1 MEDICATION ASSISTED TREATMENT FOR OPIOID ADDICTION Mark Fisher Program Administrator State Opioid Treatment Adminstrator Kentucky Division of Behavioral Health
2 OBJECTIVES Learn about types of opioids and associated withdrawal symptoms Learn what medications are available to treat opioid addiction Understand the pros and cons associated with each medication
3 Addiction A brain disease, not a social dysfunction.
4 OPIOID ADDICTION AND TREATMENT Opioids-effects and withdrawals Methadone Buprenorphine-Suboxone and Subutex Naltrexone
5 OPIOIDS Naturally occurring from opium (opiate)- morphine, codeine, and thebaine Semi-synthetics (opiate)- Morphine-heroin, MS Contin Codeine-Vicodin, Lortab, Oxycodone, Percoset, Tylox, Oxycontin Thebaine-Not used therapeutically, but converted into Naloxone, Naltrexone, Buprenorphine Fully-synthetic (opioid)- Methadone, Fentanyl, Darvon
6 IMPACT OF OPIOIDS ON PHYSICAL HEALTH Drowsiness Constipation Depression of CNS Physical dependence and addiction Infections and collapsed veins
7 PHYSICAL IMPACT CONT. Liver or kidney disease Damage to vital organs Hyperalgesia HIV and Hepatitis C Fatal overdose
8 IMPACT OF OPIOID ADDICTION ON EMOTIONAL, SOCIAL, AND FAMILY Decrease/cease self care and ADL s Increase in criminal behavior Loss of job, school difficulties Depression, anxiety Dishonesty, lack of trust
9 EMOTIONAL/SOCIAL IMPACT CONT. Less quality time with family Lose/harm relationships Compromise personal values Engage in high risk behaviors Financial burden to community
11 WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS CONT. Involuntary leg movements Restlessness Runny nose Sweating Vomiting Bone and joint pain
12 OPIOID WITHDRAWAL Peak between 48 and 72 hours after last dose. Feels like terrible flu. Typically, the physical symptoms subside after about 1-2 weeks. Can show persistent withdrawal symptoms for months. Less dangerous than alcohol, but for those in poor health can be fatal. The brain/psychological withdrawal last for months, if not years.
13 METHADONE-MYTH V. FACT Finding Normal
14 METHADONE Developed on the battlefield in WWII Germany for pain relief. Schedule II narcotic Long acting opioid analgesic (24-36 hours) Full mu opioid agonist-binds and activates creating a Blocking Effect.
15 METHADONE Long half-life (12-59 hours) Administered orally- always in liquid form 40 mg tablets (Disket) only available to treat for pain. Prescribed by a Physician.
16 METHADONE TREATMENT Medication is only one component Medical model. Treatment Team includes Addictionologist Physician, Nurses, LCSW s, CADC s Detoxification v. Maintenance (MMT) Opiate Treatment Programs Overview of average OTP Federal and State regulations Kentucky s programs
18 METHADONE BENEFITS Right dose does not cause euphoric or tranquilizing effects. Reduces/blocks effects of other opiates. Tolerance is slow to develop.
19 METHADONE BENEFITS Relieves cravings. Allows the individual to feel normal. Improved employment status and family relationships.
20 METHADONE BENEFITS Decrease in criminal activities. Decrease in high risk behaviors such as IVDU = decrease in HIV and Hep. C. Improved health and health care.
21 METHADONE LIMITATIONS Increased risk when combined with other drugs. (Benzodiazapines) Can only be dispensed/administered through an OTP. Private can be expensive. Heavily regulated, lots of rules, can be time consuming.
22 METHADONE LIMITATIONS Abuse liability and diversion Use by pain management programs (Private Physicians ( OBOTs) office based opioid treatment Opiate naïve users Associated health complications torsade de pointes-qt prolongation, arrhythmia - ventricular tachycardia
23 BUPRENORPHINE (SUBOXONE) Overcoming Dependence
24 BUPRENORPHINE Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 In 2002, two forms were FDA approved- Subutex and Suboxone, both made by Reckitt-Benckiser. Schedule III narcotic Opioid analgesic.
25 BUPRENORPHINE Partial mu opioid agonist (ceiling effect) Long half-life (24-60 hours) Administered as sublingual tablet or film strip Subutex- 2 mg or 8 mg buprenorphine Suboxone- 2 mg bup +.5 mg naloxone 8 mg bup + 2 mg naloxone
26 SUBUTEX Contains Buprenorphine only. Mainly used in U.S. today for opioid exposed pregnant women. Higher rate of diversion, can be injected.
27 SUBOXONE Naloxone added as means to decrease diversion. Poor bioavailability sublingually, but if dissolved and injected, will precipitate withdrawal. Reduced abuse potential.
28 BUPRENORPHINE TREATMENT Medication is only one component Short-term v. long-term OTP v. OBOT (Office Based) Overview Federal and State guidelines Kentucky s programs
29 BUPRENORPHINE BENEFITS Blocks effects of other opiates. Relieves cravings to use other opiates. Allows normal function. Higher abuse liability and diversion potential than Methadone. Lack of Regulation.
30 BUPRENORPHINE BENEFITS Increased anonymity and less intrusive, vs. attending a MAT clinic daily. Increased treatment options/access to treatment. Decrease in high-risk behaviors. Good step down option for those tapering from Methadone.
31 BUPRENORPHINE LIMITATIONS Expensive. Cannot take if opiates still in your system. Counseling may not be available or affordable in the same area as doctor. Some of the certified doctors or doctors willing to treat do not use evidence based practice guidelines, ( UDS screening, counseling) or other wraparound services.
32 BUPRENORPHINE LIMITATIONS No regulations for clinics, only practice guidelines. Potential for overdose of other opiates due to ceiling effect. Abuse and diversion potential exists.
33 Buprenorphine in Kentucky
34 2013 Buprenorphine by county
35 KORTOS Ky Opiate Replacement Treatment Outcome Study Abstinence rates increased dramatically Rx opioid use decreased 90% Heroin use decreased by 100% in first six months Marijuana use decreased by 89% Tranquilizer use decreased 92%
36 Four things to remember 900 % increase in people seeking treatment in the last decade. 25,428 Kentuckians were admitted to drug and alcohol treatment programs 90+ Kentuckians die EACH MONTH from drug overdoses. Prescription drug overdoses is #1 cause of accidental death- has overtaken MVA s and Homicides Overdoses has risen 650% over the past two years.
37 KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER No perfect medication that is one size fits all. All medications work significantly better when utilized in combination with counseling, drug screens, and wrap around services. MAT is appropriate for pregnant women but must be closely monitored. Individuals receiving MAT are in recovery!
38 CONTACT INFORMATION Mark Fisher DMHDID 100 Fair Oaks Ln., 4E-D Frankfort, KY (502) X4460
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