National and Sub-national Carbon monitoring tools developed at the WHRC

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1 National and Sub-national Carbon monitoring tools developed at the WHRC Nadine Laporte Woods Hole Research Center A. Baccini, W. Walker, S. Goetz, M. Sun, J. Kellndorfer Kigali, 20 th June 2011

2 Why measuring terrestrial carbon stocks? Emissions from fossil fuels (~75% annual CO2 emissions) Emissions from LULCC (~25% annual CO2 emissions) REDD is a mechanism to help reduce CO 2 emissions from LULCC and to preserve the existing forest carbon stock

3 Sources of emissons in the tropics Deforestation for Agriculture, pasture ( food production) Pasture Energy Consumption Agriculture Degradation (Logging, fuel wood) Logging Satellite image monitoring Deforestation Logging Logging Degradation From few meters to 1km resolution

4 Deforestation & Degradation +CO2 +CO2

5 How do we map carbon? Satellite information Forest inventories collected at selected GLAS location with collaborators MODIS ( 500, 1000 m) SPOT, Landsat Lidar Information from GLAS ICESAT satellite

6 SPOT image and GLAS location Budongo Budongo Forest Reserve Color Composite SPOT 5 (2.5 m)

7 Variables collected: Tree DBH (> 5 cm) Vegetation type Topography Soil Characterization Canopy cover Tallest tree height Understory type Field plot database Chave 2005 Allometry From tree measurement to biomass/ carbon estimates

8 Field Campaign with Local team (110 plots)

9 Field observations network & calibration ~300 locations > trees measured Columbia Ecuador Bolivia Brazil Gabon DRC Uganda Tanzania Vietnam Cambodia Indonesia

10 Workshops in Africa, SE Asia and south America 10

11 WHRC Capacity-building Workshops Vietnam 2009 Uganda 2008 DRC 2010 Bolivia 2009

12 Available Carbon maps- WHRC website Production of national carbon maps for improved forest management including REDD The tree model explained 82% of the variance in aboveground biomass density, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 25 tc/ha (Baccini et al, 2008 ERL)

13 Results: Pan-tropical Map of Forest Carbon (2007) Fusion of MODIS, GLAS LiDAR and Field Data Amazon Basin Dem. Rep. of Congo Baccini et al., 2009, Pan-Tropical Forest Carbon Mapped with Satellite and Field Observations, WHRC, COP15,

14 Tanzania 2007 New 500 m resolution MODIS GLAS

15 Kenya 2007 New 500 m resolution MODIS GLAS derived map

16 Kenya 2007 Zoom Nariobi

17 Rwanda 2007 Kigali, June 20, 2011

18 Kigali

19 SPOT5 derived Biomass Uganda-Budongo Input data : SPOT imagery and forest inventories r:0.9 RMSE: 25 MgC/ha

20 Biomass Deforestation DRC= 17 Billion t C (tc/ha) (ha) See A. Cattaneo Stock Flow Bali Report, 2007 Annual emissions 226 million t of CO2 = 60 millions de t C Historical CO 2 Emissions 1990/2000

21 Opportunity cost of a 50% Emissions Reduction from Deforestation Laporte et al, Bali report

22 Future carbon work Continue the capacity building activities Field data collection Map improvement/validation Develop carbon networks for Africa and the tropics Develop model predicting future emissions of C02 at National level and subnational level Develop method integrating better carbon monitoring and socioeconomic baseline

23 Few recommendations on C monitoring system Data sets ( RS/ field surveys) Check the availability imagery for the entire country (wall to wall is recomended) Check availability of historical imagery ( ) to compute your emission baseline Plan to collect field data sets for your land cover /deforestation/ biomass mapping work Methods to derive CO2 estimates Many methods are available some are spatially explicit, others not, we recommend societal models like: Dinamica model allow you to derive future emission based on historical baseline of deforestation

24 Institutional capacity? Which monitoring system is the best for your country? Do you have the institutional capacity go step by step Identify partners to assist you with training (Universities, NGOS, etc) Estimate the cost of the monitoring system Discuss with countries with operational systems Brazil, India etc. Collaborate with other countries to insure to get the data sets you need at the lowest price and coordinate approaches/training etc.. to lower your costs ( see presentation by Rigal from ASTRIUM) Make sure the system you will implement will also help with others on going national or regional programs (forest management, Ag policies ), or mechanism like CDM Evaluate new technological tools ( see Thau presentation on the GoogleEarth Engine.) Think about long term and participatory Remember that you need to relate the emissions or reduction of emissions to the source or the actors of deforestation so you need to develop a systems in collaboartion with economists/rural development specialists or you might be developing systems that will not provide the information you need to compensate the actors and verify compliance for the carbon markets carbon registry etc.

25 Acknowledgements Forestry Dept, NGOs and forest communities for their assistance with field work and the workshops NASA and the Moore, Google & Packard foundations for support Planet Action for providing SPOT imagery

26 Thank You! Rwanda Biomass map 2007 Kigali, June 20, 2011

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