2 Studia Ekonomiczne ZESZYTY NAUKOWE WYDZIAŁOWE UNIWERSYTETU EKONOMICZNEGO W KATOWICACH
3 COGNITION AND CREATIVITY SUPPORT SYSTEMS Redaktorzy naukowi Małgorzata Pańkowska Henryk Sroka Stanisław Stanek Katowice 2013
4 Komitet Redakcyjny Krystyna Lisiecka (przewodnicząca), Anna Lebda-Wyborna (sekretarz), Florian Kuźnik, Maria Michałowska, Antoni Niederliński, Irena Pyka, Stanisław Swadźba, Tadeusz Trzaskalik, Janusz Wywiał, Teresa Żabińska Komitet Redakcyjny Wydziału Informatyki i Komunikacji Tadeusz Trzaskalik (redaktor naczelny), Mariusz Żytniewski (sekretarz), Grażyna Trzpiot, Małgorzata Pańkowska, Andrzej Bajdak Rada Programowa Lorenzo Fattorini, Mario Glowik, Gwo-Hsiung Tzeng, Zdeněk Mikoláš, Marian Noga, Bronisław Micherda, Miloš Král Redaktor Halina Ujejska-Piechota Skład tekstu Kamil Gorlicki Copyright by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach 2013 ISSN Wersją pierwotną Studiów Ekonomicznych jest wersja papierowa Wszelkie prawa zastrzeżone. Każda reprodukcja lub adaptacja całości bądź części niniejszej publikacji, niezależnie od zastosowanej techniki reprodukcji, wymaga pisemnej zgody Wydawcy WYDAWNICTWO UNIWERSYTETU EKONOMICZNEGO W KATOWICACH ul. 1 Maja 50, Katowice, tel.: , faks:
5 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION... 7 Piotr Betlej E-EXAMINATIONS FROM STUDENT S PERSPECTIVE THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE EVALUATION... 9 Streszczenie Marcin Hernes, Jadwiga Sobieska-Karpińska A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONFLICTS RESOLVING METHODS IN MULTIAGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS Streszczenie Elżbieta Kasperska, Andrzej Kasperski, Elwira Mateja-Losa SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION ON SOME MODELS OF ARCHETYPES USING VENSIM THEORETICAL ISSUE Streszczenie Elżbieta Kasperska, Andrzej Kasperski, Elwira Mateja-Losa SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION ON SOME MODELS OF ARCHETYPES USING VENSIM EXPERIMENTAL ISSUE Streszczenie Robert Kutera MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES AS INFRASTRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR COMPANY INTERNAL COMMUNICATION PROCESSES Streszczenie Yuri P. Lipuntsov THE SEMANTIC WEB SPECIFICATIONS FOR DISTRIBUTED STORAGE OF GOVERNMENT DATA Streszczenie
6 Joanna Palonka, Teresa Porębska-Miąc SOCIAL RECRUITING THE USE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS IN THE RECRUITING PROCESS Streszczenie Małgorzata Pańkowska CREATIVITY AS THE FOUNDATION OF CONTEXTUAL APPROACH FOR ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE DESIGN Streszczenie Jan Trąbka SPECIFIC ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES IN THE MODELLING OF WORKFLOW SYSTEMS Streszczenie Joanna Wójcik MOTIVATION FOR STUDENTS: GAMIFICATION IN E-LEARNING Streszczenie Ewa Ziemba, Monika Eisenbardt PROSUMPTION AWARENESS AMONG YOUNG CONSUMERS Streszczenie Iwona Zdonek, Dariusz Zdonek THE ROLE OF THE EDUCATIONAL SERVICES IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY THE EXAMPLE OF THE MUSIC INDUSTRY Streszczenie Mariusz Żytniewski APPLICATION OF THE SOFTWARE AGENTS SOCIETY IN THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE Streszczenie
7 INTRODUCTION Our perception of the creative formation of organizations has changed dramatically during the past years. For a long time, creativity was considered in terms of managing a small business or being an artist. However, creativity is not directly associated with the particular context. We can consider essentially context-free organizational creativity. Nearly the same was for cognition. Previously, cognition was linked with abilities to perceive and recognize, nowadays it is developed as foundation of artificial intelligence. Cognition and creativity are equally likely to be present in corporations development efforts and in the identification of new markets and technologies as in the project of public organizations or in the organization of universities. Creative activities are taking place when neither the goal nor often the initial conditions are known at the start, but constructed during the process. Taking into account the discussion above, the research articles included in this book use the terms cognition and creativity to refer to an individual or a community of individuals that realize their business supported by ICT in their operational environments. The aim of this book is to improve our understanding of cognition and creativity support system environments. The various research articles analyse creative and innovative activities in the case studies or just through provision of academic discussions. The book s focus is on identifying and understanding the factors relating to the working environment that are conducive to human creativity and cognition. The book is likely to be of interest to students and scholars in a number of research fields as well as to business policy decision makers concerned with research, teaching and policy measures for the development of cognitive information systems and creativity support system environments. The thirteen research articles forming the book illustrate various approaches to the analysis of cognition and creativity support systems. The research articles were discussed at the international sessions within the 28th Conference on Organizational Support Systems at University of Economics in Katowice. The construction of cognition and creativity support systems involves the development of agile organizations and is located in the area of interdisciplinary research. The
8 8 Introduction research papers reflect on organizational creativity in terms of discovery and exploitation of enterprise opportunities. In this book, cognitive process is a creative process, in which information is utilized to develop a completely new knowledge structure. Business creativity is the result of searching of knowledge in the available resources, including technological innovations, markets, available production. Key topics include creativity and cognition in the following research areas: semantic web for e-government, knowledge evaluation, knowledge life cycle, and knowledge workers, mobile technologies in modern organization, multiagent decision support systems, sensitivity analysis, social recruiting, enterprise architecture design, workflow modelling, educational services, e-examinations and gamification in e-learning, prosumer awareness, software agent application. We would like to show our appreciation of the efforts of reviewers and the publishing staff who helped us deliver the book. Małgorzata Pańkowska Henryk Sroka Stanisław Stanek
9 Piotr Betlej University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszów E-EXAMINATIONS FROM STUDENT S PERSPECTIVE THE FUTURE OF KNOWLEDGE EVALUATION Introduction Process of transferring knowledge and skills is strictly associated with the measurement of its effectiveness. It s hard to imagine teaching without checking the results and evaluation of students. At the same time, the current educational system is based on the traditional paradigm existing for many years. In this model we have face-to-face contact between tutor and student. The consequence of this situation and old habits is a big resistance and difficulty to implement new educational solutions. On the other hand, technological progress may not be stopped and young generation expects changes in the current education system. This also is closely linked with examination system and the change of existing traditional paper evaluation into e-exams. The aim of this article is to deepen the knowledge of existing examination forms and to describe student s opinions on different forms of knowledge check. The article presents authors research results in this area. 1. Testing and assessment as basic operations in knowledge evaluation Knowledge evaluation is inherent element of education. Testing and assessment operations evaluate students knowledge, skills and behavior. Their main purpose is to provide feedback to students, teachers and people supervising the learning process. They can also be used to make improvements. By compar-
10 10 Piotr Betlej ing the achieved results with objectives, the effectiveness of the education process can be measured. Testing is a process that should be carried out continuously. Its goal is to motivate students to work systematically. This action helps to acquire knowledge and skills. Very often, be taking into account the knowledge level of particular group or individual, the teacher can customize the didactical methods and forms to the specific situation and thereby achieve better learning outcomes [Be06]. According to the definition given by W. Okoń, assessment is expressing opinions using degrees or descriptive feedback. It can be carried out occasionally or regularly, during or after the activity. The grades are usually expressed by numbers from 2 to 5 or words pass/fail or know/do not know. An assessment examiner opinion positive or negative about the person, object or action. It should be noted that the assessment of human actions or any items may contain subjective elements. They arise from social relationships and the impact of personal education [Ok03]. There are two types of assessment [Be06]: emotional (especially moral and esthetic), in which the subjective elements are more important, utilitarian (practical), where to determine person s skills and knowledge we compare the results with the existing scale or reference system; that is why this method is more objective. Testing and assessment have many functions: didactical aimed to organize students knowledge and to identify how to remove any errors, educational associated with development of students attitudes, responsibilities, and their overall development, diagnostic allows to plan further development of the learner, analyze the learning process and take the appropriate actions that are necessary, motivational provides the positive attitude towards lifelong learning, selective used to identify particularly gifted or outstanding persons, control allows to determine the level of achievement in relation to the requirements written in curriculum, methodological supporting improvement of the educational process through analysis of teaching activities; it allows to identify and to implement appropriate corrections to educational process. Testing and assessment must be organized with the following good practices. All individuals involved in the process must know, understand and accept the exist-
11 E-examinations from student s perspective 11 ing procedure. Evaluation criteria must be clear and objective, which excludes their wrong interpretation. When set and accepted, they may not be changed until the end of the course. Due to the fact that each student has different experience, personality and living situation, these factors should also be taken into account. Keep in mind that the evaluation has great importance and impact. It can serve as a reward; motivate to work and to expand knowledge or skills. Wrong or unfair grade can ruin the effects of education and demotivate for further action. Good and fair assessment takes into account the progress made during the learning process, individual commitment and contribution of work. Each grade should serve as a feedback and contain the teacher s comments and suggestions for further work. In such case learning will be more effective [Be06]. In the evaluation process it is crucial to engage learners to self-control and self-check. Individual monitoring of the learning process increases the awareness and contributes to more systematic work. 2. Different evaluation methods The selection of evaluation methods should be different and dependent on the type of subject, time and place. Preliminary assessment, before the learning starts, allows to determine the initial level of the group. Current assessment, carried out during the study, helps to keep high motivation. Final assessment shows learning results and students progress. All evaluation results should now be added together to determine the final grade. Both initial and current assessment are often different from the final assessment. They often express the difficulties that students meet during their studies. The various testing and assessment methods are appropriate in different situations, subjects, knowledge and skills. In the literature some different classifications can be found. W. Kobyliński proposes the following evaluation categories [So59]: a. Conventional methods, which include: oral, face-to-face exams, written paper exams, practical work, proper usage of source materials, observations.
12 12 Piotr Betlej b. Testing methods: selection tests single or multiple choice tests, fill the gaps tests that require to write the missing words or elements, tests that are a combination of two previous groups. c. Machine methods, using special examinations machines, hardware and software. W. Okoń in his classification took into account the type of communication with the environment and highlighted [Ok03]: oral knowledge check, written paper exams, use of books (mainly in the humanities subjects), practical assessment, human observation during their work. Taking into consideration presented classifications we may notice that they are incomplete. They include only traditional evaluation methods. With the development of IT technology and telecommunication new, electronic methods appear. E-exams are getting more and more popularity among teachers and students. 3. Description of online exams The most frequently used electronic forms of evaluation are single choice tests, multiple choice tests, drag and drop exercises, fill in the gaps exercises, ordering exercises, numerical and computational tasks. Figure 1 presents the example of application that allows creating online exams using different types of questions.
13 E-examinations from student s perspective 13 Fig. 1. ispring Quiz Maker add-in to Microsoft PowerPoint The characteristic feature of all mentioned exercises is strictly defined structure. It allows automating the evaluation process. The system checks autokey. This matically all questions by comparing user ss answers with defined makes it possible to get the result immediately after completing the exam and to receive personalized feedback. The teacher is not needed here. All created ques- answer, tions may be used in different situations, courses and exams. The second group of evaluation forms includes text exercises (short essay) and file response exercises that give a chance to prepare the answer in a file and publish it in the examination system. They are not structured as quesgiven ques- tions in the first group. They allow to preparee individual answer for tion, describe a solution to a problem, comment the topic. They do not limit the user. The unique character of such questions on one side is advantage but on the other side there is no key with the good solutions. That is why the teacher in- files, volvement is necessary here. He must open all the answers and submitted analyze them and then give grades and write the feedback and comments for each individual student. In big groups with huge number of users this process may be very demanding and time consuming. Figure 2 illustrates sample essay task and list of possible question types in Blackboard e-learning platform.
14 14 Piotr Betlej Fig. 2. List of question types build-in Blackboard learning platform It should be noted that many of the e-learning solutions make it possible to create advanced and sophisticated exams. Using special software course design- (see: ers may produce customized and uncommonn questions like crosswords Figure 3). They may include different types of questions in one exam. It is also possible to limit access to different modules of the course. Until the user achieves particular result from exam, some course content will be not available to the student. This process increase student s involvement and systematic learning. E-exams are very useful when it is necessary to evaluate at the same time large group of people. They use the unified grading criteria. This eliminates subwait long jectivity and provides a sense of justice. The students do not have to for their grades and teacher role is limited. Alll results are saved in a central data- objec- base. That is why it is easy to analyze and compare them with learning tives. They are available on demand. Electronic evaluation has also some disadvantages and limitations. They should be kept in mind when deciding on its implementation. Very often it is not possible to justify formulated opinions. In most question types the user can choose among given answers. There is no place to write any comments. The probability of guessing the answers, cheating and use the help of others may also be a problem. For some students such tests can be more stressful because they have difficulties in writing long texts using keyboard. Most people are accus- tomed to traditional forms of assessment. A major problem for electronic as-
15 E-examinations from student s perspective 15 sessmentss is also difficulty to provide reliable results, comparable with tradition- from students, teachers and university perspective. al exams. Table 1 presents advantages and disadvantages of online assessments Fig. 3. Creating crossword using Hot Potatoes application, JCross module Due to the type and functionality existing online examination programs can be divided into two groups: computer assisted assessment and computer based assessment. The first applications allow to group and manage students answers, helping teacher during checking and grading activities. The second group gener- without ates random tests, checks the answers and saves the results in data base teacher s involvement. With technological progress we may observe that available assessment solu- tions and technology are becoming more and more powerful. It is now possible to track the person activities using the camera and microphone, block other software, popup windows, generate randomized individual sets of questions, set examination window, limit available time for a response and number of attempts. All those methods are very useful but still they do not guarantee full control over the whole process and they do not eliminate cheating. To ensure high reliability of the results, certification exams must be conducted under the supervision of the teacher or selected person in traditional computer laboratory [BrWoBoRuWe06].
16 16 Piotr Betlej Teachers Pros and cons of e-examinations Advantages reduced work load in most cases once created, question may be used in different courses possibility to distribute multiple versions of the exams and assignments without having to manually monitor which students got which tests generated reports help to identify learning problems audio and video elements may be added to make exam more practical eliminate human errors in grading Table 1 Disadvantages technology is not always reliable results may be lost if a system breaks down some expertise is needed to create exams online examination is not suitable for essay writing or cognitive thinking testing more work if individual feedback for every student is needed Students University transparency and effective preparation for exams possibility to solve practice tests Internet-based assessments may be done at friendly environment instant result higher grade of objectivity possibility to receive feedback onexamination result all results are saved in grade book greater flexibility with respect to location and timing reduced examination costs eco-friendly, no papers and photocopies less storage space is needed to keep the exams. All data can be stored on a single server rationalization of selection of students and of placement tests support of the administration by an effective and integrated management of examinations no room for explaining the answer or getting partial credit answers on online assessments can only be right or wrong it is not possible to present person s line of thinking when selecting the answer for some people more stressful because of problems with fast writing using keyboard or Internet connection huge implementation costs of assessment system or e-learning platform some trainings for students and teachers are needed Source: Own research.
17 E-examinations from student s perspective Student s opinions about e-examinations From 2009 to 2011 the author of this article carried out the study, whose main objective was to assess and compare the effectiveness of traditional education, blended learning and e-learning. The research was made at the University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow. It involved 292 students from the Faculty of Economics. Results from that research show what students think about different types of assessment, how they perceive e-exams, their main drawbacks and limitations. All these information may provide a valuable argument when deciding on their implementation. 60% 56% 50% 40% 30% 20% 23% 30% 40% 32% 37% 38% 33% All students Man Woman 10% 10% 0% yes no I do not know Fig. 4. E-exams are more stressful than traditional Source: Own research. In one of the questions the students indicated whether online exams are more stressful than traditional writing assessments. Figure 4 presents their answers about that issue. 23% of people agreed with that statement. They believe that e-exams can be more stressful because they have some difficulties in using computer software, they are accustomed to traditional knowledge verification. 40% of students have opposite opinion. They think that both forms are equally stressful. One-third of respondents had no opinion on this matter. Comparing the
18 18 Piotr Betlej results by gender, it should be noted that that women sees electronic exams much more stressful than men. The difference here was about 20%. Similar results were obtained about difficulty of e-exams (see: Figure 5). 18% of students consider them to be more difficult than the traditional exams. 41% of the respondents think that the level of difficulty of both examination forms is the same. In this question there were also big differences between men and women. Only 11% of men believe that online exams are more difficult than traditional, while this percent was two times higher (22%) for women. 60% 50% 49% 40% 41% 38% 40% 40% 40% 30% 20% 10% 18% 11% 22% All students Man Woman 0% yes no I do not know Fig. 5. E-exams are more difficult than traditional Source: Own research. After determining whether electronic exams are either stressful or difficult than traditional students in the following question indicated if they want online assessments at their university. Figure 6 presents their answers. In total, 45% of respondents strongly agreed or tend to agree for that. On the contrary, the opposite opinion have 19% of students. The differences in gender were also present here. 57% of man compared to 40% of woman and would like to have online assessments. 14% of man and 21% of woman do not like that exams and they want traditional knowledge verification methods.
19 E-examinations from student s perspective 19 45% 40% 35% 30% 41% 39% 36% 35% 34% 29% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 9% 16% 6% 15% 12% 5% 9% 7% 6% All students Man Woman 0% strongly agree inclined to agree neither inclined to disagree strongly disagree Fig. 6. Students preferences for implementing e-exams at the university Source: Own research. The last question in this section of the survey was about students preferences for different forms of examination depending on questions types (see Figure 7). In all cases, a written exam is the most preferred form of knowledge verification. This method has huge advantage over different forms in all types of questions. E-exams may be an alternative for traditional in most of the cases except open questions, where oral exam was more accepted.
20 20 Piotr Betlej exercises to solve - online exam 22% 50% 27% exercises to solve - oral exam 10% 26% 65% exercises to solve - written exam 67% 23% 9% choice and open questions - online exam 13% 59% 28% choice and open questions - oral exam 6% 23% 71% choice and open questions - written exam 79% 19% 2% open qiestions - online exam 10% 39% 50% open qiestions - oral exam 34% 25% 41% open qiestions - written exam 55% 36% 9% choice questions - online exam 29% 61% 10% choice questions - oral exam 3% 10% 88% choice questions - written exam 71% 27% 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% the most preferred form second choice form third choice form Fig. 7. Students preferences for different form of evaluation related to question type Source: Own research. The survey results show that students are ready for e-exams. Majority of people believe that they are not more stressful of difficult than traditional ones. Most students want online assessments to be implemented at their university. For most respondents e-exams may be an alternative form knowledge verification. It is the second choice form, just after traditional written exams.
21 E-examinations from student s perspective 21 Conclusion Online assessment is gaining more and more popularity. Its advantages are very encouraging for students, teachers and universities. In most of the cases they exceed their weaknesses. Combined with e-learning they offer new educational possibilities for different groups of people. They are the answer for changing word, new mobile technologies and students mobility. Described research results support the opinion that students are ready for this form of knowledge verification. The remaining question is how to ensure the reliability of achieved results and avoid cheating. Until this is not solved, key exams will have to be done at university facilities with a supervisor. But this issue does not eliminate e- -exams. They also can be used but in computer laboratory. References [Be06] [BeLu08] [BrWoBo06] [Ok03] [So59] Bednarek J., Multimedia w kształceniu, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa Bednarek J., Lubina E., Kształcenie na odległość: podstawy dydaktyki, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa Brzeziński M., Wojtyra A., Borkowska A., Rubach P., Węziak D., Komputerowy system egzaminowania nowa forma egzaminu oczami studenta, [in:] M. Dąbrowski, M. Zając (eds.), e-learning w kształceniu akademickim, FPiAKE, Warszawa Okoń W., Wprowadzenie do dydaktyki ogólnej, Wydawnictwo Akademickie Żak, Warszawa Sośnicki K., Dydaktyka ogólna, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław 1959.
22 22 Piotr Betlej E-EGZAMINY W OPINII STUDENTÓW NOWA METODA WERYFIKACJI WIEDZY Streszczenie Rozwój e-learningu jest ściśle związany z koniecznością weryfikacji zdobywanej w ten sposób wiedzy i umiejętności. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest charakterystyka e-egzaminów oraz odpowiedź na pytania, jaka jest przyszłość tej formy egzaminacyjnej i jak postrzegają ją studenci. Przedstawiono w nim wyniki badań Autora w tym zakresie. Opisano tu również sprawdzanie i ocenianie, jako podstawowe czynności oceny procesu kształcenia, dostępne metody weryfikacji wiedzy i umiejętności oraz zalety i wady egzaminów elektronicznych.
23 Marcin Hernes Jadwiga Sobieska-Karpińska Wrocław University of Economics A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CONFLICTS RESOLVING METHODS IN MULTIAGENT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS Introduction Present socio-economic conditions seem to favor fast and accurate decisions as one of the most important elements of company competitiveness. Company decision makers typically operate under the constraints of uncertainty and risk, since results of most decisions in turbulent environment cannot be readily foreseen or can only be appraised with a marginal level of probability. Consequently, the decision-making processes are more and more complex. Decision processes in modern companies are often supported by IT decision support systems (DSS), also in the form of multiagent systems, i.e. systems based on several agent applications that analyze data and present the user with optimal decisions in response to particular problems. Multiagent systems allow for rapid collection and processing of data, but the ultimate choice of decision is in the hands of the user, as a person responsible for the decision making process and its results. Multiagent decision support systems offer considerable reduction of decision time, since they replace the user in the arduous task of selecting and processing of information. Multiagent DSS can also draw conclusions and make suggestions based on collected data. However, in practical application of multiagent DSS, some tasks may generate conflicts between the constituent agents. The problem of selecting appropriate conflicts resolving methods in multiagent DSS has not yet been addressed in professional literature nor the economic practice, although this type of problem seems crucial in system development and should be addressed in the early stage of system design.
24 24 Marcin Hernes, Jadwiga Sobieska-Karpińska Therefore this paper presents an attempt at evaluation of conflicts resolving methods employed in multiagent DSS, based on comparative analysis of methods and determination of their benefits and shortcomings. It should be noted, that conflicts, for example, may arise if individual agents operate under different decision support methods [SoHe12], while input information used for decision-making process is drawn from heterogeneous sources. Conflicts may also result from contradicting objectives or methods employed in individual agents. Consequently, individual agents may suggest different decisions or solutions. In the face of conflict, the DSS is unable to provide a single solution (i.e. one that satisfies criteria defined by user as process parameters, for example a rate of return on investment at a given risk level). Consequently, the user is faced with an extra task of manually analyzing and selecting an appropriate decision from the array of suggestions postulated by individual agents. This is, obviously, a time-consuming process and decisions made in this way bear the risk of being outdated. In the turbulent environment of modern economy, decisions must be made in (or close to) real time. Moreover, decisions based on incomplete information are burdened with high level of risk. Therefore, conflicts in multiagent systems may have a negative effect on company operation. In this context, it seems that automatic conflict resolving should be regarded as one of the most important features of an effective decision support systems. DSS employs many different methods of conflicts resolving, and their effectiveness largely depends on suitability of a particular method for decisionmaking context, and the structure of the DSS. For example, decisions involving organization of features of an object under analysis require different methods of conflicts resolving than those in the realm of financial management. Other determinants include the type of multiagent DSS or its size (the number of agents). Results of comparative analysis of conflicts resolving methods may be used as basis for their selection in particular applications (tasks) and their suitability for different types of multiagent decision support systems. The selection can be made early in the design process, offering considerable improvement of system effectiveness. Types and the methods of resolving of conflicts in multiagent systems Proper functionality of multiagent systems requires accurate interpretation of the type of conflicts identified or anticipated in the course of system operation. Liu [LGMB98] identifies the following types of multiagent system conflicts:
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