GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) AS A TOOL FOR CERTIFICATION OF BIOFUELS IN ARGENTINA

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1 GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) AS A TOOL FOR CERTIFICATION OF BIOFUELS IN ARGENTINA International Workshop CHALLENGES AND SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN AMERICA. Buenos Aires may 28 th, Stella Carballo- INTA- cnia.inta.gov.ar

2 There are many organizations working in the development of biofuel certification schemes, to reduce the impact that land use change could cause ( increase of emissions, lost of biodiversity, deforestation etc). US EPA

3 Biofuels must contribute to mitigate global climatic change,reducing the emissions (GHG) compared with fossil fuels. Biofuels production will promote land use practices to improve soil health and to minimize its degradation Biofuels production must optimize the use of water including the preservation of the hidrological resources with minimun contamination and avoiding any violation of the rights to water. Biofuls production must avoid or reduce at the mininum the air contamination along the supply chain (LCA). area Biofuel production must avoid the negative impacts over biodiversity, ecosystems, and areas wirh high nature value. Biofuel production shouldcontribute to social and economic development of local communities promoting the dignity of the workers.

4 -EU: BIOFUELS SUSTAINABILITY SCHEME. (2009/28/EC) Renewable Energy Directives Minimum GHG reduction Exclusion of lands with high nature value. Exclusion of high C lands Cross Compliance / CAP 35% 2009/ % after % for new plants 2017 GHG emissions include LUC. Forest land Protected Areas (WDPA) High biodiversity lands (grassland and non-grassland) Peat land / wetlands Cont. forested areas (trees higher 5m) Only if it affects carbon stocks Cut line: January 2008 Environment To promote the use of good agricultural practices. Applicable only within the EU

5 ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE OF SOYBEAN BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA 2011 : 1.7 M tn of Soybean biodiesel exported.

6 1ª CHALLENGE - To prove that argentine soy-based biodiesel can reduce emissions compared with fossil diesel base- line in more than 35%. -DIFFERENT NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES PROVED A REDUCTION OVER 50%.

7 2ª CHALLENGE - To prove that our country has enough soybean planted in GO AREAS, according to the EU directives, to supply the complete biodiesel industries demand. It was proposed a Voluntary Certification Scheme using Remote sensing and GIS tools to monitor the land use change.

8 The information contained in the GIS will allow us to know about the sustainability of the soybean production in the areas where the feedstock used in the biodiesel production came from. The GIS will be operated by the chain of custody members. database -LANDSAT satellite images covering Argentina in different years. -Political division maps at the smallest possible administrative level (district eq. to EU NUT3) -Soil capability map (INTA-l990) -Land Use Classification maps (using images before January 2008) SIG

9 GIS includes maps of high value lands PROTECTED AREAS NATIVE FOREST PRESENT AT JANUARY 2008 WDPA (NASA) SIFAP (Federal System of Protected Areas) PROTECTION CATEGORIES from UICN (I a VI) I II III: 0 IV V: 0,5 VI: 0,75 To be considered NO- GO Areas SOURCE: SAyDS

10 The GIS includes Maps of high C land Wetlands (RAMSAR) To be considered NO- GO Areas Areas AICAS

11 Characteristics of the satellite images used for the classification of land uses and control of the changes. Satellite imagery from Landsat (EEUU). 6 bands covering a range of the electromagnetic spectrum from visible to thermal. Spatial Resolution : 30 m Temporal Resolution: 16 days. A satellite image is impossible to be altered in both : captured date and data. Images available since Images can be accessed from several Data Banks:GLOBIS-INPE-CONAE.

12 Images captured in different months along the year allows the land use classification. Images belonging to different years allows to detect land use changes. Softwares with proved efficiency for land use classification (ERDAS IMAGINE ENVI, etc). Georeferenced information allows future auditories.

13 LAND USE CLASSIFICATION Land uses during the period in the main agricultured area of Argentina Water Pasture Soils Corn Soybean Wheat-soybean Forest Winter crop. 80% of soybean production is located in less than 300mKm from the industries and the port.

14 GIS tools (sofware ARCGIS or similar) to combine information from different sources. 1- LANDSAT satellite images covering Argentina in different months and years. 2- Land Use Classification maps (using images before January 2008) 3- Soil capability map (INTA-l990) 4- Political division maps at the smallest possible administrative level (district eq. to EU NUT3)

15 According the land use classification made from images prior to January 2008, and if there are no explicit stated objections in the Directive: A district, must be approved as "Go" area, according to the provisions of the RED. The approved administrative divisions must be correlated with the postal code. A Data Base to be used in administrative level for the feedstock reception will be developed.

16 Aproved Areas ( Go Areas)

17 An approved administrative division must correlate with the postal code. Caseros Department (Santa Fe province) includes: Distrits: Los Molinos: CP 2181 Arequito: CP 2183 Sanford: CP 2173

18 Excluded areas for High C or nature value lands. The complete district was excluded.

19 Excluded areas for primary forest presency at january The complete district was excluded. NATIVE FOREST PRESENT AT JANUARY 2008

20 How do farmers certify in an excluded district? Deforested areas: HAS NATIVE FOREST CONSERVATION LAW (26.331) were approved in 2008.

21 INDIVIDUAL CERTIFICATION

22

23 CUSTODY CHAIN = Documents Proof of Compliance Certificate of Compliance

24 CERTIFICATION SCHEMS USED IN ARGENTINA

25

26 High resolution satellite images and local expert assistance are necessary to reduce the uncertainties over the land use changes in different countries.

27

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