H3C SR8800 RPR Technology White Paper

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "H3C SR8800 RPR Technology White Paper"

Transcription

1 H3C 00 RPR Technology White Paper Keywords: RPR, IP ring network Abstract: Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) is an international standard for establishing IP ring networks, offering a highly efficient and reliable metropolitan area network (MAN) networking technology. RPR has numerous advantages over earlier ring network technologies. This document describes its implementation, characteristics, and basic applications, as well as the unique implementation on the 00. Acronyms: Acronym Full spelling FRR FS LSP MPLS MS OAM RPR TP TC Fast ReRoute Force Switch Label Switching Path Multiprotocol Label Switching Manual Switch Operations, Administration, Maintenance Resilient Packet Ring Topology Protect Topology Checksum Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 1/16

2 Table of Contents Overview 3 RPR Features 3 Concepts 3 Span 3 Edge 3 Wrapping 3 Steering 3 Host 4 Ringlet Selection Table 4 Protocol Processing Mechanism 4 Data Operations on RPR Stations 4 Efficient Bandwidth Usage 6 Automatic Topology Discovery 6 Topology Protection and Self-healing 6 Fairness Algorithm 8 QoS Guarantee 9 Miscellaneous 11 RPR Data Frame Format 11 RPR Application Scenarios 12 Application in Small and Medium-Sized MANs and LANs 13 Application in Large and Medium-Sized IP MANs 14 RPR Features on the Powerful Service Switching Performance 15 Complete QoS Capabilities 15 Abundant Ring Selection Mechanisms 15 Ease of Configuration 15 High Reliability 15 Mate Port Smart Connection 16 References 16 Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 2/16

3 Overview Resilient packet ring (RPR) is a MAC layer technology standardized by the IEEE workgroup. It is independent of the physical layer and can run on SONET/SDH, Ethernet, and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). Integrating the high reliability of SDH self-healing and Ethernet advantages such as low cost, large bandwidth, flexibility, and scalability, the RPR technology provides bandwidth management with data optimization capability and high-performance multi-service transmission on a ring topology. RPR Features Concepts Figure 1 RPR ring topology edge span links Congestion domain S2 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 53 S2 54 inner ringlet outer ringlet Span The portion of a ring bounded by two adjacent stations. A span comprises a pair of unidirectional links transmitting in opposite directions. Edge Wrapping Steering A span on which data frames are not allowed to pass is called an edge. An edge can result from fiber cut, signal degradation, manual switch, or any other error or protection action. Wrapping is a protection mechanism of RPR. When an edge occurs (a span or station fails), this protection mechanism redirects traffic to the original destination by sending it in the opposite direction around the ring. The two ringlets thus form a closed single ring around the point of the failure. As wrapping allows quick switchover without ringlet selection update, data frame loss is minimized, but at the price of bandwidth. Steering is another protection mechanism of RPR. In steering mode, the RPR stations on the ringlet update the ringlet selection upon detection of an edge. Based on the update result, the protected traffic is steered to the newly selected ringlet. The steering mechanism thus avoids the bandwidth Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 3/16

4 waste with the wrapping mechanism, but as it requires topology reconvergence, it can cause frame loss and service interruption. Host For the purpose of this document, the upper layer of the RPR MAC layer is referred to as the host. The host receives, processes, and transmits traffic destined for the local station. Ringlet Selection Table Each RPR station maintains a ringlet selection table, which stores information such as ringlets and hops to reach other stations on the RPR ring. When the ring is closed, two paths are available for reaching a destination, of which the shortest one is selected by default. Protocol Processing Mechanism RPR consists of two unidirectional counter-rotating ringlets identified as Ringlet 0 and Ringlet 1. All links on the ring operate at the same data rate. The two ringlets of RPR can transmit data frames and control frames at the same time. Each RPR station is identified by a 48-bit MAC address. The MAC address of an RPR station on the RPR ring must be unique. The two physical optical interfaces of an RPR station correspond to one logical interface on the network layer. Data Operations on RPR Stations Stations on an RPR ring handle data frames by performing the following operations: Insert: to place a frame received from outside of the RPR ring onto a ringlet. Transit: to pass a frame to the next station. As the frame is quickly forwarded at the RPR MAC layer, the throughput of the RPR station is improved. For a multicast/unicast data frame, the RPR station also sends a copy to the upper layer. Copy: to deliver an inbound frame from the ring to the upper layer. The copying of a frame does not imply its removal from the ring. Strip, to remove a frame from a ringlet. A station strips a frame if the frame is destined for or sourced from the local station, or if the time to live (TTL) value of the frame expires. The source station inserts the unicast frame into the data stream on Ringlet 0 or Ringlet 1, the transit stations transit the frame, and the destination station copies and strips the frame. For a multicast or broadcast frame, the stations on the RPR ring copy and transit the frame. When the frame travels back to the source, the source station strips the frame from the ring. Figure 2, Figure 3, and Figure 4 show how unicast, multicast, and broadcast frames are transmitted on an RPR ringlet respectively. Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 4/16

5 Figure 2 Unicast transmission on an RPR ring Transit Insert to ringlet 1 Insert to Transit Strip Transit Strip Strip Copy from Copy from ringlet 1 Figure 3 Broadcast transmission on an RPR ring Copy from Insert to Copy from Strip Copy from Copy from Strip Figure 4 Multicast transmission on an RPR ring Copy from Insert to Strip Transmit Transmit Transmit Strip Copy from Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 5/16

6 Efficient Bandwidth Usage RPR allows efficient bandwidth usage on a ring network: Destination stripping: Traditional ring technologies such as SDH/SONET use source stripping, where a unicast frame is removed from the ring only after it returns to the source station, RPR adopts destination stripping where a unicast frame is removed from the ring as soon as it reaches the destination station. Spatial reuse: The adding of individual frames is not synchronized between ringlets. On an RPR ring, the frame transmission event on any one link is independent of frame transmission events on other links. With the RPR ring topology, this allows per-link bandwidth to be utilized beyond that possible with other ring-based LAN technologies. By supporting concurrent per-ringlet transmissions, the bandwidth available to the stations on a ringlet exceeds the individual link capacity. On non-overlapping segments, concurrent transmissions of independent traffic are allowed. On overlapping segments, bandwidth allocated for traffic transmissions is assigned based on a bandwidth fairness algorithm. Automatic bandwidth allocation: Different from the complex static bandwidth allocation with SDH, RPR supports bursty traffic, allowing fast service deployment. No redundant bandwidth: Unlike SDH, RPR can transmit frames on both ringlets without having to reserve bandwidth for protection purpose. With RPR, the two ringlets back up each other to achieve self-healing. Support for broadcast and multicast: For a broadcast or multicast frame, only one copy travels on the ring. This broadcast/multicast frame is copied and transited on each RPR station and stripped off from the ring when it travels back to the source station. L2 rapid forwarding: As a station processes only frames destined for it, forwarding speed is improved. Automatic Topology Discovery Each station on an RPR ring uses topology and protection (TP) frames to broadcast its topology and protection status information. After receiving the information, other stations update their local topology databases. In this way, all stations on the ring eventually maintain a consistent topology database. When detecting a protection state change, a station first sends eight TP frames at (short) intervals of 1 to 20 milliseconds (the default is 10 milliseconds). Then, it sends TP frames periodically at (long) intervals of 50 milliseconds to 10 seconds (the default is 100 milliseconds). This mechanism enables all stations on the ring to sense protection and topology changes timely and reliably, ensuring timely protection switchover in addition to topology synchronization. The automatic topology discovery mechanism of RPR achieves plug and play for RPR stations, allowing the stations to obtain the ring topology information and be sensed by other stations automatically. Topology Protection and Self-healing RPR can provide protection against sudden failures, allowing services to recover within 50 milliseconds. RPR provides two protection mechanisms: steering and wrapping. In steering mode, a station, upon detection of a fault on a ringlet, broadcasts the protection state change with TP frames on the ring. This also triggers ringlet selection. When other stations receive Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 6/16

7 the TP frames, they transit to the corresponding protection state, recalculate the reachability of the stations on the ring, and update their ringlet selection tables to select the ringlet that retains connectivity to the destination stations. Unlike the steering mode, the wrapping mode does not involve ringlet selection update on the entire ring. Instead, the stations at both sides of a point of failure transit to the wrapping mode upon detection of the failure while other stations transmit traffic along the original path. When the protected traffic arrives at the station on one side of the point of failure, it is directed to the opposing healthy ringlet to reach the station on the other side of the point of failure. Then the protected traffic travels along the original ringlet to reach the destination. Compared with the steering mode, the wrapping mode provides quicker protection resulting in less frame loss but requires more bandwidth. Figure 5 Path from Station A to Station B before a fault occurs Station B Path before switchover Station A Figure 6 Path steering upon detection of a fault (A -> B) Station B Steered path Station A Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 7/16

8 Figure 7 Path wrapping upon detection of a fault (A -> B) Station A Station B Wrapped path To benefit from both, the RPR implementation of the 00 adopts the wrap-then-steer mode. In this mode, RPR starts the wrapping mode once a link fails to ensure continuity of the ongoing service and reduce short-term frame loss, and switches to the steering mode after the topology converges to improve long-term ringlet utilization efficiencies. Fairness Algorithm Resources on a ring network are shared among the stations. RPR provides a global fairness algorithm on the entire ring network to guarantee the fairness of the sharing and improve bandwidth usage efficiency. The fairness algorithm of RPR can regulate traffic dynamically to minimize the possibility of congestion and to handle bursty large volume traffic effectively, thus ensuring normal operation of the network. To achieve bandwidth allocation fairness, each RPR station monitors the use of its bandwidth and provides an explicit backpressure mechanism between stations. With this mechanism, the station notifies a source station of the current available capability, having the source station regulate traffic transmission. Thus, bandwidth allocation fairness is achieved on the ring. The fairness algorithm of RPR involves the following three aspects: Determining the congestion threshold on a station Determining the broadcast rate to the upstream station Determining the traffic insertion rate on a station When congestion occurs on a station, the station sends an advertisement on the ringlet opposite to the data transmission direction to advertise a fair rate. Receiving the advertisement, the upstream station then decreases the frame insertion rate down to the advertised fair rate. If congestion also occurs on the current station, it does the same as its downstream station did. To guarantee high-priority services, bandwidth management regulates low-priority data frames, but not high-priority data frames or control frames. The bandwidth management capability of RPR allows for bandwidth allocation efficiency and fairness, which cannot be provided by Ethernet or other ring network technologies where bandwidth management is not available. The following figure illustrates how the fairness algorithm works on an RPR ring comprising stations A, B, C, D, E, and F. Suppose the bandwidth of each link is 10 Gbps and traffic travels Ringlet 0. Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 8/16

9 Figure 8 Bandwidth fairness algorithm B A 4 Gbps 3.3 Gbps Send control frames 4 Gbps 3 Gbps 3.3 Gbps Send control frames 4 Gbps 2 Gbps 3 Gbps 3.3 Gbps C Congested 10G RPR F D E The following is what occurs on the RPR ring: 1) Both stations C and B send 4 Gbps traffic to station D. They share bandwidth on span C D and represent 8-Gbps bandwidth in total. As the link bandwidth is 10 Gbps, no congestion is present. 2) Station A also sends 4 Gbps traffic to station D. As a result, the total traffic on span C D reaches 12 Gbps, exceeding the maximum link bandwidth (10 Gbps). Congestion thus occurs on span C D. 3) With the fairness algorithm, station C performs calculation immediately after detecting the congestion to decrease the rate of putting traffic onto the ring to 2 Gbps. In the mean time, it sends control frames to station B reversely along the inner ringlet to transmit congestion and fairness algorithm information. 4) Upon receiving the fairness control frames, station B immediately decreases its traffic rate and sends fairness control frames to station A. According to the fairness algorithm, both station C and station B adjust traffic rate to 3 Gbps. 5) After receiving the control frames, station A acts likewise. By repeating this process, stations A, B and C adjust their traffic rates to 3.3 Gbps, sharing bandwidth fairly. In this example, absolute fairness is maintained. RPR, however, allows exclusive bandwidth allocation and weighted bandwidth allocation. Thus, traffic rate can be different at each station depending on its fairness weight. QoS Guarantee With the capability of 50 milliseconds self-healing, efficient bandwidth use, and advanced RPR-Fa algorithm, RPR can provide QoS guarantee for services, achieving high reliability, large throughput, low delay, and low loss rate. RPR services fall into three classes: class A, class B and class C, with decreasing priorities. Class A: Provides an allocated, guaranteed data rate, a low end-to-end delay, and low jitter to support time division multiplexing (TDM) services. It is subdivided into subclasses A0 and A1. For the A0 service, bandwidth is reserved on the entire ring and the unused reserved bandwidth Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 9/16

10 cannot be used for lower priority services. For the subclass A1 and class B services, bandwidth is reclaimable and the unused bandwidth can be used for lower priority services. Class B: Provides an allocated, guaranteed data rate, and low delay and jitter to transmit data by the priority order. Class B can be divided into two subclasses: committed information rate (CIR) and excess information rate (EIR), that is, B-CIR and B-EIR. Class C: Provides a best-effort service with no allocated or guaranteed data rate and no bounds on delay or jitter for traditional IP traffic. RPR uses the Sc field to indicate the priority of an RPR frame. For traffic to be forwarded, the RPR MAC layer adopts either a single transit queue or dual transit queues. On a single-queue station, all traffic is transmitted in a first in first out (FIFO) queue regardless of their priorities. On a dual-queue station, traffic is transmitted either in the primary transit queue or in the secondary transit queue as follows: Class A traffic: transmitted in the primary transit queue. Class B traffic: transmitted in the secondary transit queue. The subclass B-CIR traffic has precedence over the class C traffic and is not regulated by the fairness algorithm. The subclass B-EIR traffic has the same priority as the class C traffic and is regulated by the fairness algorithm. Class C traffic: transmitted in the secondary transit queue. A CIR is allocated for the class B services. Traffic conforming to the CIR has precedence over the nonconforming traffic (B-EIR traffic). The RPR MAC layer controls the traffic transmission order, which differs with the queue model. On a dual-queue station The RPR MAC layer assigns traffic sent by the host to the host queue and traffic to be forwarded for other stations to the transit queues. The RPR MAC layer dequeues frames from the transit queues in the following order: 1) Frames in the primary transit queue. 2) Class A frames so long as the secondary transit queue is not full. In case the length of the secondary transit queue exceeds a specified threshold, the frames in the queue are sent. 3) B-CIR frames. 4) B-EIR and Class C frames, if the fairness algorithm is obeyed. 5) Frames in the secondary transit queue, if no higher priority frames are waiting for transmission. On a single-queue station Frames in the transit queue are transmitted first, regardless of their priorities. The class C and subclass B-EIR frames are regulated by the fairness algorithm. RPR supports bandwidth reservation, providing perfect QoS guarantee for reserved bandwidth. Thus, the traditional voice traffic can be transmitted. Because the fairness algorithm of RPR does not regulate the high-priority traffic, all high-priority traffic will always be sent prior to low-priority traffic. To prevent excessive high-priority traffic from affecting low-priority traffic, you are recommended to set a threshold for high-priority traffic. RPR provides multiple static traffic shaping methods such as rate limiting (using a rate limiter) for high- and low-priority data frames. For low-priority data frames, RPR also provides dynamic traffic shaping. Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 10/16

11 The QoS guarantee measures of RPR ensure that an excellent QoS guarantee can be provided on an RPR ring even if the hosts do not provide QoS guarantee. Miscellaneous As a physical layer-independent MAC layer protocol, RPR provides physical layer interfaces to support Ethernet, DWDM and SONET/SDH. RPR allows great bandwidth scalability. For example, your can scale RPR ring bandwidth from 155 Mbps to 10 Gbps, and even to 40 Gbps. A very important feature of RPR is that it avoids the N 2 issue successfully to achieve full connectivity at the MAC layer for N stations with only N links. Compared with SDH, POS and Ethernet, RPR has lower link cost. RPR is an optimized Ethernet technology. It supports all Ethernet protocols and services. RPR supports equipment interoperability at the ring level. For example, you can connect ATM devices, routers, and TDM devices to the same RPR ring. These networks share the physical links and total bandwidth of the ring while being transparent to each other. RPR provides complete MIB features, which allow RPR to provide an extraordinary operations and maintenance platform, achieving operability and manageability. RPR Data Frame Format Figure 9 RPR extended frame format TTL (1 octet) Basic control (1 octet) MAC B MAC A TTL base number (1 octet) Extended control (1 octet) HEX (2 octets) MAC D MAC C Protocol type (2 octets) Data (N octets) FCS (4 octets) Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 11/16

12 Figure 10 RPR basic frame format TTL (1 octet) Basic control (1 octet) MAC B MAC A TTL base number (1 octet) Extended control (1 octet) HEX (2 octets) Protocol type (2 octets) Data (N octets) FCS (4 octets) There are two types of RPR data frames: basic data frames and extended data frames, as shown in the figures above. Basic data frames are forwarded at Layer 3 while extended data frames are forwarded at Layer 2. Judging by the frame structures, basic data frames use less bandwidth. For this reason, unicast and broadcast frames on the 00 are all forwarded as basic data frames. RPR Application Scenarios This section presents various RPR application scenarios. Interconnected RPR stations form RPR rings, which are similar to SDH rings. RPR rings may intersect or touch. Devices connected to RPR stations can insert/copy traffic onto/from RPR rings through related cards (other than the one connected to the RPR ring) of the RPR stations. RPR supports various routing protocols. Protection switch due to fiber cut for example does not result in route reconvergence or MPLS LSP re-establishment. This is because on an RPR ring, there are two paths to each destination station. When one fails, traffic can travel over the other to reach the destination. The protection switchover takes less than 50 milliseconds, far less than the hello interval of routing protocol neighbors. Moreover, the DOWN event of a physical port will not be reported to the upper layers, unless both physical ports of an RPR station are down. Therefore, using RPR rings to connect distribution and access services can provide high reliability and stability, whereas with STP or other ring network technologies, path switchover can result in update of service protocols involving routing, MPLS LSP, ARP, MAC, and so on. MPLS over RPR rings delivers unique advantages, providing sub-50 millisecond convergence for LSP services without FRR or a backup LSP. Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 12/16

13 Application in Small and Medium-Sized MANs and LANs Figure 11 RPR solution for small and medium-sized MANs RPR Technology White Paper IP backbone network MAN core/distribution layer RPR ring MAN access layer Ethernet access/distribution E1/E3 GE/FE GE/FE High-speed leased line access VPN access For a small or medium-sized city, an RPR ring can be built in the MAN. One or two of the stations can be used as the core and egress uplinked to the backbone network. Other stations are deployed at important offices in the city to provide the following services: The access/distribution of Ethernet traffic in those areas The access of various high- and low-rate leased line users: Various interfaces such as E1, E3, POS, and ATM can be provided on these stations, allowing them to serve as leased line access routers. The access of various VPN users: MPLS links can be established on the RPR ring, allowing routers to serve as MPLS VPN PE devices to access various VPN users. RPR can operate at the core layer of local area networks (LANs) with geographically-dispersed agencies or branches, such as government networks, enterprise networks, and campus networks, connect offices, data centers, and the Internet, and logically optimize the existing FDDI ring networks, reserving the features as being a self-healing ring. Such application is shown in the figure below. Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 13/16

14 Figure 12 RPR solution for LANs Internet Center RPR ring Branch Branch Subsidiary body Branch Subsidiary company Application in Large and Medium-Sized IP MANs Figure 13 RPR solution for large and medium-sized IP MANs IP backbone network P P Y MAN core layer MAN distribution layer 10G RPR 2.5G RPR PE Ethernet access/distribution High-speed leased line access VPN access 2.5G RPR PE MAN access layer E1/E3 GE/FE GE/FE A large or medium-sized IP MAN contains a large number of core and distribution nodes. Hence, it usually adopts the typical three-layer architecture, namely, the core layer, distribution layer, and access layer. In such case, multiple RPR rings are often used for networking. On the core layer, a Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 14/16

15 core 10G RPR ring is built, and on the distribution layer, multiple 2.5G edge RPR rings are built. The core ring and edge rings can intersect or touch. When two rings intersect, they have two connection points and thus provide higher reliability. Therefore, you are recommended to deploy intersected rings wherever possible. RPR Features on the 00 Powerful Service Switching Performance According to the RPR protocol, fault detection should be done within 10 milliseconds and service switching within 50 milliseconds. The RPR implementation on the 00 can complete service switching as fast as within 20 milliseconds, fully satisfying the carrier-class requirement and employing the strength of RPR. Complete QoS Capabilities The RPR implementation on the 00 provides complete QoS capabilities for RPR traffic. It supports the access control list (ACL), rate limiting, traffic shaping, queuing, and almost all QoS features available on Ethernet. It supports mappings from 802.1p, MPLS and IP priorities to RPR priorities. Depending on customer needs, it supports services of Class A, B and C, providing bandwidth guarantee and other service differentiation capabilities. In addition, the RPR implementation on the 00 uses a fairness algorithm to ensure fair access of stations to ring bandwidth, allowing for bandwidth usage efficiency, congestion avoidance, and congestion alarming. Abundant Ring Selection Mechanisms The RPR implementation on the 00 supports multiple ring selection modes. By default, dynamic ringlet selection (shortest path selection) is adopted on an RPR ring. Dynamic ringlet selection results in a ringlet selection table that contains the shortest paths to other RPR stations on the ring upon topology convergence. This ringlet selection table does not change when the topology is stable. In addition, you can configure static ringlet selection entries, which have higher priority over dynamic entries. Ease of Configuration On the 00 working as an RPR station, RPR provides a logical RPR interface for you to make related configuration as if on a common Ethernet port. The two RPR physical ports bound with the logical RPR interface are transparent to the upper layers. All services are configured on the logical RPR interface rather than on the two physical ports respectively. High Reliability An RPR station is identical to an RPR logical interface bound with two physical ports. The two physical ports are used to transmit data to or receive data from the ring and the logical interface is provided for you to make configuration. The 00 supports distributed RPR, where the two Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 15/16

16 physical ports are located on different interface cards. Comparatively, centralized RPR means that the two physical ports are located on the same interface card. In centralized RPR, when the interface card where the two physical ports are located goes down, the RPR station fails. In distributed RPR, the down event of one interface card can cause the physical port on the card to go down and thus edge to the RPR station. The RPR station can still work in protection mode to restore services in less than 50 milliseconds. The distributed RPR feature provides enhanced redundancy and greatly improves the reliability of RPR application in metropolitan area ring networks. Mate Port Smart Connection An RPR logical interface is bound with two physical ports. Each physical port is accompanied by a mate port. Before you bind two physical ports with the same logical interface, you must connect their mate ports with optical fibers first for the RPR station to forward traffic. The 2.5G RPR subcards of the 00 support both centralized RPR and distributed RPR. When the two RPR physical ports are on the same 2.5G subcard, you can enable the RPR mate port smart connection function. With the function enabled, RPR automatically connects the two mate ports internally without you having to connect them manually, thus optimizing the centralized RPR implementation. References 1. IEEE Draft P802.17/D Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. RPR Technical Specifications Copyright 2009 Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Hangzhou H3C Technologies Co., Ltd. Page 16/16

Deploying Multiservice Applications Using RPR Over the Existing SONET Infrastructure

Deploying Multiservice Applications Using RPR Over the Existing SONET Infrastructure Deploying Multiservice Applications Using RPR Over the Existing SONET Infrastructure Introduction The migration of Ethernet technology from the LAN to metro networks, driven by increasing demand in VoIP,

More information

MPLS L2VPN (VLL) Technology White Paper

MPLS L2VPN (VLL) Technology White Paper MPLS L2VPN (VLL) Technology White Paper Issue 1.0 Date 2012-10-30 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any

More information

VPLS Technology White Paper HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Issue 01. Date 2012-10-30

VPLS Technology White Paper HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Issue 01. Date 2012-10-30 Issue 01 Date 2012-10-30 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of

More information

MPLS in the Enterprise

MPLS in the Enterprise NETWORKS NetIron XMR 16000 NETWORKS NetIron XMR 16000 NETWORKS NetIron XMR 16000 Introduction MPLS in the Enterprise Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) as a technology has been around for over a decade

More information

Designing Reliable IP/MPLS Core Transport Networks

Designing Reliable IP/MPLS Core Transport Networks Designing Reliable IP/MPLS Core Transport Networks Matthias Ermel Workshop ITG FG 5.2.1 14. November 2008 München Content 1. Introduction 2. Protection Mechanisms 3. Failure Detection Page 1 Architecture

More information

Recovery Modeling in MPLS Networks

Recovery Modeling in MPLS Networks Proceedings of the Int. Conf. on Computer and Communication Engineering, ICCCE 06 Vol. I, 9-11 May 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Recovery Modeling in MPLS Networks Wajdi Al-Khateeb 1, Sufyan Al-Irhayim

More information

CHAPTER 2. QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM

CHAPTER 2. QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM CHAPTER 2 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 22 QoS ROUTING AND ITS ROLE IN QOS PARADIGM 2.1 INTRODUCTION As the main emphasis of the present research work is on achieving QoS in routing, hence this

More information

Transport for Enterprise VoIP Services

Transport for Enterprise VoIP Services Transport for Enterprise VoIP Services Introduction Many carriers are looking to advanced packet services as an opportunity to generate new revenue or lower costs. These services, which include VoIP, IP

More information

Chapter 3. Enterprise Campus Network Design

Chapter 3. Enterprise Campus Network Design Chapter 3 Enterprise Campus Network Design 1 Overview The network foundation hosting these technologies for an emerging enterprise should be efficient, highly available, scalable, and manageable. This

More information

Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that

Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that MPLS and MPLS VPNs: Basics for Beginners Christopher Brandon Johnson Abstract Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a core networking technology that operates essentially in between Layers 2 and 3 of

More information

IP/MPLS Networks for Public Safety

IP/MPLS Networks for Public Safety APPLICATION NOTE IP/MPLS Networks for Public Safety Highly reliable mission-critical communications infrastructures Abstract Alcatel-Lucent delivers a converged IP/MPLS-based network for public safety

More information

QoS Switching. Two Related Areas to Cover (1) Switched IP Forwarding (2) 802.1Q (Virtual LANs) and 802.1p (GARP/Priorities)

QoS Switching. Two Related Areas to Cover (1) Switched IP Forwarding (2) 802.1Q (Virtual LANs) and 802.1p (GARP/Priorities) QoS Switching H. T. Kung Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University November 4, 1998 1of40 Two Related Areas to Cover (1) Switched IP Forwarding (2) 802.1Q (Virtual LANs) and 802.1p

More information

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs

November 2013. Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs November 2013 S P E C I A L R E P O R T Defining the Value of MPLS VPNs Table of Contents Introduction... 3 What Are VPNs?... 4 What Are MPLS VPNs?... 5 What Are the Benefits of MPLS VPNs?... 8 How Do

More information

Improving Quality of Service

Improving Quality of Service Improving Quality of Service Using Dell PowerConnect 6024/6024F Switches Quality of service (QoS) mechanisms classify and prioritize network traffic to improve throughput. This article explains the basic

More information

IP/MPLS Networks for Highways

IP/MPLS Networks for Highways A P P L I C A T I O N N O T E IP/MPLS Networks for Highways Infrastructures for highly available mission-critical communications Abstract Alcatel-Lucent delivers a converged IP/MPLS-based network for highways

More information

Master Course Computer Networks IN2097

Master Course Computer Networks IN2097 Chair for Network Architectures and Services Prof. Carle Department for Computer Science TU München Master Course Computer Networks IN2097 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Carle Christian Grothoff, Ph.D. Chair for

More information

Layer 3 Network + Dedicated Internet Connectivity

Layer 3 Network + Dedicated Internet Connectivity Layer 3 Network + Dedicated Internet Connectivity Client: One of the IT Departments in a Northern State Customer's requirement: The customer wanted to establish CAN connectivity (Campus Area Network) for

More information

Broadband Networks. Prof. Karandikar. Department of Electrical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture - 26

Broadband Networks. Prof. Karandikar. Department of Electrical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture - 26 Broadband Networks Prof. Karandikar Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture - 26 Optical Network &MPLS So, as you were discussing in the previous lectures, next

More information

Service Definition. Internet Service. Introduction. Product Overview. Service Specification

Service Definition. Internet Service. Introduction. Product Overview. Service Specification Service Definition Introduction This Service Definition describes Nexium s from the customer s perspective. In this document the product is described in terms of an overview, service specification, service

More information

Internet Routing and MPLS

Internet Routing and MPLS Internet Routing and MPLS N. C. State University CSC557 Multimedia Computing and Networking Fall 2001 Lecture # 27 Roadmap for Multimedia Networking 2 1. Introduction why QoS? what are the problems? 2.

More information

An Introduction to Resilient Packet Ring Technology

An Introduction to Resilient Packet Ring Technology An Introduction to Resilient Packet Ring Technology A White Paper by the Resilient Packet Ring Alliance October 2001 An Introduction to Resilient Packet Ring Technology Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction...

More information

Relationship between SMP, ASON, GMPLS and SDN

Relationship between SMP, ASON, GMPLS and SDN Relationship between SMP, ASON, GMPLS and SDN With the introduction of a control plane in optical networks, this white paper describes the relationships between different protocols and architectures. Introduction

More information

Virtual PortChannels: Building Networks without Spanning Tree Protocol

Virtual PortChannels: Building Networks without Spanning Tree Protocol . White Paper Virtual PortChannels: Building Networks without Spanning Tree Protocol What You Will Learn This document provides an in-depth look at Cisco's virtual PortChannel (vpc) technology, as developed

More information

Development of the FITELnet-G20 Metro Edge Router

Development of the FITELnet-G20 Metro Edge Router Development of the Metro Edge Router by Tomoyuki Fukunaga * With the increasing use of broadband Internet, it is to be expected that fiber-tothe-home (FTTH) service will expand as the means of providing

More information

Chapter 4 Connecting to the Internet through an ISP

Chapter 4 Connecting to the Internet through an ISP Chapter 4 Connecting to the Internet through an ISP 1. According to Cisco what two things are essential to gaining access to the internet? a. ISPs are essential to gaining access to the Internet. b. No

More information

MPLS-TP. Future Ready. Today. Introduction. Connection Oriented Transport

MPLS-TP. Future Ready. Today. Introduction. Connection Oriented Transport MPLS-TP Future Ready. Today Introduction As data traffic started dominating telecom networks, there was a need for transport data networks, as opposed to transport TDM networks. Traditional transport technologies

More information

NQA Technology White Paper

NQA Technology White Paper NQA Technology White Paper Keywords: NQA, test, probe, collaboration, scheduling Abstract: Network Quality Analyzer (NQA) is a network performance probe and statistics technology used to collect statistics

More information

WAN Topologies MPLS. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID.scr. 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

WAN Topologies MPLS. 2006, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID.scr. 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. MPLS WAN Topologies 1 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) IETF standard, RFC3031 Basic idea was to combine IP routing protocols with a forwarding algoritm based on a header with fixed length label instead

More information

MPLS Traffic Engineering in ISP Network

MPLS Traffic Engineering in ISP Network MPLS Traffic Engineering in ISP Network Mohsin Khan Birmingham City University, England ABSTRACT Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an innovative and vibrant technology. The most famous applications

More information

OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS

OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS OVERLAYING VIRTUALIZED LAYER 2 NETWORKS OVER LAYER 3 NETWORKS Matt Eclavea (meclavea@brocade.com) Senior Solutions Architect, Brocade Communications Inc. Jim Allen (jallen@llnw.com) Senior Architect, Limelight

More information

Blue 102. IP Service Architecture Futures. Geoff Huston May 2000

Blue 102. IP Service Architecture Futures. Geoff Huston May 2000 Blue 102 IP Service Architecture Futures Geoff Huston May 2000 Next Wave IP Services Service Requirements Connectivity service for customer-operated routers Service payload is IP packet High peak carriage

More information

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork

Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Requirements of Voice in an IP Internetwork Real-Time Voice in a Best-Effort IP Internetwork This topic lists problems associated with implementation of real-time voice traffic in a best-effort IP internetwork.

More information

ISTANBUL. 1.1 MPLS overview. Alcatel Certified Business Network Specialist Part 2

ISTANBUL. 1.1 MPLS overview. Alcatel Certified Business Network Specialist Part 2 1 ISTANBUL 1.1 MPLS overview 1 1.1.1 Principle Use of a ATM core network 2 Overlay Network One Virtual Circuit per communication No routing protocol Scalability problem 2 1.1.1 Principle Weakness of overlay

More information

Ring Local Area Network. Ring LANs

Ring Local Area Network. Ring LANs Ring Local Area Network Ring interface (1-bit buffer) Ring interface To station From station Ring LANs The ring is a series of bit repeaters, each connected by a unidirectional transmission link All arriving

More information

The Migration Toward the Optical Internet

The Migration Toward the Optical Internet The Migration Toward the Optical Internet Lesson 9 Luca Valcarenghi Resilience in IP over WDM Networks A network is defined as resilient or survivable if it provides some ability to recover ongoing connections

More information

MPLS in Private Networks Is It a Good Idea?

MPLS in Private Networks Is It a Good Idea? MPLS in Private Networks Is It a Good Idea? Jim Metzler Vice President Ashton, Metzler & Associates March 2005 Introduction The wide area network (WAN) brings indisputable value to organizations of all

More information

Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications. Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features

Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications. Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features Optimizing Enterprise Network Bandwidth For Security Applications Improving Performance Using Antaira s Management Features By: Brian Roth, Product Marketing Engineer April 1, 2014 April 2014 Optimizing

More information

DEMYSTIFYING ROUTING SERVICES IN SOFTWAREDEFINED NETWORKING

DEMYSTIFYING ROUTING SERVICES IN SOFTWAREDEFINED NETWORKING DEMYSTIFYING ROUTING SERVICES IN STWAREDEFINED NETWORKING GAUTAM KHETRAPAL Engineering Project Manager, Aricent SAURABH KUMAR SHARMA Principal Systems Engineer, Technology, Aricent DEMYSTIFYING ROUTING

More information

Delivering Ethernet services in the Metro

Delivering Ethernet services in the Metro Delivering Ethernet services in the Metro MICHAEL S. BERGER Research Center COM Technical University of Denmark DTU Building 33, 800 Kgs. Lyngby DENMARK Abstract: - Today, Ethernet is widely deployed in

More information

APPLICATION NOTE 210 PROVIDER BACKBONE BRIDGE WITH TRAFFIC ENGINEERING: A CARRIER ETHERNET TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

APPLICATION NOTE 210 PROVIDER BACKBONE BRIDGE WITH TRAFFIC ENGINEERING: A CARRIER ETHERNET TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW PROVIDER BACKBONE BRIDGE WITH TRAFFIC ENGINEERING: A CARRIER ETHERNET TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW By Thierno Diallo, Product Specialist Originally designed as a local-area network (LAN) communication protocol,

More information

Data Storage across the MAN by deploying a SAN over Dark Fiber

Data Storage across the MAN by deploying a SAN over Dark Fiber White Paper Data Storage across the MAN by deploying a SAN over Dark Fiber by Pieter Panis, EuroFiber 1/7 1 Introduction The purpose of this document is to illustrate how a storage area network (SAN) can

More information

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION

Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012. Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Faculty of Engineering Computer Engineering Department Islamic University of Gaza 2012 Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION Review Questions ٢ Network Chapter# 19 INTERNETWORK OPERATION 19.1 List

More information

Objectives. The Role of Redundancy in a Switched Network. Layer 2 Loops. Broadcast Storms. More problems with Layer 2 loops

Objectives. The Role of Redundancy in a Switched Network. Layer 2 Loops. Broadcast Storms. More problems with Layer 2 loops ITE I Chapter 6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1 Objectives Implement Spanning Tree Protocols LAN Switching and Wireless Chapter 5 Explain the role of redundancy in a converged

More information

6 Multi-layer Recovery Strategy in Resilient Packet Ring over Intelligent Optical Transport Networks

6 Multi-layer Recovery Strategy in Resilient Packet Ring over Intelligent Optical Transport Networks 6 Multi-layer Recovery Strategy in Resilient Packet Ring over Intelligent Optical Transport Networks This Chapter is devoted to describe the suggested resilience interworking strategies to be applied in

More information

Analysis of traffic engineering parameters while using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and traditional IP networks

Analysis of traffic engineering parameters while using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and traditional IP networks Analysis of traffic engineering parameters while using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and traditional IP networks Faiz Ahmed Electronic Engineering Institute of Communication Technologies, PTCL

More information

Computer Networks. Definition of LAN. Connection of Network. Key Points of LAN. Lecture 06 Connecting Networks

Computer Networks. Definition of LAN. Connection of Network. Key Points of LAN. Lecture 06 Connecting Networks Computer Networks Lecture 06 Connecting Networks Kuang-hua Chen Department of Library and Information Science National Taiwan University Local Area Networks (LAN) 5 kilometer IEEE 802.3 Ethernet IEEE 802.4

More information

www.careercert.info Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark.

www.careercert.info Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on www.verypdf.com to remove this watermark. 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. DESGN v2.0 3-11 Enterprise Campus and Data Center Design Review Analyze organizational requirements: Type of applications, traffic volume, and traffic pattern

More information

Introducing Basic MPLS Concepts

Introducing Basic MPLS Concepts Module 1-1 Introducing Basic MPLS Concepts 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-1 Drawbacks of Traditional IP Routing Routing protocols are used to distribute Layer 3 routing information. Forwarding

More information

Leased Line + Remote Dial-in connectivity

Leased Line + Remote Dial-in connectivity Leased Line + Remote Dial-in connectivity Client: One of the TELCO offices in a Southern state. The customer wanted to establish WAN Connectivity between central location and 10 remote locations. The customer

More information

6.1. Why do LANs tend to use broadcast networks? Why not use networks consisting of multiplexers and switches?

6.1. Why do LANs tend to use broadcast networks? Why not use networks consisting of multiplexers and switches? TUTORIAL 2 (EKT 332) 6.1. Why do LANs tend to use broadcast networks? Why not use networks consisting of multiplexers and switches? Why broadcast network? -The computers in a LAN are separated by a short

More information

Best Practices for Video Transit on an MPLS Backbone

Best Practices for Video Transit on an MPLS Backbone Best Practices for Video Transit on an MPLS Backbone Debbie Montano dmontano@juniper.net Oct 7, 2009 1 Debbie Montano Joined Juniper - supporting R&E Community Debbie Montano Chief Architect Government,

More information

Three Key Design Considerations of IP Video Surveillance Systems

Three Key Design Considerations of IP Video Surveillance Systems Three Key Design Considerations of IP Video Surveillance Systems 2012 Moxa Inc. All rights reserved. Three Key Design Considerations of IP Video Surveillance Systems Copyright Notice 2012 Moxa Inc. All

More information

REMOTE MONITORING MATRIX

REMOTE MONITORING MATRIX 802.1ag/Y.1731 BASIC ADVANCED 802.3ah Link 802.1ag/Y.1731 RFC 2544 REMOTE MONITORING MATRIX Featuring a matrix of different features that will help you identify and select which Transition products best

More information

Resiliency in Ethernet Based Transport Networks

Resiliency in Ethernet Based Transport Networks Resiliency in Ethernet Based Transport Networks Kari Seppänen Kari.Seppanen@vtt.fi Outline Introduction What is switched Ethernet? Legacy Ethernet Security and Reliability issues Rapid spanning tree protocol

More information

Fiber Distributed Data Interface

Fiber Distributed Data Interface CHPTER 8 Chapter Goals Provide background information about FDDI technology. Explain how FDDI works. Describe the differences between FDDI and Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI). Describe how CDDI

More information

TRILL for Data Center Networks

TRILL for Data Center Networks 24.05.13 TRILL for Data Center Networks www.huawei.com enterprise.huawei.com Davis Wu Deputy Director of Switzerland Enterprise Group E-mail: wuhuajun@huawei.com Tel: 0041-798658759 Agenda 1 TRILL Overview

More information

John Ragan Director of Product Management. Billy Wise Communications Specialist

John Ragan Director of Product Management. Billy Wise Communications Specialist John Ragan Director of Product Management Billy Wise Communications Specialist Current Substation Communications Physical Infrastructure Twisted Pair, 4 Wire, COAX, Cat5 & Cat6, 9 Pin Serial Cable, Single-mode

More information

Adapting MPLS Fast Reroute to Create Resilient Rings

Adapting MPLS Fast Reroute to Create Resilient Rings Adapting LS Fast Reroute to Create Resilient Rings Ahmed Abdelhalim Foundry Networks www.mpls.jp Ring Topology: Multiple Scenarios, Multiple Technologies Backbone Backbone Access Cost effective design

More information

ProCurve Networking. LAN Aggregation Through Switch Meshing. Technical White paper

ProCurve Networking. LAN Aggregation Through Switch Meshing. Technical White paper ProCurve Networking LAN Aggregation Through Switch Meshing Technical White paper Introduction... 3 Understanding Switch Meshing... 3 Creating Meshing Domains... 5 Types of Meshing Domains... 6 Meshed and

More information

VLAN and QinQ Technology White Paper

VLAN and QinQ Technology White Paper VLAN and QinQ Technology White Paper Issue 1.01 Date 2012-10-30 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any

More information

Testing VoIP on MPLS Networks

Testing VoIP on MPLS Networks Application Note Testing VoIP on MPLS Networks Why does MPLS matter for VoIP? Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) enables a common IP-based network to be used for all network services and for multiple

More information

A New Fault Tolerant Routing Algorithm For GMPLS/MPLS Networks

A New Fault Tolerant Routing Algorithm For GMPLS/MPLS Networks A New Fault Tolerant Routing Algorithm For GMPLS/MPLS Networks Mohammad HossienYaghmae Computer Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran hyaghmae@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

More information

Carrier Ethernet: New Game Plan for Media Converters

Carrier Ethernet: New Game Plan for Media Converters Introduction IEEE Std. 802.3ah, also referred to as Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) standard, has a well established name within the industry today. It lays out ground rules for implementing Ethernet

More information

MPLS Quality of Service What Is It? Carsten Rossenhövel EANTC (European Advanced Networking Test Center)

MPLS Quality of Service What Is It? Carsten Rossenhövel EANTC (European Advanced Networking Test Center) MPLS Quality of Service What Is It? Carsten Rossenhövel EANTC (European Advanced Networking Test Center) About EANTC EANTC offers vendor independent network quality assurance since 1991 EANTC Berlin -

More information

Ring Protection: Wrapping vs. Steering

Ring Protection: Wrapping vs. Steering Ring Protection: Wrapping vs. Steering Necdet Uzun and Pinar Yilmaz March 13, 2001 Contents Objectives What are wrapping and steering Single/dual fiber cut Comparison of wrapping and steering Simulation

More information

MPLS - A Choice of Signaling Protocol

MPLS - A Choice of Signaling Protocol www.ijcsi.org 289 MPLS - A Choice of Signaling Protocol Muhammad Asif 1, Zahid Farid 2, Muhammad Lal 3, Junaid Qayyum 4 1 Department of Information Technology and Media (ITM), Mid Sweden University Sundsvall

More information

PART II. OPS-based metro area networks

PART II. OPS-based metro area networks PART II OPS-based metro area networks Chapter 3 Introduction to the OPS-based metro area networks Some traffic estimates for the UK network over the next few years [39] indicate that when access is primarily

More information

APPLICATION NOTE 211 MPLS BASICS AND TESTING NEEDS. Label Switching vs. Traditional Routing

APPLICATION NOTE 211 MPLS BASICS AND TESTING NEEDS. Label Switching vs. Traditional Routing MPLS BASICS AND TESTING NEEDS By Thierno Diallo, Product Specialist Protocol Business Unit The continuing expansion and popularity of the Internet is forcing routers in the core network to support the

More information

CARRIER MPLS VPN September 2014

CARRIER MPLS VPN September 2014 CARRIER MPLS VPN September 2014 SERVICE OVERVIEW The International MPLS IP-VPN service provides a full range of VPN connectivity solutions, including: Carrier MPLS IP VPN: dedicated to operators looking

More information

WHITEPAPER. VPLS for Any-to-Any Ethernet Connectivity: When Simplicity & Control Matter

WHITEPAPER. VPLS for Any-to-Any Ethernet Connectivity: When Simplicity & Control Matter WHITEPAPER VPLS for Any-to-Any Ethernet Connectivity: When Simplicity & Control Matter The Holy Grail: Achieving Simplicity and Control in the IT Infrastructure Today s Information Technology decision-makers

More information

Fundamentals of MPLS for Broadcast Applications

Fundamentals of MPLS for Broadcast Applications Fundamentals of MPLS for Broadcast Applications Ron Clifton, P. Eng., BAS c, MAS c CliftonGroup International Limited Page: 1 The Paradigm Shift The connectivity and technology exist today to implement

More information

Chapter 1 Reading Organizer

Chapter 1 Reading Organizer Chapter 1 Reading Organizer After completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe convergence of data, voice and video in the context of switched networks Describe a switched network in a small

More information

EVOLVING ENTERPRISE NETWORKS WITH SPB-M APPLICATION NOTE

EVOLVING ENTERPRISE NETWORKS WITH SPB-M APPLICATION NOTE EVOLVING ENTERPRISE NETWORKS WITH SPB-M APPLICATION NOTE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Enterprise network managers are being forced to do more with less. Their networks are growing in size and complexity. They need

More information

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela

Communication Networks. MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Communication Networks MAP-TELE 2011/12 José Ruela Network basic mechanisms Introduction to Communications Networks Communications networks Communications networks are used to transport information (data)

More information

Using & Offering Wholesale Ethernet Network and Operational Considerations

Using & Offering Wholesale Ethernet Network and Operational Considerations White Paper Using and Offering Wholesale Ethernet Using & Offering Wholesale Ethernet Network and Operational Considerations Introduction Business services customers are continuing to migrate to Carrier

More information

8. Protection and restoration in optical networks

8. Protection and restoration in optical networks Lecture 5: Protection and Restoration in Optical Networks 1/ 8. Protection and restoration in optical networks Optical Communication Systems and Networks Lecture 5: 8: Protection and Restoration in Optical

More information

Appendix A Protocols. Data Link Layer

Appendix A Protocols. Data Link Layer Appendix A Protocols The LAN environment of the networks application focuses on modeling broadcast network architectures within a single autonomous system (or routing domain), and therefore its protocol

More information

MPLS is the enabling technology for the New Broadband (IP) Public Network

MPLS is the enabling technology for the New Broadband (IP) Public Network From the MPLS Forum Multi-Protocol Switching (MPLS) An Overview Mario BALI Turin Polytechnic Mario.Baldi@polito.it www.polito.it/~baldi MPLS is the enabling technology for the New Broadband (IP) Public

More information

CS 5480/6480: Computer Networks Spring 2012 Homework 4 Solutions Due by 1:25 PM on April 11 th 2012

CS 5480/6480: Computer Networks Spring 2012 Homework 4 Solutions Due by 1:25 PM on April 11 th 2012 CS 5480/6480: Computer Networks Spring 2012 Homework 4 Solutions Due by 1:25 PM on April 11 th 2012 Important: The solutions to the homework problems from the course book have been provided by the authors.

More information

Failsafe Protection for Utility Critical Infrastructure

Failsafe Protection for Utility Critical Infrastructure Failsafe Protection for Utility Critical Infrastructure Introduction PUCs maintain a crucial part of the nation s CI that provide essential services to the public, business and government. Reliable CI

More information

MPLS and IPSec A Misunderstood Relationship

MPLS and IPSec A Misunderstood Relationship # 129 TECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER Page: 1 of 5 MPLS and IPSec A Misunderstood Relationship Jon Ranger, Riverstone Networks ABSTRACT A large quantity of misinformation and misunderstanding exists about the place

More information

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro Ralph Santitoro Abstract This paper provides a comprehensive technical overview of bandwidth profiles for Ethernet services, based on the work (as of October 2003) of the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Technical

More information

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro

Bandwidth Profiles for Ethernet Services Ralph Santitoro Ralph Santitoro Abstract This paper provides a comprehensive technical overview of bandwidth profiles for Ethernet services, based on the work of the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Technical Committee. The

More information

Configuring QoS. Understanding QoS CHAPTER

Configuring QoS. Understanding QoS CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER This chapter describes how to configure quality of service (QoS) by using standard QoS commands. With QoS, you can give preferential treatment to certain types of traffic at the expense of others.

More information

Controlled Random Access Methods

Controlled Random Access Methods Helsinki University of Technology S-72.333 Postgraduate Seminar on Radio Communications Controlled Random Access Methods Er Liu liuer@cc.hut.fi Communications Laboratory 09.03.2004 Content of Presentation

More information

CORPORATE NETWORKING

CORPORATE NETWORKING CORPORATE NETWORKING C. Pham Université de Pau et des Pays de l Adour Département Informatique http://www.univ-pau.fr/~cpham Congduc.Pham@univ-pau.fr Typical example of Ethernet local networks Mostly based

More information

Constructing High Quality IP Core Network

Constructing High Quality IP Core Network Constructing High Quality IP Core Network What we need is not only a network, but also the services that network can provide. ---------Huawei-3Com Constructing networks is much like building bridges or

More information

Implementing MPLS VPN in Provider's IP Backbone Luyuan Fang luyuanfang@att.com AT&T

Implementing MPLS VPN in Provider's IP Backbone Luyuan Fang luyuanfang@att.com AT&T Implementing MPLS VPN in Provider's IP Backbone Luyuan Fang luyuanfang@att.com AT&T 1 Outline! BGP/MPLS VPN (RFC 2547bis)! Setting up LSP for VPN - Design Alternative Studies! Interworking of LDP / RSVP

More information

Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network

Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network Application Note 8 Latency on a Switched Ethernet Network Introduction: This document serves to explain the sources of latency on a switched Ethernet network and describe how to calculate cumulative latency

More information

Benefits of RPR for Utility Critical Infrastructure Networks

Benefits of RPR for Utility Critical Infrastructure Networks Benefits of RPR for Utility Critical Infrastructure Networks Introduction Utility company professionals charged with designing, maintaining and managing survivable communications networks to support CI,

More information

Introduction to LAN Protocols

Introduction to LAN Protocols CHAPTER 2 Chapter Goals Learn about different LAN protocols. Understand the different methods used to deal with media contention. Learn about different LAN topologies. This chapter introduces the various

More information

ipca Quality Awareness Technology White Paper

ipca Quality Awareness Technology White Paper ipca Quality Awareness Technology White Paper ipca Quality Awareness Technology White Paper 1 IP/Ethernet Networks Cannot Measure Service Quality...2 1.1 ipca Overview...2 1.2 ipca Benefits...3 2 ipca

More information

Technote. SmartNode Quality of Service for VoIP on the Internet Access Link

Technote. SmartNode Quality of Service for VoIP on the Internet Access Link Technote SmartNode Quality of Service for VoIP on the Internet Access Link Applies to the following products SmartNode 1000 Series SmartNode 2000 Series SmartNode 4520 Series Overview Initially designed

More information

Traffic Engineering & Network Planning Tool for MPLS Networks

Traffic Engineering & Network Planning Tool for MPLS Networks Traffic Engineering & Network Planning Tool for MPLS Networks Dr. Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 76 Founder & Director, Vegayan

More information

Rohde & Schwarz R&S SITLine ETH VLAN Encryption Device Functionality & Performance Tests

Rohde & Schwarz R&S SITLine ETH VLAN Encryption Device Functionality & Performance Tests Rohde & Schwarz R&S Encryption Device Functionality & Performance Tests Introduction Following to our test of the Rohde & Schwarz ETH encryption device in April 28 the European Advanced Networking Test

More information

MPLS Environment. To allow more complex routing capabilities, MPLS permits attaching a

MPLS Environment. To allow more complex routing capabilities, MPLS permits attaching a MPLS Environment Introduction to MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a highly efficient and flexible routing approach for forwarding packets over packet-switched networks, irrespective of the

More information

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications. Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols

William Stallings Data and Computer Communications. Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols William Stallings Data and Computer Communications Chapter 15 Internetwork Protocols Internetworking Terms (1) Communications Network Facility that provides data transfer service An internet Collection

More information

Referring to the above question, the end-to-end delay (transmission delay plus propagation delay) is

Referring to the above question, the end-to-end delay (transmission delay plus propagation delay) is CS326e Quiz 3 The first correct 10 answers will be worth 1 point each. Each subsequent correct answer will be worth 0.2 points. Circle the correct answer. UTEID In the following 7 problems, we are sending

More information

Voice Over IP. MultiFlow 5048. IP Phone # 3071 Subnet # 10.100.24.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 IP address 10.100.24.171. Telephone.

Voice Over IP. MultiFlow 5048. IP Phone # 3071 Subnet # 10.100.24.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 IP address 10.100.24.171. Telephone. Anritsu Network Solutions Voice Over IP Application Note MultiFlow 5048 CALL Manager Serv # 10.100.27 255.255.2 IP address 10.100.27.4 OC-48 Link 255 255 25 IP add Introduction Voice communications over

More information

How To Understand and Configure Your Network for IntraVUE

How To Understand and Configure Your Network for IntraVUE How To Understand and Configure Your Network for IntraVUE Summary This document attempts to standardize the methods used to configure Intrauve in situations where there is little or no understanding of

More information