Behavioral Health is Essential to Health Prevention Works Treatment is Effective People Recover

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1 Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study Findings and Strategies from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network Study 2013 Midwest Conference on Problem Gambling and Substance Abuse Alex Barajas-Muñoz Behavioral Health is Essential to Health Prevention Works Treatment is Effective People Recover

2 Roadmap of the Training The goal of the training is to present the results of a new study on using buprenorphine to treat prescription opioid addiction To get there, we present information on The scope of the prescription opioid problem How opioids and the study medications work in the body And finally, the results of the study. 2

3 The Headline Treatment with buprenorphine works. but not necessarily in exactly the way you might expect. 3

4 Objectives for the Training Define the prevalence and treatment admission rates of prescription opioid dependence in the United States Describe the mechanism of action of buprenorphinenaloxone Review the results of a clinical trial that examined the use of buprenorphine-naloxone to treat prescription opioid dependent adults Describe the implications of these findings for the treatment of prescription opioid dependence 4

5 NIDA/SAMHSA Blending Initiative The goal is to move important scientific findings into mainstream addiction treatment NIDA and SAMHSA s Center for Substance Abuse Treatment began the Blending Initiative in 2001 to work on a common vision: To improve substance use disorder treatment and accelerate the dissemination of research-based findings into practice. 5

6 Blending Team Members Thomas Freese, PhD Co-Chair Pacific Southwest ATTC Beth Rutkowski, MPH Co-Chair Pacific Southwest ATTC Leslie Cohen ATTC of New England Joshua D. Lee, MD, MSc New York University, Longone Medical Center Traci Rieckmann, PhD Northwest Frontier ATTC Jennifer Sharpe Potter, PhD, MPH University of Texas Health Science Center Hilary Smith Connery, MD, PhD Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital Roger Weiss, MD Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital ATTC representative NIDA/CTN representative 6

7 Special Acknowledgements Ron Dobbins, MBA NIDA, Center for Clinical Trials Network Donna Doolin, LSCSW SAMHSA-CSAT Katia Delrahim Howlett, PhD Synergy Enterprises, Inc. Petra Jacobs, MD NIDA, Center for Clinical Trials Network Mary Ellen Michel, PhD NIDA, Center for Clinical Trials Network Harold Perl, PhD NIDA, Center for Clinical Trials Network Michele Straus, RPh, MS NIDA, Center for Clinical Trials Network 7

8 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska 8

9 9

10 Mid-America ATTC s Home - The COLLABORATIVE for Excellence in Behavioral Health Research and Practice - University of Missouri- Kansas City, School of Nursing and Health Studies

11 How we work core funding Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) 11

12 What we do our focus 12

13 What we do To improve treatment outcomes through the use of research-based practices by: raising awareness of those practices building the skills capacity of the workforce cultivating the systemic changes necessary for successful implementation 13

14 What we do our focus is shifting Separate specialty care system Integrated behavioral health and primary care 14

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16 FREE Self Paced Courses CEUs Available ($5/hour) NASW NBCC NAADAC CME/CNE 16

17 Psychotherapeutic Medications Online & Mobile View + Mobile View Compatible across systems (i.e., device-agnostic) 17

18 Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study Background, Rationale, and Introduction of Key Terms and Issues 18

19 Opiate vs. Opioid Is there a Difference? The short answer is YES! Opiates are derived directly from the opium poppy by purifying the various chemicals in the poppy. Opioids include all opiates but also include chemicals that have been synthesized in some way. Morphine is an opioid and also an opiate Methadone is an opioid but not an opiate 19

20 Partial vs. Full Opioid Agonist and Antagonist Full Agonist (e.g., methadone) Opioid Effect Partial Agonist (e.g. buprenorphine) Antagonist (e.g. naloxone) Dose of Opioid 20

21 The Prescription Drug Epidemic is Unique in Some Ways Prescription drugs are not inherently bad When used appropriately, they are safe and necessary Threat comes from abuse and diversion Just because prescription drugs are legal and are prescribed by an MD, they are not necessarily safer than illicit substances. SOURCE: ATTC National Office, CONNECT to Fight Prescription Drug Abuse. 21

22 Prescription Drugs are Easy to Obtain Easily obtainable from family, friends, and health care professionals (doctors, dentists, pharmacists) Medicine cabinets are likely source Pill mills and storefront pain clinics Internet online pharmacies Credit card number + access to computer No prescription necessary No/incomplete identity verification SOURCE: ATTC National Office, CONNECT to Fight Prescription Drug Abuse. 22

23 Sources Where Pain Relievers were Obtained: Past Year Non-Medical Users Aged 12 or Older: % Friend/Relative for Free Bought from Friend/Relative Took from Friend/Relative Prescription from One Doctor 11.4% 17.3% 4.4% 0.4% From Drug Dealer or Stranger From Internet 6.7% Other/unknown 55.0% SOURCE: SAMHSA, NSDUH, 2010 results. 23

24 Safe Disposal of Prescription Drugs, Part 1 Check with a medical professional about return options through medical clinic and/or pharmacy. Return pharmaceutical take-back locations that allow the public to bring unused drugs to a central location for safe disposal or by mail. Never flush prescription drugs down the toilet unless specifically instructs it is safe to do so. SOURCE: ONDCP, Proper Disposal of Prescription Drugs, October

25 Safe Disposal of Prescription Drugs, Part 2 Take unused, unneeded, or expired prescription drugs out of their original containers. Mix the prescription drugs with an undesirable substance (e.g., coffee grounds, kitty litter) Put them in impermeable, nondescript containers, such as empty cans or sealable bags. Throw these containers in the trash. SOURCE: ONDCP, Proper Disposal of Prescription Drugs, October

26 The Role of a Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Reduce prescription drug abuse and diversion Collect, monitor, and analyze electronically transmitted prescribing and dispensing data Support states efforts in education, research, enforcement, and prevention Operational in 37 states 26 SOURCES: ATTC National Office, CONNECT to Fight Prescription Drug Abuse;

27 Epidemiology of Prescription Opioid Dependence 27

28 Past Month Illicit Drug Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older: U.S., 2010 SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, NSDUH, 2010 results. Numbers in Millions 28

29 Percentage of U.S. Population with Past Month Non- Medical Use of Prescription Medications, by Type Percent Using in Past Month SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, NSDUH, 2010 results. 29

30 Lifetime Non-Medical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers among Individuals Aged 12 or Older Drug % Change Darvocet/Darvon 7.9% 7.0% 0.9% Percocet/Percodan 4.5% 5.4% +0.9% Vicodin/Lortab 7.2% 8.9% +1.7% Codeine 2.6% 2.7% +0.1% Hydrocodone 2.9% 4.0% +1.1% OxyContin 1.4% 2.4% +1.0% Morphine 1.0% 1.2% +0.2% Prevalence and Patterns of Nonmedical Use of OxyContin and Other Pain Relievers,ages 12 or older. SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, NSDUH, 2010 results. 30

31 New Non-Medical Users of Prescription Pain Relievers In million new non-medical users Approximately 5,500 new users per day Among persons aged 12 to 49, average age at first use was 21.0 years for pain relievers 17.6% of new illicit drug initiates reported pain relievers as first drug used SOURCE: SAMHSA, OAS, NSDUH, 2010 results. 31

32 Percent of All Admissions Treatment Admissions for Primary Heroin and Prescription Medication Abuse: U.S., % 6.8% Heroin Opiates/Synthetics Stimulants Tranquilizers Sedatives/Hypnotics SOURCE: SAMHSA, Treatment Episode Data Set, 2009 results. 32

33 Gender Differences in Prescription Opioid Abuse Study included 610 non-cancer patients with chronic pain who took opioid painkillers Men and women had similar rates of opioid abuse Drug abuse by women is motivated more by emotional issues and psychological distress Women who abuse prescription opioids are more likely to admit to being sexually or physically abused or have a history of psychiatric or psychological problems In men, this behavior usually stems from problematic social and behavioral problems that lead to substance abuse SOURCE: Jamison et al. (2010). 33

34 Dependence on Heroin vs. Prescription Opioids We can t assume that patients with prescription opioid dependence (POD) will have the same course of illness and/or response to treatment as those dependent on heroin Moore et al. (2007): POD patients more likely to: Earn more income Be hepatitis C-negative Complete treatment Have a higher % of opioid-negative urines SOURCE: Moore et al. (2007). 34

35 Previous Research on Treatment of Opioid Dependence Most studies examine heroin addicts receiving methadone maintenance treatment; favor maintenance pharmacotherapy and more counseling Findings from counseling research in methadone treatment programs may not generalize to officebased buprenorphine treatment Findings regarding length of pharmacotherapy for heroin addiction may not generalize to prescription opioid addiction SOURCES: Amato et al. (2008); McLellan et al. (1993); Sigmon (2006); Mendelson et al. (2008). 35

36 Previous Research on Counseling with Buprenorphine Treatment Most studies have focused on primarily heroindependent populations Fiellin et al. (2006): Examined optimal intensity of counseling for patients receiving office-based buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Only 17% of study participants dependent on prescription opioids 20-minute vs. 45-minute weekly counseling session No difference in outcomes between counseling groups 36

37 Prevalence of Lifetime Opioid Use Disorder Not all substance use leads to abuse or dependence Legitimate medical uses exist Occasional use may not lead to an SUD diagnosis The question among many providers is, What proportion of users do not have abuse or dependence? SOURCE: Wu et al. (2011). 37

38 Prevalence of Lifetime Opioid Use Disorder Abuse w/o Dep 42% 38% 35 Dep 30 29% 27% 29% 25 22% % % 0 SOURCE: Wu et al. (2011). PO Only PO+Heroin (PO) Heroin Only PO+Heroin (Heroin) Dep = Dependence PO = Prescription Opioid 38

39 The Medication Buprenorphine/Naloxone 39

40 Buprenorphine Partial Opioid Agonist Has effects of typical opioid agonists at lower doses Produces a ceiling effect at higher doses Binds to opioid receptors and is long acting Safe and effective therapy for opioid maintenance and detoxification in adults Slow to dissociate from receptors so effects last even if one daily dose is missed. FDA approved for use with opioid dependent persons aged 16 and older 40

41 Formulations of Buprenorphine Buprenorphine is currently marketed for opioid treatment under the trade names: Subutex (buprenorphine) Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone) Suboxone Sublingual Film (buprenorphine/naloxone) Over 25 years of research Over 5,000 individuals received medication during clinical trials Proven safe and effective for the treatment of opioid addiction 41

42 Buprenorphine: A Science-Based Treatment Clinical trials with opioid dependent adults have established the effectiveness of buprenorphine for the treatment of heroin addiction. Effectiveness of buprenorphine has been compared to: Placebo (Johnson et al., 1995; Kakko et al., 2003; Ling et al., 1998) Methadone (Fischer et al., 1999; Johnson, Jaffee, & Fudula, 1992; Ling et al., 1996; Schottenfield et al., 1997; Strain et al., 1994) Methadone and LAAM (levo-alpha-acetylmethadol) (Johnson et al., 2000) 42

43 Buprenorphine Research Outcomes Buprenorphine is as effective as moderate doses of methadone (Fischer et al., 1999; Johnson, Jaffee, &Fudula, 1992; Ling et al., 1996; Schottenfield et al., 1997; Strain et al., 1994). Buprenorphine is as effective as moderate doses of LAAM (Johnson et al., 2000). Buprenorphine's partial agonist effects make it mildly reinforcing, encouraging medication compliance (Ling et al., 1998). After a year of buprenorphine plus counseling, 75% of patients retained in treatment compared to 0% in a placebo-plus-counseling condition (Kakko et al., 2003). 43

44 Why did they make two formulations? Buprenorphine/ Naloxone Buprenorphine 44

45 Advantages of Buprenorphine/Naloxone Discourages IV use Diminishes diversion 45

46 What is the Ratio of Buprenorphine to Naloxone in the Combination Tablet? Each tablet contains buprenorphine and naloxone in a 4:1 ratio Each 8 mg tablet contains 2 mg of naloxone Each 2 mg tablet contains 0.5 mg of naloxone Ratio was deemed optimal in clinical studies Preserves buprenorphine s therapeutic effects when taken as intended sublingually Sufficient dysphoric effects occur if injected by physically dependent persons to discourage abuse 46

47 Why Combining Buprenorphine and Naloxone Sublingually Works Buprenorphine and naloxone have different sublingual (SL) to injection potency profiles that are optimal for use in a combination product. Sublingual Bioavailability Buprenorphine 40 60% Naloxone 10% or less Injection Potency Buprenorphine 2:1 Naloxone 15:1 SOURCE: Chiang & Hawks (2003). 47

48 Areas of Potential Concern about Using Buprenorphine General philosophical opposition to medicationassisted substance abuse treatment Denial of severity of addiction by patient and family Diversion potential Compliance, side effects, drug interactions, storage, and other safety issues Cost Appropriate dosing, duration, and taper 48

49 Use of Buprenorphine: Studies on Cost-Effectiveness Medication costs are only one factor. Costs of providing treatment also include costs associated with clinic visits, staff time, etc. These costs are greater for methadone. A cost-effective comparison of buprenorphine versus methadone for opioid dependence both demonstrated increases in heroin-free days. There is no statistically significant difference between the cost-effectiveness for buprenorphine and methadone due to difference in the way that the treatment is provided. SOURCE: Doran et al. (2003). 49

50 Use of Buprenorphine: Studies on Cost-Effectiveness Treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone was associated with a reduction in opioid utilization and cost in the first year of follow-up (Kaur &McQueen, 2008). Systematic review found good studies supporting buprenorphine as a cost-effective approach to opioid treatment (Doran, 2008). 50

51 Use of Buprenorphine: Studies on Cost-Effectiveness Another study in Australia found buprenorphine demonstrated lower crime costs and higher quality adjusted life years (QALY), concluding the likelihood of net benefits from substituting buprenorphine for methadone (Harris, Gospodarevshaya, & Ritter, 2005). 51

52 Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study The NIDA CTN Clinical Trial R. Weiss, MD Principal Investigator Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital REFERENCES: Weiss, et al. (2011). Adjunctive counseling during brief and extended buprenorphine-naloxone treatment for prescription opioid dependence: A 2-phase randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(12), Weiss, et al. (2010). A multi-site, two-phase, Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS): Rationale, design, and methodology. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 31(2),

53 The Context of the Study While opioids have been used for decades to treat chronic pain, serious concerns about prescription opioid abuse have increased in recent years Most treatment studies of opioid dependent populations have heretofore focused either exclusively or predominantly on heroin users Clinical research over the last 10 years has established sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone as a safe and effective pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence 53

54 The Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) Largest study ever conducted for prescription opioid dependence 653 participants enrolled Compared treatments for prescription opioid dependence, using buprenorphine naloxone and counseling Conducted as part of NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) at 10 participating sites across U.S. Examined detoxification as initial treatment strategy, and for those who were unsuccessful, how well buprenorphine stabilization worked 54

55 Key Features of POATS Design Adaptive treatment research design approximates clinical practice All subjects receive buprenorphine naloxone Start with a less intensive treatment to see if it works Try a more intensive treatment when needed 55

56 The Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS): Design Subjects who succeed in Phase 1 (1 month taper plus 2 month follow up) are successfully finished with the study Subjects who relapse may go into Phase 2: Re randomized to SMM or SMM + ODC in Phase 2 3 months of BUP NX stabilization, 1 month taper off BUP NX, 2 months of follow up 56

57 Study Design - Phase 1 SMM Week Randomization 1-2 Bup/nx 3-4 Taper 5-12 FU Successful Unsuccessful SMM + ODC Phase 2 57

58 Study Design - Phase 2 SMM Randomization SMM + ODC Week 1-12 Bup/nx Successful Unsuccessful Week Taper FU Successful Unsuccessful 58

59 Study Design Both Phases SMM Randomization Week Successful Week Successful SMM + ODC 1-12 Bup/nx Unsuccessful Taper FU Unsuccessful 59

60 Study Locations WA: Providence Behavioral Health Svc OR: ADAPT, Inc. CA: SF General Hospital CA: UCLA ISAP SC: Behavioral Health Services of Pickens Co IN: East Indiana Treatment Center WV: Chestnut Ridge Hospital NY: Bellevue Hospital Center NY: St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center MA: McLean Hospital 60

61 Key Eligibility Criteria DSM IV opioid dependence 20 days opioid use in past 30 Additional SUDs eligible if not requiring immediate medical treatment Non psychotic, psychiatrically stable 61

62 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria Study Criteria Inclusion Informed Consent Age >18 Birth control Able to meet study requirements Opioid Dependence Medical help for withdrawal Stable physical health Psychiatrically stable Locator Information Prior to inductions, COWS >8 For pain, clearance to withdraw Methadone for pain <40mg/day Exclusion Medical condition Allergy/sensitivity to meds Severe psychiatric condition Suicide risk in past 30 days ETOH/Sed/Stim dependence Clinical trial participant (30 d) Opioid maintenance tx (30 d) Pending legal issues Preg/lactating/no birth control Leaving local area during study LFT > 5x upper normal limit Surgery scheduled (6 m) Current SUD treatment Non psychotic If Participation Ability Current Meets If Dependence A Participant Surgery known If taking female, Liver current/pending Prior Good A An medical For physical to DSM IV function acute Willingness for participation to allergy general scheduled meet participants read, and induction, pain, Inability has and severe condition dependence of criteria methadone study or understand, been tests alcohol, clearance health childbearing psychiatrically sensitivity legal another within to requirements a Age in participant is >5 receiving provide remain suicide pregnant, formal that status times sedative hypnotics 18 current physician 6 from and investigational months would to buprenorphine potential, risk locator the making substance opioids older methadone condition stable, their provide lactating, within upper (i.e., make willing local that opioid prescribing information participant and can agrees written dependence limit the abuse would participation area need drug to attend withdrawal psychosis past maintenance opinion continue of unwilling stimulants, pain, to treatment preclude study informed normal physician naloxone 30 unlikely use weekly medical days of (not to the participation management physically treatment follow acceptable to to remain study required and be dependent, for visits, withdrawn requiring during assistance and opioid method (other for local able to within medically the study cooperate dependence (COWS area than immediate dose taking to duration measures of from active for take the birth consent investigator for self help is their scale opioids last hazardous 40 medications, treatment control with of for 30 medical mg within duration prescribed the >8) withdrawal days groups) pregnancy for study throughout pain 30d phase attention site of etc.) of opioids the investigators prevention of prescribed) enrollment study the study 62

63 Factors in Defining a Study Population of Subjects with Prescription Opioid Dependence Heroin use Chronic pain 63

64 Heroin Use Previous studies of opioid dependence included mostly subjects with heroin dependence. The POATS sample needed to broadly represent people dependent upon prescription opioids. Some of these people would use heroin to varying extents. 64

65 Heroin-Related Exclusion Criteria >4 days of heroin use in past 30 days Ever met criteria for opioid dependence as a result of heroin use alone Ever injected heroin SOURCE: Potter et al. (2010). 65

66 Chronic Pain Many, but not all, subjects with POD have been prescribed opioids for pain Prescription use pain Some people with pain obtain opioids illicitly 66

67 Pain-Related Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria Subjects prescribed opioids for pain were included only if approved by prescribing physician Cancer pain excluded No traumatic or major pain event within past 6 months Subjects expressed interest in stopping opioids 67

68 Heroin and Chronic Pain Design Decisions Subjects were stratified on the basis of Presence/absence of current chronic pain Lifetime history of heroin use 68

69 POATS Study Questions Does adding individual drug counseling to buprenorphine naloxone (BUP NX) + standard medical management (SMM) improve outcome? May be a proxy for drug abuse treatment program vs. office based opioid treatment Is initial detox strategy successful for subjects? 69

70 POATS Study Questions (cont.) For those who fail the initial phase, does adding individual drug counseling to buprenorphine naloxone (BUP NX) + standard medical management (SMM) improve outcome when administered over a longer stabilization period? Do answers vary according to (1) presence of current chronic pain, or (2) a lifetime history of any heroin use? 70

71 Study Treatments 71

72 Buprenorphine-Naloxone Subjects received 8 12 mg on Day 1 Allowable dose was 8 32 mg/day Target dose was 16 mg/day, but flexible dosing allowed Once daily dosing recommended Lost prescriptions were not refilled 72

73 Standard Medical Management Manualized treatment* Weekly visits with buprenorphine certified physician Initial visit: min; f/u visits min Assess substance use, craving, medication response Recommend abstinence, self help *SOURCE: Fiellin et al. (1999). 73

74 Individual Opioid Drug Counseling Manualized drug counseling*, based on previous successful counseling manuals min visits Phase 1: 2x/week Phase 2: 2x/wk for 6 weeks, 1x/wk for 6 weeks *SOURCE: Pantalon et al. (1999). 74

75 Individual Opioid Drug Counseling (cont.) Provide education about addiction and recovery Recommend abstinence Recommend self help Provide skills based interactive exercises and take home assignments Address relapse prevention issues including: high risk situations, managing emotions, and dealing with relationships SOURCE: Pantalon et al. (1999). 75

76 Description of the Study Population N=653 in Phase 1 76

77 Baseline Stratification Factors and Sociodemographic Characteristics Mean Age = 32.7 years Mean Years Education = 13 years 77

78 Participant Demographics 78

79 Baseline Psychiatric Characteristics 41% Current Lifetime % 12% 18% 0 Major Depressive Disorder Post Traumatic Stress Disorder No significant differences between subjects assigned to SMM vs. SMM + ODC 79

80 Prevalence of Other Substance Use Disorders 70% 60% 60% Past Year Lifetime 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 47% 32% 27% 25% 22% 18% 15% 10% 11% 10% 11% 11% 4% 5% 6% 6% 3% 3% 2% Ab Dep Ab Dep Ab Dep Ab Dep Ab Dep Alcohol Cannabis Cocaine Sed/Hyp Stimulant (Ab = Abuse Dep = Dependence) 80

81 Days of Use - Past 30 Days Mean (SD) Opioid analgesics 28.2 (3.5) Cannabis 4.9 (9.4) Sedatives/hypnotics (not barbiturates) 3.8 (7.9) Alcohol 3.0 (6.0) Amphetamine 0.5 (3.3) Cocaine 0.5 (2.0) Barbiturates 0.2 (2.0) Heroin 0.1 (0.6) 81

82 Other Baseline Substance Use Characteristics Mean years of opioid use 4.5 Current cigarette smoker 70.6% 82

83 Most Frequently Used Opioids in Past 30 Days Oxycodone (sustained) 35% Hydrocodone 32% Oxycodone (immediate) 19% Methadone 6% Other 8% 83

84 Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Histories Of those who received any treatment (N=210)*: Self help 124 (59%) Inpatient/residential 88 (42%) Outpatient counseling 84 (40%) Methadone maintenance 64 (31%) Buprenorphine maintenance 46 (22%) Intensive outpatient 33 (16%) Naltrexone 7 (3%) Other medications 11 (5%) *Subjects could endorse >1 type of treatment. 84

85 Buprenorphine Doses Prescribed Phase 1 8 mg 8% 12 mg 18% 16 mg 38% 20 mg 10% 24 mg 13% 32 mg Other 13% Phase 2 8 mg 12 mg 14% 16 mg 27% 20 mg 14% 24 mg 16% 32 mg 11% Other 18% 85

86 Counseling Attendance* 81.5% 82.4% 71.7% 64.4% Phase 1 Phase 2 SMM ODC * Not significantly different 86

87 Results 87

88 Study Question #1: Does adding individual opioid drug counseling (ODC) to buprenorphinenaloxone + Standard Medical Management (SMM) improve outcome? 88

89 Phase 1 Successful Outcome (N=653) SMM+ ODC SMM p value 6% 7% 0.45 Phase 1 Successful Outcome Criteria 4 days opioid use per month Absence of 2 consecutive opioid positive urine tests results No more than 1 missing urine sample during the 12 weeks No other formal substance abuse treatment No injection of opioids 89

90 Phase 2 Successful Outcome (n=360) Week 12 (end of stabilization) SMM+ ODC SMM p value 52% 47% 0.3 Phase 2 Successful outcome criteria Abstinent for >3 of final 4 weeks (including final week) of bup nx stabilization (urine confirmed self report) 90

91 Phase 2: Successful Outcome at End of Taper & at Follow-up SMM+ ODC SMM Overall p value Week 16 (end of taper) 28% 24% 26% 0.4 Week 24 (8 wks post taper) 10% 7% 9%

92 Study Question #2: How does length of buprenorphinenaloxone treatment affect outcomes in subjects with prescription opioid dependence? 92

93 Successful Outcomes at 3 Time Points Success Phase 1 4 week taper + 8 weeks f/u 7% Phase 2 Week 12 End of stabilization 49% Week 24 8 weeks post taper 9% 93

94 Percent Opioid Positive Urine over Time 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% Percent of Subjects with Positive Urine for Opioids 10% 0% Phase Weeks SMM EMM (EMM = SMM+ODC) 94 Percent of Subjects with Positive Urine for Opioids

95 Percent Opioid Positive Urine over Time 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Percent of Subjects with Positive Urine for Opioids Phase 2 0% Weeks SMM EMM (EMM = SMM+ODC) 95 Percent of Subjects with Positive Urine for Opioids

96 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percent Opioid Positive Urine over Time 100% 90% Weeks SMM EMM Phase 1 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% SMM EMM Percent of Percent Subjects of Subjects with Positive Urine Urine for Opioids for Opioids Percent of Subjects with Positive Urine for Opioids 10% 0% Phase Weeks (EMM = SMM+ODC) 96

97 Predictors of Outcome 97

98 Variables: Phase 2, Week 12 Gender Race Ethnicity Smoking Status Success Male 47% Female 52% White 49% Not White 53% Hispanic 72% Not Hispanic 48% Smokers 47% Non smokers 56% p value * 0.23 *Not tested because of small sample with Spanish origin (5%). 98

99 Phase 2 Outcome Predictors: Lifetime Heroin Use Heroin use Success p value Week 12 end of stabilization Week 24 8 weeks post taper Yes 37% No 54% Yes 5% No 10%

100 Chronic Pain Subject Outcomes 100

101 Chronic Pain Subjects (n=274) Mean (SD) Pain severity (0 10) 4.4 (2.17) Pain interference (0 10) 4.2 (2.67) Course Constant 43.1% Intermittent 54.7% Duration > 1 year 81.4% >four years 54.7% 101

102 Chronic Pain Location Head/face 16.1% Chest/abdomen 5.5% Upper extremities 29.6% Cervical 27.0% Thoracic 26.3% Lumbar/sacral 65.0% Lower extremities 52.9% Multiple spinal areas 36.1% 102

103 Chronic Pain (CP) vs. no CP: Sociodemographics CP No CP (n=274) (n=379) Female 42.3% 38.3% Age, in years** 35.4 (10.3) 30.8 (9.7) Caucasian 91.2% 93.1% Years of education 12.9 (2.3) 13.1 (2.1) **statistically significant difference (p value= 0.001) 103

104 Chronic Pain Subjects were No more likely to drop out or terminate from Phase 1 Equally likely to enter Phase 2 No more likely to have an adverse event (AE) or serious adverse event (SAE) 104

105 Chronic Pain and Outcome Phase 2 Week 12 (end of stabilization) Phase 2 Week 24 (8 weeks post taper) Success Chronic Pain 53.0% No 46.5% Chronic Pain 9.4% No 8.1% p value

106 Imaging Study 106

107 Highly Selected Cohort Demographics not different from larger sample SOURCE: Upadhyay et al. (2010). 107

108 Gray Matter Changes: Amygdala Volume Decrease SOURCE: Upadhyay et al. (2010). 108

109 Imaging Study: Summary Prescription opioid dependence is associated with structural and functional changes in brain regions implicated in the regulation of affect and impulse control, reward and motivational functions Might have clinical implications for understanding long-term effects of treatment strategies for prescription opioid use SOURCE: Upadhyay et al. (2010). 109

110 Implications of the POATS Study 110

111 Take Home Messages Tapering from buprenorphine naloxone, whether initially or after a period of substantial improvement, led to nearly universal relapse SMM produced outcomes equal to SMM + individual opioid drug counseling Patients with chronic pain had outcomes equal to those without chronic pain 111

112 Questions for the Future What is the effect of a lower intensity medical management (MM)? Weekly SMM is more intensive than is often provided in the community There was no low intensity MM condition What are the outcomes of using buprenorphinenaloxone with prescription opioid dependent adolescents? What is the optimal rate and length of taper of buprenorphine naloxone after prolonged treatment stabilization? 112

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