are able to update their copies of the database. All changes to the database must be made to the master server, but clients may access data for reading through either the master server or any slave server. Figure 4 depicts the replication configuration. This replication scheme offers two key advantages. First, backing up the database is easier and safer. A slave server can be taken off line, and all its data can be backed up without impacting the overall operation of the live database. During backup, the master server and any other slave servers continue responding to queries uninterrupted. When the backup is complete, the backed-up slave server is brought up to date with any changes that have occurred during the backup, and then the slave server is returned to normal operation. The second advantage of replication is improved read performance. You can scale out the MySQL server in response to higher loads using this type of one-way replication. Splitting the load for processing client queries between the master server and slave servers provides better response time for clients. The select queries that read data are sent to the slave server to reduce the query processing load of the master server. Commands that modify data are still sent to the master server to ensure that the master server and slave servers remain synchronized. This load-balancing strategy is effective in situations where read-only queries dominate. Additional slave servers can be added as needed to meet an increase in demand. Configuring MySQL Server Replication 15

16 Figure 4 MySQL Replication Configuration Configuring the Master Server and Slave Servers 1. Download the appropriate version of the MySQL server and client packages, as displayed in Table 1 (page 6). 2. Install the packages on the systems you use as the master server and slave server. For the example in this section, assume the host name of the master server is master.test and the host name of the slave server is slave.test. 3. Perform the basic configuration steps, as described in Installing and Configuring the MySQL Database (page 7), so the MySQL server can be started correctly on both machines. Configuring the Master Server 1. Edit the [mysqld] section of the /etc/my.cnf file on the master server to include a log-bin option. Also include a server-id=master_id option in this section, where master_id must be a positive integer value from 1 to For example: [mysqld] log-bin=mysql-bin server-id=1 NOTE: The server-id value configured in this step must be unique to each server in the replication configuration. No two slave servers or the master server may have the same server-id value. 2. Restart the MySQL server on the master server, and make sure no errors occurred by entering the following command: # /etc/init.d/mysql restart 3. Run the following command in the MySQL client to verify that the master server is running correctly, and to gather the necessary information for configuring the slave servers: mysql> show master status; The sample output looks as follows: File Position Binlog_Do_DB Binlog_Ignore_DB

17 mysql-bin row in set (0.00 sec) This output shows that the MySQL server is using mysql-bin as its binary log file. The current log position in the log file is The values of Binlog_Do_DB and Binlog_Ignore_DB are not configured. Record the name of the binary log file and the current position because these values are needed when you configure the slave servers. 4. Start the MySQL command-line client by entering the following command: # mysql u root p At the prompt, enter the database password. 5. Create a replication user on the master server that has the privileges needed to connect and change mastership to the master server. The slave server uses this account to connect and configure the master/slave relationship. If the osmusr user account does not already exist, to create it, issue the following command: mysql> create user identified by 'osmpass'; 6. Next, grant the necessary privileges to allow the MySQL slave servers to connect to the master server and establish replication: mysql> grant replication slave on *.* to slave.test \ identified by osmpass ; The master server is now ready for the slave servers connection. Configuring the Slave Servers NOTE: The following procedure must be run on both slave servers. 1. Change the server-id parameter in the /etc/my.cnf file as follows: [mysqld] server-id=2 If you are setting up multiple slave servers, each one must have a unique server-id value that differs from that of the master server and from each of the other slave servers. 2. Verify that the MySQL server on the slave server can be restarted correctly by entering the following command: # /etc/init.d/mysql restart 3. The following SQL commands are used to set the master server information on the slave server: mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO -> MASTER_HOST='master_host_name', -> MASTER_USER='replication_user_name', -> MASTER_PASSWORD='replication_password', -> MASTER_LOG_FILE='recorded_log_file_name', -> MASTER_LOG_POS=recorded_log_position; For this example, enter the following commands: mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO -> MASTER_HOST='master.test', -> MASTER_USER='osmusr', -> MASTER_PASSWORD='osmpass', -> MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin ', -> MASTER_LOG_POS=1678; Configuring MySQL Server Replication 17

18 NOTE: In this example, specify the replication user account that you created, the master log file name, and the log position that you recorded previously from the output of the show master status command on the master server. 4. Start the slave threads, which initiate the master/slave server connection, by running the following command on the slave server: mysql> start slave; 5. Run the show slave status command to verify that the slave server is connected to the master server correctly: Synchronizing Data mysql> show slave status\g The following output is displayed: *************************** 1. row *************************** Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event Master_Host: master Master_User: osmusr Master_Port: 3306 NOTE: Use the backslash G ( \G ) option with any MySQL command to display the command output vertically rather than horizontally. This can be particularly useful with commands that result in a large amount of information. If the value of the Slave_IO_State field is Waiting for master server to send event, the slave server has connected to the master server and will catch up on any updates that have occurred. If the slave server was not configured correctly, the value of Slave_IO_State is Connecting to master. If this occurs, review the error log on the slave server for additional information. After you configure the master server and the slave server, perform the following steps to synchronize the database data. 1. Create the test database, osmsdb, and the test table, customer, on the master server by referring to the SQL scripts in Creating the Sample Database for MySQL (page 14). 2. Verify that the osmsdb database and customer table are created automatically on the slave server. To do this, enter the following commands from the MySQL command-line running on the slave servers: mysql> show databases; Verify that osmsdb is listed in the output. mysql> use osmsdb; mysql> show tables; Verify that customer is listed as a table in the output. 3. Run some SQL commands that modify the customer table on the master server, and verify that these changes are reflected in the table on the slave server. For example, insert a record by entering the following command on the master server: mysql> insert into customer values (1, customer1, \ :10:10, table, 1234) 4. Verify that the SQL commands are executed automatically on the slave server. 18

19 Monitoring Replication Status 1. Run the following command on the master server to display the status: mysql> show master status\g The file name and position of the bin log file that the master server is using are displayed: *************************** 1. row *************************** File: mysql-bin Position: 98 Binlog_Do_DB: Binlog_Ignore_DB: 1 row in set (0.00 sec) 2. Run the following command on the master server to get information about slave servers that are connecting to the master server: mysql> show processlist\g The following data is displayed: *************************** 1. row *************************** Id: 32 User: osmusr Host: slave-1.test:32798 db: NULL Command: Binlog Dump Time: 5740 State: Has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for binlog to be updated Info: NULL *************************** 2. row *************************** Id: 33 User: osmusr Host: slave-2.test:32944 db: NULL Command: Binlog Dump Time: 2150 State: Has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for binlog to be updated Info: NULL *************************** 3. row *************************** Id: 34 User: root Host: localhost db: NULL Command: Query Time: State: NULL Info: show processlist 3 rows in set (0.00 sec) The output shows that two slave servers, slave-1.test and slave-2.test, have connected to the master server, and the master server has sent all the binary log data to both slave servers and they are both up to date. 3. To show the status of the slave server, run the following command on the master server mysql> show slave status\g The master server information for this slave server and its status are displayed. If the slave server has processed all updates from the binary log and is up to date with the master server, the values of Master_Log_File and Read_Master_Log_Pos in the output are consistent with the output of show master status on the master server from step 1. Configuring MySQL Server Replication 19

20 4. To show the current status of the slave server I/O thread, run the following command from the slave server: mysql> show processlist\g *************************** 1. row *************************** Id: 4 User: system user Host: db: NULL Command: Connect Time: State: Waiting for master to send event Info: NULL *************************** 2. row *************************** Id: 5 User: system user Host: db: NULL Command: Connect Time: State: Has read all relay log; waiting for the slave I/O thread to update it Info: NULL *************************** 3. row *************************** Id: 225 User: root Host: localhost db: NULL Command: Query Time: 0 State: NULL Info: show processlist 3 rows in set (0.00 sec) The show processlist command on the slave server displays the current status of the slave I/O thread, which connects to the master server and writes events from the master server to relay logs. This command also shows the status of the slave server SQL thread, which reads events from these relay logs and enters them into the slave server database. The values of the State field in the output indicate that the slave server I/O thread and the slave server SQL thread have finished their tasks and are waiting for additional updates from the master server. Scaling MySQL Using Replication There are many different methods to scale out MySQL using replication. The primary concern in configuring scale-out installations is how to spread out a large number of queries across two or more replicated slave servers. Although a single master server is responsible for all data modification in the database, many different slave servers might be ready to service read-only queries at any one time. This process is known as load balancing. The most popular methods for load-balancing queries across several slave servers are: Round-robin DNS In this method, the Domain Name System (DNS) within the IT environment is configured to map two or more IP addresses to a single host name. When clients query DNS for the IP address of a given host name, DNS cycles through all the possible IP addresses, returning one after the other with each DNS query. In this simple and lightweight scheme, all the slave servers have the same host name in DNS, although each has a unique IP address. When a MySQL client wants to query the MySQL database using a slave server, it makes the request using the host name. DNS automatically refers the request to the next slave server IP address in turn. The shortcoming of the round-robin load balancing scheme is that it does not take into account any dynamic load considerations, such as how 20

21 long a given slave server is taking to service requests, whether a particular network path is congested, or how the query load is changing over time. Hardware load balancer A hardware load-balancer is dedicated, custom-built hardware, sometimes referred to as an application switch, which is capable of directing large volumes of specific application traffic simultaneously over multiple network paths. Such a switch is often used in large website installations to balance web page traffic across several web servers. Similarly, this type of device may be used to balance SQL queries across several slave servers. Hardware load balancers use sophisticated high-speed switching fabrics and algorithms to ensure that application traffic is routed quickly across a network to the most appropriate slave server available. However, these systems are costly when compared with other options. Software load balancer A software load balancer serves the same purpose as a hardware load balancer, but is implemented in software on an existing system rather than on a dedicated, custom-built switch. This represents a compromise between a round-robin system (which is simple but offers no intelligent routing or balancing) and a hardware load balancer (which is a very capable and fast switching implementation but might be too costly for smaller installations). This section describes the configuration of a master/slave server replication scheme using a software load balancer. The Linux Virtual Server (LVS) system is a free, open-source application commonly used to implement load-balancing solutions on Linux systems. To scale out a MySQL installation, the replication architecture must consist of at least three servers: a master server and two slave servers, as shown in Figure 5. For the installation and configuration of LVS, see the LVS overview documentation at: Figure 5 Replication Servers Any application that is accessing the replicated database must have two data sources configured. One is the LVS, which acts as a load balancer for any read queries to the slave servers, and the other is the master server for any write queries. The MySQL master server records all write queries received from the clients and writes corresponding updates in its binary log. This data is then updated to the local storage. The slave servers connect to the master server, read queries from the master server's binary log, and execute them against their local copy of the data. When the client-read queries arrive through the load balancer, the query results can be found. This functionality is enabled by MySQL replication. LVS acts as the load balancer, which is the traffic router that receives the requests and spreads the workload among several slave servers. By having several slave servers behind a load balancer, the network can better handle brief surges in traffic that can otherwise overwhelm a single server. The LVS server is fully transparent to the MySQL clients. Configuring MySQL Server Replication 21

22 MySQL High Availability Using HP Serviceguard Introduction to HP Serviceguard and MySQL Toolkit HP Serviceguard is specialized software for protecting mission-critical applications from a wide variety of hardware and software failures. The MySQL toolkit for HP Serviceguard consists of a set of shell scripts used by a package control script to start, stop, and monitor the MySQL server package. The toolkit simplifies the effort of making MySQL highly available by integrating MySQL with HP Serviceguard for Linux (SG/LX). In an SG/LX environment, MySQL must have the same configuration on all cluster nodes that are configured to run the package. The node currently running the package is called the primary node. All other nodes are called standby nodes. In the event of a failure on the primary node, the package fails over to a standby node and the database continues to function. To ensure that the database can failover properly, all data must be stored on shared storage, and this storage must be accessible to all nodes configured to run the package. When the package fails over from one node to another, the following actions occur: On the primary node: The package is halted on the node where it is currently running. As a result, all package resources are halted. The relocatable IP address is removed from this node. The file systems are unmounted and all volume groups assigned to this package are deactivated. The systems are going to halt when the storage or networks fail. On the standby node: The volume groups are activated and file systems are mounted. The relocatable IP address is moved to the new node. All resources are started up, and the database is displayed. The clients connect through the same relocatable IP address. Testing Assumptions The MySQL toolkit README file describes how to test the High Availability with the MySQL Toolkit in an SG/LX environment. The file is located in the /opt/cmcluster/mysqltoolkit/ directory. Make sure that you are already familiar with the HP Serviceguard configuration and with MySQL server concepts. Additionally, verify that the following installation and configuration procedures have been completed: You have set up two or more Linux systems, all connected to the appropriate external hardware for a shared data drive. These systems act as the MySQL Serviceguard cluster used in the following test example. For example, these may be two or more HP ProLiant or Integrity servers. You have set up an additional server to test the MySQL Serviceguard cluster. This server has the MySQL database installed, as well as the MySQL bench testing tool, also called sql-bench. You have set up a shared storage system, such as an HP StorageWorks MSA 1000, MSA 1500, EVA3000, or EVA 4000 system, and this shared storage is located in the /dev/sdx directory on each server. For this example, the directory /dev/sdb is used on both servers. You have set up the lock logical unit number (LUN) and logical volumes (LV) on the external shared storage using the following specifications: Cluster_Lock_LUN: DEVICE Name Size /dev/sdx1 10MB 22

23 Logical Volumes: PV Name LV Name VG Name LV Size Mount Point Filesystem Type /dev/sdx2 /dev/vg/lv /dev/vg GB /mysql ext3 For more information about Lock LUN, see Managing HP Serviceguard for Linux located at: You have installed SG/LX on all the nodes that are included in the cluster. For more information on this installation, see Managing HP Serviceguard for Linux at: You have installed the Serviceguard MySQL toolkit on all target nodes. The Serviceguard MySQL toolkit is installed in the /usr/local/cmcluster/mysqltoolkit directory. For more information about this installation, see the MySQL toolkit documentation at: You have installed the MySQL database and configured it on the shared storage. For more information, see the file /opt/cmcluster/mysqltoolkit/readme. You have configured the MySQL Serviceguard Cluster package with the following values: MySQL Cluster: PACKAGE Name MySQL_PKG Relocatable IP address Testing the MySQL Serviceguard Cluster Testing the Cluster Connection Perform the following steps from the external test system as described in the testing assumptions in Testing Assumptions (page 22): 1. Grant the required privileges to the sample database user to allow access to the MySQL database service from the third machine. This procedure is described in Configuring MySQL Server Replication (page 15). For example, enter the grant command as follows: grant all on osmsdb.* to identified by 'osmspass'; 2. On the test machine, verify the MySQL connection by entering the following command: # mysqladmin -h relocatable_ip_address version For example: # mysqladmin -h version The output looks similar to the following: Server version enterprise-gpl-log Protocol version 10 Connection via TCP/IP TCP port 3306 Uptime: 57 sec Threads: 1 Questions: 14 Slow queries: 0 Opens: 0 Flush tables: 1 Open tables: 6 Queries per second avg: MySQL High Availability Using HP Serviceguard 23

24 This output demonstrates that the MySQL client running on the test machine is able to connect to the primary node of the MySQL Serviceguard cluster using the relocatable IP address. Testing the Cluster Stability The MySQL-bench tool is useful for performing general comparisons of servers and configurations. Use this tool to perform the stress tests described in this blueprint. In the following test, a sample database is created and populated with benchmark data. The tests in the suite can be run separately or together. For more information about using the MySQL-bench tool, see the web page for the MySQL benchmark suite at: The following test uses an x86_64 system running a fully installed version of the RHEL5 distribution. The RHEL5 distribution contains embedded mysql-bench test suite. To enable and use the mysql-bench test suite to verify the stability of the MySQL Serviceguard cluster, use the following steps: 1. Verify that the mysql-bench test suite is installed, by entering the following command: # rpm -qa grep mysql-bench If the test suite is installed, the following message is shown: mysql-bench If the test suite is not installed, you can retrieve the package (mysql-bench x86_64.rpm) from the RHEL5 distribution. Once you have the file, install it by entering the following command: # rpm -ivh mysql-bench x86_64.rpm 2. Next, verify that mysql client, mysql server, the Perl DBI module and MySQL DBD drivers are installed by entering the following commands. : # rpm -qa grep perl-dbd-mysql # rpm -qa grep perl-dbi # rpm -qa grep mysql # rpm -qa grep mysql-server Run the test suite by entering the following commands. # cd $SQL_BENCH_DIR #./run-all-tests --host= relocatable_ip_address where: SQL_BENCH_DIR is the MySQL-bench installation directory. For example, enter the following commands: # cd /usr/share/sql-bench #./run-all-tests --host= NOTE: These tests can take a long time to complete. 4. To make the results easier to read, repeat the commands with the options --log --use-old-result. 5. To create a file based on the results you obtained from the $SQL_BENCH_DIR output directory, enter the following command: #./run-all-tests --host= comment= \ 24

25 Testing Cluster Failover "HP SG/LX with MySQL enterprise gpl log" --log --use-old-results Check the results located in output/run-mysql-linux_2.6.18_8.el5_x86_64. If the test passed, the following message is shown: All 9 test executed successfully You can simulate some of the following cases, which cause primary-node failure, to verify the MySQL Serviceguard cluster failover function. CAUTION: You should perform the following tests with sample data before trying the tests with critical production data. In the event of a serious failure or the wrong configuration, data corruption can result. End the primary node's MySQL processes. Pull the power cable out on the primary node to cause a power failure. Pull the network cable out on the primary node to cause the loss of a network. Issue the power off and reboot commands on the primary node. End all SG/LX processes on the primary node. In the event of a failure on the primary node, the package automatically fails over to the standby node and the database continues to function. Thus, the database fails over successfully. You can verify that the database continues to function by accessing the MySQL database service when the primary node fails. For more information on how to test the MySQL Serviceguard cluster connection, see Testing the Cluster Connection (page 23). Monitoring the Database with the HP OpenView MySQL Gallery SPI HP OpenView Operations Architecture HP enhances the Open Source Middleware Stacks (OSMS) using HP OpenView Operations Smart Plug-Ins (OVO SPIs). HP OpenView Operations (OVO) is a distributed, client/server software solution designed to provide service-driven event and performance management of business-critical enterprise systems, applications, and services. The SPI for MySQL is a value-add software component for HP OVO. This software is provided free to all customers of HP OVO for use under the terms and conditions documented on the download web page. This SPI provides powerful, centralized tools to monitor and manage the operation of multiple installations of MySQL servers on SLES. SPI components include: Policies that are designed to monitor log files and key health parameters of the MySQL server Policies that allow you to monitor the overall availability of the MySQL server Tools that allow you to run commands on the managed MySQL installation NOTE: The HP OVO Management Server runs on either HP-UX or Windows. The examples in this blueprint use HP OpenView Operations for Windows (OVOW). Figure 6 illustrates the SPI architecture and OVOW components. Monitoring the Database with the HP OpenView MySQL Gallery SPI 25

26 Figure 6 HP OVOW Architecture Software Prerequisites and Reference Guides Before attempting to install the MySQL SPI, ensure that you have a functional HP OVOW installation, including the OVOW Management Console and the Linux OVOW SPI agents for the MySQL server. An HP-UX OVO installation can be used instead. However, this example uses the Windows version. In addition, you must install the following patches listed in Table 4: Table 4 Required OVOW Patches Patch Name Version Patch Dependencies Msg/Act Agt A OVOW_00187 None SvcDisc Linux A OVOW_00198 OVOW_00187 Mgmt Srv A OVOW_00213 OVOW_00068OVOW_00166 Agent Linux A OVOW_00234 None The SPI installation and configuration documents can be found on the HP OpenView website at: For information about installing the HP OVOW agent, see the HP OpenView Operations for Windows Installation Guide at: Using the SPIs The OVOW SPIs support two methodologies to manage the MySQL server: User-driven methods Event-driven methods User-Driven Methods The user-driven functions are accessed from the Tools menu. You can start, stop, and monitor MySQL from the OVOW console. The following table provides an overview of the tools in the group Database SPI (DBSPI) MySQL: 26

27 Table 5 Application Labels and Descriptions Application Label Configure MySQL Instrumentation Restart MySQL Server Start MySQL Server Stop MySQL Server Start MySQL Log File Monitoring Stop MySQL Log File Monitoring Description Extracts and deploys MySQL Instrumentation. Restarts the MySQL server. Starts the MySQL server on the managed node. Stops the MySQL server on the managed node. Starts the log file monitoring of the MySQL server. The tool monitors errors, deployment exceptions and MySQL resource exceptions from the default MySQL log file (located in /var/lib/mysql/hostname.err). The OVOW management console shows all the logs in the active message window. Stops the log file monitoring of the MySQL server. Event-Driven Methods The event-driven methods are used to manage events that are triggered when certain conditions are met, for example, if the MySQL server process utilizes a greater percentage of CPU than the threshold defined in the policy. When a threshold is exceeded, certain warning messages appear in the management console. Table 6 lists the MySQL SPI policy details: Table 6 MySQL Policies in the DBSPI MySQL Policy Group Policy Name Policy Type Description Default Polling Interval Default Threshold MySQL CPU-Usage Monitor Measurement Threshold Monitors the CPU usage of the MySQL server. By default, if the CPU utilization percentage of any MySQL process exceeds 90%, a critical message is displayed in an active message browser of the OVOW console. 30 seconds 90% MySQL Memory Usage Monitor Measurement Threshold Monitors the operating system's memory usage of the MySQL server. By default, if the memory utilization percentage of any MySQL process exceeds 90%, a critical message is displayed in active message browser of the OVOW console. 30 seconds 90% Process Monitor MySQL SPI Scheduled Task Monitors a MySQL process. If a MySQL process is killed, then a message is displayed in an active message browser of the OVOW console. 1 minute N/A Status Message - MySQL SPI Open Message Interface Provides an interface for displaying MySQL server error messages. The Open Message Interface policies are used by other policies and are not used directly for monitoring. 5 minutes N/A Internal Message - MySQL SPI Open Message Interface Provides an interface for displaying internal error messages from the SPI. The Open Message Interface policies are used by other policies and are not used directly for monitoring. N/A N/A Monitoring the Database with the HP OpenView MySQL Gallery SPI 27

28 Table 6 MySQL Policies in the DBSPI MySQL Policy Group (continued) Policy Name Policy Type Description Default Polling Interval Default Threshold MySQL Service Discovery - MySQL SPI Service Auto Discovery Discovers the MySQL server. The MySQL server is registered as an OVOW service and this policy is used to discover MySQL availability once an hour, by default. N/A N/A Log Message MySQL SPI Open Message Interface Provides an interface for displaying MySQL server log messages. The Open Message Interface policies are used by other policies and are not used directly for monitoring. N/A N/A Backing Up Your Database A database backup strategy is a critical part of any database installation. The MySQL database backup strategy is a two-part process of first extracting data from the database and then using a backup tool to store the data to backup media, such as tape media or network storage. MySQL and other vendors provide data extraction tools, which capture and store the data from the database. Each storage engine in MySQL has unique characteristics that impact backup, so backup solutions tend to be as custom as a database configuration. This section provides an example of implementing a backup strategy for a MySQL database installation using HP OpenView Storage Data Protector (Data Protector). If you are currently using a different backup tool, you can proceed with the general steps that are outlined in the backup strategy that follows. Installing and Configuring a Database Backup Tool The following section shows you how to use the HP Data Protector for testing purposes. You must install both the HP Data Protector Cell Manager and the Data Protector agent, both of which can run on Windows, HP-UX, and the Linux OS. In this example, the Data Protector Cell Manager and Data Protector agent are installed separately on one machine running Windows and on the Linux-based MySQL slave server. HP Data Protector on Windows provides a GUI to manage resources and perform backup or restore actions. Before performing the following test, install the Data Protector 6.0 server on a Windows system. Use the following steps to install and configure the Data Protector 6.0 Agent. 1. To install HP Data Protector for Linux Agent on the Linux-based MySQL slave server, download the HP Data Protector for HP-UX PA-RISC - Installation Server 1 of 2 (CD ISO image) from the following website: 2. Open the image and enter the following command: #./omnisetup.sh -install da 3. Edit the /etc/services file and comment out all the lines containing port 5555 by making the following changes: # personal-agent 5555/tcp # personal Agent # personal-agent 5555/udp # personal Agent 4. To start the Data Protector agent, enter the following commands: # chkconfig xinetd on # /etc/init.d/xinetd restart 28

29 5. Import the MySQL slave server as a client of the Data Protector Cell Manager as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7 Importing a Client Backing Up Data There are two parts to backing up your data: first, the extraction of data from the database and, second, the integration of the database back up tool into the process. To Extract Data from the Database 1. To stop the slave replication, enter the following command: mysql> STOP SLAVE SQL_THREAD; 2. After the slave thread has been stopped, flush the tables to save the pending changes to disk by entering the following command: mysql> FLUSH TABLES; 3. Use the mysqldump command to place the data to be backed up in a file on the slave server. For MyISAM tables, use the following command: # mysqldump -u osmusr -p osmpass osmsdb customer > /tmp/customer.sql For InnoDB tables, use the following command: # mysqldump -u osmusr -p osmpass --single-transaction osmsdb \ customer > /tmp/customer.sql In the example, the database user for backup is osmusr with the password osmpass. Prior to backing up, the user must be created and the proper privileges granted for lock tables and select on the osmdb database. The name of the test table is customer in the osmsdb database. The backup data is stored in the /tmp/customer.sql file. Backing Up Your Database 29

30 NOTE: To identify the type of storage engine used for a particular table, use the following command: mysql> show table status from osmdb like 'customer'; 4. Restart the slave replication thread after the database has been dumped by entering the following command: mysql> START SLAVE SQL_THREAD; To Integrate Data Protector 1. Add the secondary storage, which is used to hold the backup data, as a device in Data Protector. 2. Add a Blank Filesystem Backup on the Data Protector cell server, and then back up the following data to the secondary storage device: The data file (/tmp/customer.sql) that you dumped in step 2 The binary log files located in the /var/lib/mysql directory on the slave server The relay-log.info and master.info files located in the /var/lib/mysql directory on the slave server Figure 8 Back Up the Slave Server 3. Start the backup either manually or at a scheduled time. 4. After the backup is complete, restart replication between the master server and slave servers. For an incremental backup of a MySQL server, the dumped data file needs to be backed up in its entirety only once, the first time a backup is run. In all subsequent backup jobs, only the binary log files, master.info and relay-log.info, should be backed up. Restoration of all data in the event of a disaster is achieved by first restoring the full data backup, and then restoring all the binary log updates, which are used to recover the database to the point of the binary log flush. 30

31 Restoring Data Restore the data file and binary log files to both the master server and slave server. All database data is recreated using the extracted data file and the binary log files. 1. Stop the replication between master server and slave servers. See Configuring MySQL Server Replication (page 15) for instructions. 2. Restore the latest database data file and binary log files to both master server and slave server using Data Protector. Figure 9 Restore Files 3. Using the backup data file, reconstruct all database data on the master server and slave server to the point in time when the binary log flush occurred by entering the following command: # mysql -uosmusr -posmpass osmsdb < /tmp/customer.sql 4. Replay the binary log files on the master server and slave server by entering the following command: # mysqlbinlog mysql-bin mysql -uosmusr -posmpass 5. On the slave server, restore the files master.info and relay-log.info so they are consistent with the binary log files that have been restored on the master server. 6. Restart the replication. Connecting External Systems to the MySQL Database Connectors are small-footprint software drivers that are integrated into a developer's application and allow that application to connect to a MySQL database using the appropriate Application Programming Interface (API) conventions. These connectors are not standalone applications themselves. They are native language libraries for the desired programming language. Connectors Included and Excluded from the Stack MySQL provides a native C API library, called libmysqlclient, with each version of MySQL. This library is the basis for most higher-level APIs, except for the JDBC and.net connectors. Connecting External Systems to the MySQL Database 31

32 The SLES10 distribution also contains MySQL connectors to enable Perl, Python, and PHP, but they are outside the scope of this document. Table 7 lists the MySQL connectors that are available as part of the HP Open Source Middleware Database Server Stack. Table 7 Available MySQL Connectors Connector Name Description Notes Included? Connector/J Standard connector for accessing MySQL from Java applications, including the JBoss and Tomcat application servers. None Yes Connector/.NET Connector for Microsoft.NET applications to use a MySQL database. None Yes Connector/ODBC Windows only. Allows applications such as Excel to retrieve data from MySQL. UNIX version available but not recommended. Yes Connector/PHP, Perl and Python Connects PHP/Perl/Python applications to a MySQL database. Key component of LAMP stack. Not supported by MySQL. No Connector/MXJ Java wrapper for database. Targeted at embedded databases. No JDBC Connector (Connector/J) The Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) technology is a Java API that lets you invoke SQL commands to create database tables, access the data stored in a table, and create and manage distributed transactions. It is the standard tool for enabling Java access to MySQL and can be used for application servers, such as Tomcat or JBoss, or from standalone Java applications. For more information about JDBC technology, see the JDBC Technology Code Samples web page located at: Connecting with Tomcat 32 In this section, you create a sample web application to connect with the database. The application is deployed in Tomcat. You can download Tomcat at: You can also download Tomcat documentation at: 1. Create a sample database on the MySQL server using the instructions in Creating the Sample Database for MySQL (page 14). 2. Download the MySQL JDBC driver from the official website located at: 3. Install the MySQL JDBC driver to the application server by uncompressing and copying the JDBC JAR file to the Tomcat library directory using the following commands. ($TOMCAT is the Tomcat installation path.) # tar zxf mysql-connector-java-<version>.tar.gz # cp mysql-connector-java-<version>-.jar $CATALINA_HOME/common/lib 4. Build a web application directory structure under Tomcat by entering the following commands: # mkdir $TOMCAT/webapps/osmsexample # mkdir $TOMCAT/webapps/osmsexample/META-INF # mkdir $TOMCAT/webapps/osmsexample/WEB-INF

33 5. To enable MySQL data sources in Tomcat, create a file named context.xml using your favorite text editor. This file should be located in $TOMCAT/webapps/osmsexample/META-INF/context.xml and should consist of the following lines: <Context path="/osmsexample" docbase="osmsexample" debug="0" reloadable="true"> <Resource name="jdbc/rwds" auth="container" type="javax.sql.datasource" maxactive="100" maxidle="30" maxwait="10000" username="osmsusr" password="osmspass" driverclassname="com.mysql.jdbc.driver" url="jdbc:mysql://<db_server_ip>/osmsdb"/> <Resource name="jdbc/rods" auth="container" type="javax.sql.datasource" maxactive="100" maxidle="30" maxwait="10000" username="osmsusr2" password="osmspass2" driverclassname="com.mysql.jdbc.driver" url="jdbc:mysql://<db_server_ip>/osmsdb"/> </Context> 6. To enable a new web application in Tomcat, create a file named web.xml using your favorite text editor. This file should be located in $TOMCAT/webapps/osmsexample/WEB-INF/web.xml and should consist of the following lines: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <!DOCTYPE web-app PUBLIC "-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD Web Application 2.3//EN" "http://java.sun.com/dtd/web-app_2_3.dtd"> <web-app> <display-name>mysql List user Examples</display-name> <description>servlet 2.4 Examples</description> <resource-ref> <description>db Connection</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/rwds</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.datasource</res-type> <res-auth>container</res-auth> </resource-ref> <resource-ref> <description>db Connection</description> <res-ref-name>jdbc/rods</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.sql.datasource</res-type> <res-auth>container</res-auth> </resource-ref> </web-app> 7. To create the test application in Tomcat, create a file named list.jsp using your favorite text editor. This file should be located in $TOMCAT/webapps/osmsexample/list.jsp and consist of the following: page import = "java.io.*" import = "java.lang.*" import = "java.sql.*" import = "javax.naming.*" import = "javax.sql.*" %> page contenttype="text/html;"%> <html><head> <title>test Tomcat JDBC Connection to MySQL Database</title> </head> <body> <% //read-only data source //String dsname ="jdbc/rods"; //read-write data source String dsname ="jdbc/rwds"; StringBuffer tablehead = new StringBuffer(); StringBuffer tabledata = new StringBuffer(); Context initctx =null; DataSource mydatasource=null; Connection con = null; PreparedStatement prestmt = null; ResultSet searchresult = null; %> <% //write to database try{ initctx = new InitialContext(); Connecting External Systems to the MySQL Database 33

34 Context localctx = (Context) initctx.lookup("java:comp/env"); mydatasource = (DataSource)localCtx.lookup(dsName); con = mydatasource.getconnection(); prestmt = con.preparestatement("insert INTO employee(depno,name,cardnumber) values(?,?,?)"); prestmt.setint(1,99); prestmt.setstring(2,"peter"); prestmt.setint(3,99999); prestmt.executeupdate(); }catch (SQLException s){ out.println("<h1>sql Error:"+s.getMessage()+"</h1>"); }finally{ try{ prestmt.close(); con.close(); }catch(exception e){ out.println("can NOT close db connection: "+e.getmessage()); }finally{ prestmt=null; con=null; } } %> <% //read database try{ initctx = new InitialContext(); Context localctx = (Context) initctx.lookup("java:comp/env"); mydatasource = (DataSource)localCtx.lookup(dsName); con = mydatasource.getconnection(); prestmt = con.preparestatement("select id,depno,name,cardnumber FROM employee LIMIT?"); prestmt.setint(1,100); searchresult = prestmt.executequery(); ResultSetMetaData sqlrstmetadata = searchresult.getmetadata(); int numcolumns = sqlrstmetadata.getcolumncount(); for (int i=0;i<numcolumns ;i++ ){ tablehead.append("<th><b>").append(sqlrstmetadata.getcolumnname(i+1)).append("</b></th>"); } while (searchresult.next()){ tabledata.append("<tr>"); for (int i=0;i<numcolumns ;i++ ){ String data = searchresult.getstring(i+1); data = (data!=null)?data:"" ; data = (data.length()>0)?data:"_"; tabledata.append("<td>"+data+"</td>") ; } tabledata.append("</tr>\n"); } }catch (SQLException s){ out.println("<h1>sql Error:"+s.getMessage()+"</h1>"); }finally{ try{ prestmt.close(); con.close(); }catch(exception e){ out.println("can NOT close db connection: "+e.getmessage()); }finally{ prestmt=null; con=null; } } %> <hr/> <b>list of Employee Records</b> <table border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4"> <tr><%=tablehead.tostring()%></tr> <tr><%=tabledata.tostring()%></tr> </table> </body> </html> 34

35 NOTE: The following section appears at the beginning of the list.jsp file: //read-only data source //String dsname ="jdbc/rods"; //read-write data source String dsname ="jdbc/rwds"; These lines define the data source, which will be used to connect MySQL server. The string name jdbc/rods is for read-only data sources and the string name jdbc/rwds is for read-write data sources. 8. Perform a read-write test on the data and verify the following: The list.jsp file contains the line String dsname ="jdbc/rwds; and it is uncommented. The list.jsp file contains the line String dsname ="jdbc/rods"; and it is commented. The records list should contain ID 7, the record which was inserted with the file list.jsp. The results displayed in Figure 10 indicate that read-write access to the MySQL database was successful. Figure 10 Employee Records List Read-Write Test 9. Perform a test on a read-only data source and verify the following: The list.jsp file contains the line String dsname ="jdbc/rods"; and it is uncommented. The list.jsp file contains the line String dsname ="jdbc/rwds"; and it is commented. 10. Start the Tomcat service if it is not started. Use a browser to navigate to the Tomcat server located at: The error message SQL Error:INSERT displayed in Figure 11 indicates the write access to the database is denied. The List of Employee Records is displayed indicating the database was read successfully. Connecting External Systems to the MySQL Database 35

36 Figure 11 Employee Records List Read-Only Test For more information about the Tomcat data source, see the JNDI Datasource How-To web page located at: Installing the MySQL Connector/.NET Application The.NET applications can access data from MySQL using the MySQL Connector/.NET application, which implements the required ADO.NET interfaces. This procedure describes how to install the Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) connector for.net. For this example, the Microsoft IIS for Windows platform is used and installed on a Windows 2003 server. 1. Change the status of the ASP.NET web service extension as follows: a. Select the Web Service Extension icon on the left side of the window. b. Under the list of Web Service Extensions, select ASP.Net v c. Click Allow. If the Allow button is inactive (greyed out) then the web service extension is already operating. 36

37 Figure 12 Microsoft IIS Manager 2. Create a virtual directory in the default website that points to the local directory containing the OSMS MySQL Connector/.NET test application codes. As displayed in Figure 13, the virtual directory is mysql-connector-net and the corresponding local directory is e:\osm\mysql.net connector. Figure 13 Create a Virtual Directory 3. Run the default website in IIS. Configuring the MySQL Connector/.NET Application MySQL Connector/.NET provides the following classes: MySqlCommand MySqlCommandBuilder Connecting External Systems to the MySQL Database 37

38 MySqlConnection MySqlDataAdapter MySqlDataReader Based on these classes, developers can build applications using their choice of.net languages. For more information on MySQL Connector/.NET, see the MySQL 5.0 Reference Manual located at: Use the following steps to configure MySQL Connector/.NET. 1. Download and install MySQL Connector/.NET. The package can be downloaded at: 2. Use Windows Explorer to verify that the MySQL Connector/.NET module is in the c:\windows\assembly directory, as displayed in Figure 14. Figure 14.NET Framework Configuration Manager 3. To make the namespaces of MySQL Connector/.NET retrievable by.net applications, so that the connector classes can be used in IIS, edit the web.config file and add the following content: <add assembly="mysql.data, Version= , Culture=Neutral, PublicKeytoken=c5687fc88969c44d"/> </asemblies> NOTE: The web.config file is usually located in the C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v \CONFIG directory. NOTE: If you do not edit the file, the error message CS0246: The type or namespace name 'MySql' could not be found occurs when compiling applications using MySQL Connector/.NET. 4. Provide database information in the application. For example, you can enter the following connection string: Database=osmsdb;Data Source= ;User Id=osmusr;Password=osmusr When.NET applications connect to the MySQL server, an instance of MySqlConnection needs to be created and a connection string with the correct database information is provided in the application. 38

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