Introduction to ServerIron ADX Application Switching and Load Balancing. Module 7: Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) Revision 0310

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1 Introduction to ServerIron ADX Application Switching and Load Balancing Module 7: Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) Revision 0310

2 Objectives Upon completion of this module, the student will: Be able to understand the need for a GSLB Be able to define the GSLB policy Setup the ServerIron ADX as a DNS proxy Configure GSLB and Site information Define and use GSLB affinity settings 2

3 How Does Global Server Load Balancing Work GSLB ServerIron ADX adds intelligence to authoritative DNS evaluates IP address best host for client is on placed on top of the returned DNS list sets DNS TTL Local DNS has most current information GLSB ServerIron ADX gathers information from Site/Remote ServerIron ADXs: Local VIPs Session table statistics and CPU load Round Trip Time (RTT) between client and remote site (Client s TCP SYN and Client s TCP ACK) GSLB uses proprietary communication between Sites 3

4 Domain Name Server (DNS) Defines a naming scheme for the Internet domain Translates names into an IP address Implemented as a distributed database DNS names are constructed hierarchically sunc.scit.wlv.ac.uk 4

5 DNS Hierarchical Structure 5

6 Distributed Domain Database 6

7 A Record (Address Record) dig ;; QUESTION SECTION: ; IN A ;; ANSWER SECTION: IN A ;; AUTHORITY SECTION: brocade.com IN NS ns1.sfj.pnap.net. brocade.com IN NS ns1.brocade.com. brocade.com IN NS ns2.sfj.pnap.net. brocade.com IN NS ns2.brocade.com. ;; ADDITIONAL SECTION: ns1.sfj.pnap.net IN A ns1.brocade.com IN A ns2.sfj.pnap.net IN A <<truncated>> 7

8 DNS Request Types Two types: Recursive - get me the best answer (most common) Example shown below Iterative - give me the answer or the next hop 8

9 Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) Overview GSLB operations: Modes - [non] transparent, cache Proxy DNS (Authoritative address is a VIP[s]) GSLB ADX does contain an DNS server Provides caching and the ability to respond to A records Two components in a GSLB configuration: GSLB ServerIron ADX Front-ends an authoritative DNS server(s) Remote sites can include a ServerIron ADX and a real server Geographically separated authoritative DNSs can be front-ended by two GSLBs or by one GSLB with Source-NAT GSLB protocol is used to communicate between a GSLB ADX and a remote ADX. (TCP port 182) 9

10 GSLB Features Leverages existing DNS servers Minimal disruption to existing network environment Measures proximity to actual customers in the most accurate manner Ability to tolerate failures after DNS lookup is complete Implemented on highest performing traffic management switch Provides the most comprehensive global server load balancing with or without using DNS 10

11 GSLB Example Appear as one web site to clients Directs a client to the nearest server for fastest content delivery Directs a client to the best alternate server in case of server outage Provide transparent backup in case of natural disasters, power outages SLB and GSLB operations be single box 11

12 DNS limitations (no GSLB) No server health checks clients directed to dead servers No proximity awareness clients can be sent to farthest server Just round-robin inefficient load balancing Local DNS caches responses clients maybe sent to dead servers 12

13 HTTP Redirect limitations (no GSLB) Works only for HTTP traffic Requires different host names for each site Could be redirected to an inoperable server 13

14 ServerIron ADX GSLB Direction to Functional Site Approach: Directs client to optimal site Front-end the authoritative DNS Server Transparently modify the DNS response based on server and application availability Authoritative DNS server can be located remotely Results in: Leveraging existing DNS servers Easy to configure and manage Minimal disruption to existing DNS servers 14

15 Site Selection Criteria Default evaluation order: 1. Server Health 2. ServerIron ADX session capacity threshold 3. Round Trip Time between the remote ServerIron ADX and the DNS client 4. The geographic location of the server 5. ServerIron ADX available session capacity 6. FlashBack speed 7. Least Response selection / Round Robin 15

16 1. Server Health Client opens browser and requests Authoritative DNS passes a Round Robin response with 3 addresses through the GSLB ADX ADX sends health checks based on application port to each of these addresses 16

17 2. Session Capacity Threshold GSLB ServerIron ADX gathers session info using GSLB Protocol with the remote ServerIron ADXs. ServerIron ADX(config)# show gslb site ServerIronTE: sunnyvale ServerIron slb State: CONNECTION ESTABLISHED Current num. Session CPU load Location Sessions Util% (%) N-AM Virtual IPs: (A) ServerIron ADX(config)# Show gslb site ServerIronTE: Tokyo ServerIron slb State: CONNECTION ESTABLISHED Current num. Session CPU load Location Sessions Util% (%) N-AM Virtual IPs: (A) The GSLB learns from each remote ServerIron ADX shows the maximum number of sessions and the number of available session via GSLB Default Session Capacity Threshold: 90%. i.e. If the current number of sessions has not reached 90% of the supported total, the site is eligible for being selected as the best site 17

18 3. Round-Trip Time (RTT) A site is favored by GSLB only if the RTT difference is more than 10% (default). 18

19 4. Geographic Location of the Server IP Addresses are allocated in blocks to different continents Based on the client IP address, ServerIron ADX picks the web site ensuring that requests stay in continental domains This approach cannot differentiate IP addresses within a continent 19

20 5. Available Session Capacity ServerIron ADX(config)# show gslb site ServerIronTE: sunnyvale ServerIron slb State: CONNECTION ESTABLISHED Current num. Session CPU load Location Sessions Util% %) N-AM Virtual IPs: (A) 10% Capacity tolerance by default The first ServerIron ADX is preferred over the second ServerIron ADX because the difference (200,000) is greater than 10% of 1 million. If another ServerIron ADX with 900,000 sessions was available, it would be equally preferable with the first ServerIron ADX because 10% difference is less that threshold. ServerIron ADX(config)# show gslb site ServerIronTE: Tokyo ServerIron slb State: CONNECTION ESTABLISHED Current num. Session CPU load Location Sessions Util% (%) N-AM Virtual IPs: (A) 20

21 6. FlashBack FlashBack measures the roundtrip time between the ServerIron ADX in front of authoritative DNS and each other site (Basically, the Health Check Time) FlashBack serves as a starting point for network responsiveness and proximity information Uses tolerance value when comparing FlashBack speeds. 10% difference by default 21

22 7a. Least Response Selection (Default) 22

23 7b. Round Robin Selection 23

24 GSLB Affinity Allows preference of one site over all others as long as the server is HEALTHY Other sites used for backup IP address based Preference affinity - affinity definition associated with client s IP address - prefix ( /16) Configured default affinity /0 Up to 50 affinities 24

25 Site ServerIron ADX Affinity Configuration ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb affinity ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-affinity)# prefer denver slb-1 for /0 ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb policy ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-policy)# preference Turns on policy Prefer Denver over all other sites 25

26 Site ServerIron ADX Affinity (Cont.) Always prefer Denver for prefixes = /16 Always prefer London for prefixes = /16 (Disabled by default) 26

27 GSLB Administrative Preference The administrative preference allows the following: Temporarily change the preference of a site to accommodate changing network conditions Temporarily disqualify a site ServerIron ADX from being selected, without otherwise changing the site s configuration or the GSLB ServerIron ADX s configuration Bias a GSLB ServerIron ADX that is also configured as a site ServerIron ADX (for locally configured VIPs) to always favor itself as the best site Syntax: [no] si-name [<name>] <ip-addr> [<preference>] 27

28 show gslb default / show gslb policy SW-ServerIron ADX_A(config)# show gslb policy Default metric order: ENABLE Metric processing order: 1-Server health check 2-Remote ServerIron's session capacity threshold 3-Round trip time between remote ServerIron and client 4-Geographic location 5-Remote ServerIron's available session capacity 6-Server flashback speed 7-Least response selection DNS active-only: DISABLE DNS best-only: DISABLE DNS override: DISABLE DNS cache-proxy: DISABLE DNS transparent-intercept: DISABLE DNS cname-detect: DISABLE Modify DNS response TTL: ENABLE DNS TTL: 10 (sec), DNS check interval: 30 (sec) Remote ServerIron status update period: 30 (sec) Session capacity threshold: 90% Session availability tolerance: 10% Round trip time tolerance: 10%, round trip time explore percentage: 5% Round trip time cache prefix: 20, round trip time cache interval: 120 (sec) Flashback appl-level delay tolerance: 10%, TCP-level delay tolerance: 10% Connection load: DISABLE 28

29 GSLB ServerIron ADX Configuration Steps 1. Add real server definitions 2. Add VIP 3. Identify the sites 4. Identify the ServerIron ADXs at the site 5. Identity the DNS zones 6. Identify the host applications with each host 7. Add a source-ip address 29

30 Configuration Example (1 of 3) 30

31 Configuration Example (2 of 3) Configure DNS Proxy Parameters Configure a source IP address The source IP address is required so that the GSLB ServerIron ADX can perform Health Checks on remote devices Add a real-server definition for the DNS Add a VIP for the DNS and bind the real server and virtual server. ServerIron_SanJose(config)# server source-ip ServerIron_SanJose(config)# server real-name dns_ns ServerIron_SanJose(config-rs-dns_ns)# port dns proxy ServerIron_SanJose(config)# server virtual-name dns-proxy ServerIron_SanJose(config-vs-dns-proxy)# bind dns dns_ns dns This VIP is what the world thinks is the Auth. Name Server This Real Address is one of the actual Name Servers 31

32 Configuration Example (3 of 3) Configure Site Parameters Specify the sites and the ServerIron ADXs within the site Configure Zone Parameters Specify the Zones and the host names within the zones ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb site sunnyvale ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-site-sunnyvale)# si-name slb ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-site-sunnyvale)# si-name slb ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb site Tokyo ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-site-Tokyo)# si-name slb ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-site-Tokyo)# si-name slb ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb dns zone-name brocade.com ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-dns-brocade.com)# host-info www http ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-dns-brocade.com)# host-info ftp ftp Zone Parameters Site Parameters 32

33 show gslb site (1 of 2) ServerIron ADX(config)# show gslb site ServerIronTE: sunnyvale ServerIron: slb : state: CONNECTION ESTABLISHED Current num. Session CPU load Preference Location sessions util(%) (%) N-AM Virtual IPs: (A) (A) ServerIron: slb : state: CONNECTION ESTABLISHED Current num. Session CPU load Preference Location sessions util(%) (%) N-AM Virtual IPs: (S) 33

34 show gslb dns zone ServerIron ADX# show gslb dns zone ZONE: b.c HOST: a: Flashback DNS resp. delay selection (x100us) counters TCP APP Count (%) * : dns v-ip DOWN N-AM (26%) * : dns v-ip ACTIVE N-AM (26%) * : dns v-ip DOWN N-AM (26%) * : dns real-ip DOWN N-AM (21%) IP addresses associated with a host name in a DNS Reply. These are the servers that contain the content for the host. 34

35 show gslb dns detail ServerIron ADX(config)# show gslb dns detail ZONE: brocade.com HOST: www: Flashback delay (x100us) TCP APP (%) * : dns v-ip ACTIVE N-AM site: sunnyvale, ServerIron: slb-1 ( ) session util: 0%, avail. sessions: preference: 128 HOST: ftp: Flashback delay (x100us) TCP APP (%) * : dns v-ip ACTIVE N-AM site: sunnyvale, ServerIron: slb-2 ( ) session util: 7%, avail. sessions: preference: 128 DNS resp. selection percentage DNS resp. selection percentage 35

36 Remote Show - rshow SW-GSLB(config)# rshow server real Requesting real server Type Control-c to abort Management address of site ServerIron ADX Real Servers Info ======================== State(St) - ACT:active, ENB:enabled, FAL:failed, TST:test, DIS:disabled, UNK:unknown, UNB:unbind, AWU:await-unbind, AWD:await-delete Name : rs1 Mac-addr: 0010.e000.f518 IP: Range:1 State:Active Wt:0 Max-conn: Port St Ms CurConn TotConn Rx-pkts Tx-pkts Rx-octet Tx-octet Reas http ACT default UNB Server Total

37 GSLB Lab 7-1

38 Lab 7-1: GSLB 38

39 Modifying DNS Parameters Deleting sites that fail health checks Retain best address only Verification of DNS records Time-To-Live value DNS override DNS Cache Proxy 39

40 Delete Sites that Fail Health Checks ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb policy ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-policy)# dns active-only Syntax: [no] dns active-only 40

41 Best Address Only ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb policy ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-policy)# dns best-only Syntax: [no] dns best-only 41

42 Verification of DNS Records ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb policy ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-policy)# dns check-interval 50 Syntax: [no] dns check-interval <num> GSLB SI periodically (default 30 ) sends DNS Queries to the Auth DNS to verify Zone/Host and IP address info with the Auth. DNS server. 42

43 Time-To-Live Value ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb policy ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-policy)# dns ttl 45 Syntax: [no] dns ttl <num> By default, the GSLB SI resets the TTL to 10 to ensure the clients always get the best site. 43

44 DNS Override (Proxy Server) ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb dns zone brocade.com ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-dns-brocade.com)# host www http ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-dns-brocade.com)# host www ip-list Syntax: host <host-name> ip-list <ip-addr...> GSLB SI overrides the IP addresses with the IPs configured on itself for a given host received from the Auth DNS. 44

45 Enable DNS Override ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb policy ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-policy)# dns override Syntax: [no] dns override 45

46 DNS Cache Proxy ServerIron ADX(config)# gslb policy ServerIron ADX(config-gslb-policy)# dns cache-proxy Syntax: [no] dns cache-proxy When DNS cache proxy is enabled, the GSLB ServerIron caches the IP addresses for the requested domain, and responds to the client with the best address among the ones that are cached, without forwarding the request to the DNS server. 46

47 GSLB without a DNS server Lab 7-2

48 Lab 7-2: GSLB without a DNS server 48

49 End of Module 7: Global Server Load Balancing (GSLB) Revision 0310

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