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1 Copenhagen Business school Press Universitetsforlaget


3 SERIES EDITORS Stewart R. Clegg & Ralph Stablein ADVANCES IN ORGANIZATION STUDIES Editors Nathalie Drouin Ralf Müller Shankar Sankaran Novel Approaches to Organizational Project Management Research Translational and Transformational Copenhagen Business School Press Universitetsforlaget

4 Novel Approaches to Organizational Project Management Research Translational and Transformational Editorial Matter & Selection Nathalie Drouin, Ralf Müller, Shankar Sankaran & Copenhagen Business School Press, 2013 Individual Chapters Individual Contributors & Copenhagen Business School Press, 2013 ISBN ISSN Series Editors: Stewart R. Clegg & Ralph Stablein Typeset and ebook production: Narayana Press Cover design by Klahr Graphic Design Distribution: Scandinavia except for Norway DBK Logistic Services, Mimersvej 4 DK-4600 Koege, Denmark Tel: , fax: Norway Universitetsforlaget AS Postboks 508 NO-0105 Oslo, Norway Tel: , fax: North America International Specialized Book Services 920 NE 58 th Ave., Suite 300 Portland, OR 97213, USA Tel: , fax: Rest of the World Gazelle Book Services, White Cross Mills, Hightown, Lancaster, Lancashire, LA1 4XS, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) , fax: +44 (0) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording, taping or information storage or retrieval systems without permission in writing from Copenhagen Business School Press at

5 Advances in Organization Studies Series Editors Stewart R. Clegg Professor, University of Tech nology, Sydney, Australia Ralph Stablein Professor, University of Otago, New Zealand The series Advances in Organization Studies is a channel for cutting edge theoretical and empirical works of high quality that contributes to the field of organizational studies. The series welcomes thought-provoking ideas, new perspectives and neglected topics from researchers within a wide range of disciplines and geographical locations.

6 Dedicated to our children Estelle D. Bourgeois and Albert D. Bourgeois Jonas Müller Charu Shankar and Ganesh Shankar Nathalie Drouin Ralf Müller Shankar Sankaran

7 Table of Contents Our Thanks... 8 Notes on the Contributors... 9 Foreword Stewart Clegg Introduction Ralf Müller, Shankar Sankaran and Nathalie Drouin SECTION Philosophical Underpinnings of OPM Research Ralf Müller, Shankar Sankaran and Nathalie Drouin Chapter Paradigms and Perspectives in Organizational Project Management Research: Implications for Knowledge-Creation Robert Chia Chapter A Discourse on the Non-method Christophe Bredillet Chapter Thinking in Slow Motion about Project Management Jonathan Whitty Chapter Pluralistic and Processual Understandings of Projects and Project Organizing: Towards Theories of Project Temporality Jonas Söderlund 5

8 Chapter A Model of the Dynamics in Theory Development Ralf Müller and Jingting Shao SECTION Creative and Innovative Contemporary Approaches Shankar Sankaran, Ralf Müller and Nathalie Drouin Chapter Actor-Network Theory, Activity Theory and Action Research and their Application in Project Management Research Michael Er, Julien Pollack and Shankar Sankaran Chapter Simulations for Project Management Research Elyssebeth Leigh Chapter System Dynamics for Project Management Research Kim van Oorschot Chapter The Design of Research Programs: Example from a PMO Research Program Monique Aubry SECTION Learning Across Disciplines Nathalie Drouin, Ralf Müller and Shankar Sankaran Chapter Power and Politics in Construction Projects Stewart Clegg and Kristian Kreiner Chapter Application of Behavioural Science and Cognitive Mapping in Project Management Research Hemanta Doloi 6

9 Chapter A Natural Sciences Comparative to Develop New Insights for Project Management Research: Genotyping and Phenotyping Robert Joslin and Ralf Müller Chapter Translational Approaches: Applying Strategic Management Theories to OPM Research Catherine P. Killen, Kam Jugdev, Nathalie Drouin and Yvan Petit SECTION Upcoming Approaches in OPM Research Nathalie Drouin, Ralf Müller and Shankar Sankaran Chapter Mixed Methods Research Design: Well Beyond the Notion of Triangulation Roslyn Cameron and Shankar Sankaran Chapter The Triple Helix of Project Management Research: Theory Development, Qualitative Understanding and Quantitative Corroboration Serghei Floricel, Marc Banik and Sorin Piperca Chapter Project, Project Theories, and Project Research: A New Understanding of Theory, Practice, and Education for Project Management Pierre-Luc Lalonde and Mario Bourgault Chapter Pluralist Project Research: Drawing on Critical Systems Thinking to Manage Research Across Paradigms Julien Pollack Conclusion Nathalie Drouin, Ralf Müller and Shankar Sankaran 7

10 Our Thanks A book with more than twenty authors from across the world could not have been put together in a year s time without prompt and timely assistance from several people who provided excellent support to the editors throughout this effort. We start with Professor Stewart Clegg, who agreed to have this book included in the Advances in Organization Studies published by Copenhagen Business School Press soon after we sounded him out about our idea a year ago. We would like to thank Associate Professor Jens Aaris Thisted, Peer Review Coordinator of CBS Press, for agreeing to take on the book during our meeting with him at the EGOS Conference in Helsinki in July 2012 and for his considered advice on the chapters sent for his review. The energy and enthusiasm embedded in the smilies that Hanne Thorninger Ipsen, Manuscript Editor of CBS Press, sent us through her s kept us going. She really kept the ball rolling once the chapters had been accepted to take it to the finishing line. We would like to thank Claire Annals who patiently copyedited the book. The team at CBS Press has worked hard to get this book out on schedule as we were determined to release it at the 11th IRNOP (The International Research Network on Organizing by Projects) conference in Oslo, Norway. The editors would like to thank Dr. Gita Sankaran, who helped us when we wanted an experienced proofreader and copyeditor to review what we had written to support the chapters. We would like to express our gratitude to the prominent scholars from around the world who have endorsed this book. Last but not the least, we would like to thank all the authors for also helping us by taking prompt action when we asked them to do so and sending us encouraging messages from time to time. 8

11 Notes on the Contributors Monique Aubry, PhD, is a Professor and Director of Project Management Programs at the School of Management, Université du Québec à Montréal (ESG UQAM). Her principal research interest bears on organizing for projects and organizational design, more specifically on Project Management Offices (PMO). She received the 2012 IPMA Research Award for her research on PMOs along with Brian Hobbs and Ralf Müller. The results of her work have been published in major project academic journals and presented at several international conferences, both research and professional. She is a member of the Project Management Research Chair ( at ESG UQAM. She is member of the Standards Member Advisory Group and the Research Informed Standards Steering committee of the Project Management Institute. She is department editor of Organizational Side of Project Management and Management of Organizational Projects for Project Management Journal. Marc Banik, PhD (Urbana-Champaign), is a Professor of Bio-Industry Management at the École des sciences de la gestion at the Université du Québec à Montréal (ESG UQAM). His teaching and research focus on intellectual property management, R&D management and regulation of health care products. He is a member of the Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur la science et la tech nologie (CIRST) at UQAM and teaches principles of management and tech nology transfer. Mario Bourgault, PhD, PMP, is a full Professor at École Polytech nique, Montreal, Canada. He has conducted over a decade of research in the field of innovation and project management. Mario has held the Canada Research Chair in Tech nology Project Management since He also heads the École Polytech nique Graduate Program in Project Management. His work has been published in a number of journals, including Project Management Journal, International Journal of Project Management, R&D Management, and International Journal of Managing Projects in Business. In addition to his academic credentials, Mario spent several years in the field working as a professional engineer, and he maintains close ties with the industry by participating in various research projects and acting as an expert consultant. Christophe Bredillet, PhD (ESC Lille), is a Professor and the Director of the Queensland University of Tech nology, Australia s Project Management Academy and specializes in the fields of Portfolio, Programme & Project Management (P3M). From 1992 to 2010, Christophe was the Dean of Postgraduate Programmes & Studies, and Professor, Head of School Strategic Management & P3M at ESC Lille. In 2001 he launched a series of International 3PM Weeks hosted by ESC Lille, followed by the 9

12 first EDEN doctoral seminar in Project Management in Christophe s main interests and research activities are in the field of Philosophy of Science and Practice in P3M, including principles and theories of P3M, dynamics of evolution of the P3M field, bodies of knowledge, standards, observation of P3M practices and their link with Governance and Performance at organizational, team and individual levels. Christophe was the Executive Editor of the Project Management Journal from 2004 to Roslyn Cameron, PhD, FAHRI, is a Senior Lecturer and Head of Discipline of Human Resource Management at the School of Business and Law at Central Queensland University, Australia. She is Co-Convenor of the Mixed Methods Research Special Interest Group of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM) and a founding Board member of the Prior Learning International Research Centre (PLIRC). Her areas of research interest include skilled migration, workforce development, labour mobility, vocational education and training (VET), recognition of prior learning (RPL) and mixed-methods research. She has received over $1.09 million (AUD) of research funding and has over 70 publications. She has worked on a series of workforce development projects for the Australian rail industry including: Skilled migration; attraction and image; skills recognition and coaching and mentoring. She has contributed chapters to edited books in relation to the use of mixed methods in DBA theses, VET, career development, management disciplines and skills recognition. Robert Chia, PhD (Lancaster), is Research Professor of Management at the Adam Smith Business School, University of Glasgow. He has authored/edited five books including Strategy without Design and Philosophy and Organization Theory and published extensively in the top international management journals including the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Organization Studies, Human Relations, Journal of Management Studies, British Journal of Management, Journal of Management Inquiry and Long Range Planning. His research interests include: The application of process thinking to human actions, decisions and organization; the logic of practice in strategy-making; east-west philosophies/wisdom and their implications for the conduct of business; and the purpose of management education in relation to the university/ industry nexus. Prior to entering academia Robert worked for 16 years in Aircraft Maintenance Engineering and held senior positions in Manufacturing Management and Human Resource Management. Stewart Clegg, PhD (Bradford), BSc Hons (Aston), is Professor and Research Director of CMOS (Centre for Management and Organisation Studies) at the University of Tech nology Sydney, Australia. He is one of the most published and cited authors in the top-tier journals in the Organization Studies field. Because the central focus of his theoretical work has always been on power relations he has been able to write on many diverse and ubiquitous topics because power relations are everywhere! 10

13 He is the principal author of two textbooks: Management & Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice and Strategy: Theory and Practice. He is the chief editor of the Handbook of Organization Studies, Handbook of Power and Handbook of Macro-Organizational Behaviour. His latest publications are The Virtues of Leadership: Contemporary Challenges for Global Managers as principal author and a set of Major Works on Power and Organizations and Political Power and Organizations, jointly edited with Mark Haugaard. Hemanta Doloi, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer specializing in the Construction Management program at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Hemanta s major research interest is on Life Cycle Project Management and this new methodology has been extended significantly based on the concepts such as process modeling, strategic project management and decision theory over the last few years. He has published over 100 scholarly articles in both international journals and conferences. Hemanta is a sole author of the book Life Cycle Project Management A Systems-based Approach to Managing Complex Projects published in In 2012 Hemanta was awarded the Infinite Value Award in Research and Teaching by the Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors (AIQS) and he is widely consulted in the corporate world. Nathalie Drouin, PhD (Cambridge), MBA (HEC-Montréal), LL.B., is the Associate Dean in Research and former Director of Graduate programs in Project Management, School of Management at Université du Québec à Montreal (ESG UQAM) and a full professor, Department of Management and Tech nology, ESG UQAM. She teaches initiation and strategic management of projects in the Graduate Project Management Programs. The results of her work have been published in major academic journals and presented at several international conferences, both research and professional. Her research has also been funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR), the Quebec Research Council (FRSQ), and other sources such as the Project Management Institute and ESG-UQAM Research Grants (PAFARC). She is an associate researcher of the Canada Research Chair on Tech nology Project Management and a Member of the Scientific Committee of the Project Management Research Chair, ESG UQAM. Michael Er, Dr, PhD Masters Inf.Tech Bachelor Building, studied construction management as an undergraduate and on completion worked professionally for over a decade across a variety of construction roles such as project manager and project supervisor. The interpretive case studies developed as part of the PhD research used Activity Theory as a lens of interpretation. Michael has several publications associated with the application of Activity Theory in research. He is currently a Senior Lecturer at the University of Tech nology Sydney, Australia in the Faculty of Design Architecture and Building. He continues to research in the area of construction and project 11

14 management particularly in the field of innovation and tech nology adoption. Michael maintains strong industry contact which provides a platform for the application of his ongoing research. Serghei Floricel, PhD, MBA, B. Eng., is a Professor at the University of Quebec in Montreal, where he teaches project feasibility and innovation project management. His research focuses on planning and organizing complex projects, and on innovation processes. He has published, among others, in International Journal of Project Management, R&D Management, Research-Tech nology Management, International Journal of Innovation Management, and has presented at numerous conferences, including Academy of Management. He is lead author of two monographs published by the PMI: Increasing Project Flexibility and Refining the Knowledge Production Plan, and co-author of The Strategic Management of Large Engineering Projects (MIT Press, 2001). He was Research Director for the Managing Innovation in the New Economy (MINE) program, and Principal Investigator for five other research projects. He has produced a website on managing innovation projects ( and co-developed a tool for assessing the risks of such projects. Robert Joslin, BSc (Durham), PMP, PgMP, CEng, MIEEE, MBCS, is a project/ program management consultant and academic researcher. He has considerable experience in designing, initiating and program management delivery of large scale business transformation, reengineering, infrastructure, strategy development including winning prizes for ideas and product innovation. Previously, he has been a consultant in a wide range of industries including telecom, banking, insurance, manufacturing and direct marketing whilst working for McKinsey & Co, Logica and his own consulting company. Robert is currently studying for a PhD in Strategy, Programme & Project Management at SKEMA Business School in France. During this time he has published book chapters and is in the process of authoring a book on portfolio, program and project management success factors. Kam Jugdev, PhD, PMP, is a Professor of Project Management and Strategy in the Faculty of Business at Athabasca University. She also served as an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary. Prior to becoming an academic, Kam worked in both the public and private sector industry as a project manager. She develops and teaches project management courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Her federally funded research ($228,091) includes two Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council grants. Kam s research program spans: Project management lessons learned and communities of practice; project management tools and tech niques; project success/failure; and project management as a source of competitive advantage using the Resource Based View of the Firm. Kam enjoys being able to relate theory to practice with students and through her research. 12

15 Catherine Killen, PhD (MGSM), M.Eng Mgt (UTS), BSc (Virginia) is the coordinator for innovation programs in the Faculty of Engineering and IT at the University of Tech nology Sydney, Australia. Catherine conducts research on innovation processes with a focus on project portfolio management and has published more than 50 journal articles and conference papers in the area. She develops and teaches courses and programs on tech nological innovation at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. She employs qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods in her research. Recent work includes best practice survey-based research, qualitative analysis drawing upon strategic management theories, and industry-based and classroom-based experiments where new methods are employed and evaluated. Catherine s current research themes include the alignment of project portfolios with organizational strategy, the evolution and contextualisation of project portfolio management approaches, and the use of visual data representations for the management of project interdependencies within a project portfolio. Kristian Kreiner, PhD (DTU Denmark), MSc (CBS), is Professor in Organization at Copenhagen Business School (CBS). Kristian designed and directed the Center for Management Studies of the Building Process ( which was financed by the private foundation Realdania. In this capacity he has conducted multiple eth nographic studies of various aspects of construction, including architectural competitions and actual work practices on construction sites. His research interests are concerned with how work is accomplished in practice, and how organization, collaboration, coordination etc. are not premises for such work, but co-produced in the work process. Demonstrating empirically why such accomplishments are inherently difficult his research focuses on how people may become empowered to make work achievements possible. Pierre-Luc Lalonde, PhD (École Polytech nique, Montreal), is a General Manager of the Dominican Sisters of Canada, and acts as a management consultant for various religious communities, where he helps identify and address key challenges. Under the supervision of Professors Mario Bourgault and Alain Findeli, he investigated various epistemological and methodological issues of project management practice and research. He has presented at numerous conferences and his work has been published in several journals, including International Journal of Project Management and Project Management Journal. Pierre-Luc has received prestigious scholarships from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. He also received a grant for his postdoctoral research conducted under the Canada Research Chair on Tech nology Project Management. Elyssebeth Leigh, EdD, MEd, Dip Ed, BA, has been a professional educator for over 30 years working with adult learners in business and academic contexts. As an experienced designer of simulations, games and role-play, she has worked in places 13

16 as far apart as Africa, Russia, Finland, India and Romania. Her interest in complex adaptive systems began during her doctoral research and has continued in all her work in project management, adult education and simulation. Elyssebeth is on the Board of Simulation Australia, leads a Tech nical Committee for their annual conferences and contributes to the Professional Development program. Her research interests include the skills and knowledge required for effective use of simulation for learning and research. She has published widely on the educational use of simulation, and her most recent book,edited with Nygaard and Courtney, is Simulations, Games and Role Play in University Education. Ralf Müller, DBA (Brunel), MBA (Herriot-Watt), PMP, is a Professor of project management and an associate dean at BI Norwegian Business School in Norway. His principal research interests are in project leadership, governance, PMOs and research methods. He is the author or co-author of more than 140 publications, and, among other acknowledgements, the receiver of the 2012 IPMA Research Award, the 2009 Project Management Journal s Paper of the Year Award, and a number of best conference paper and best reviewer awards. He serves on the editorial board of seven academic journals and is departmental editor for the Project Management Journal. Before joining academia, he spent 30 years in the industry consulting with large enterprises and governments in 47 different countries for their project management and governance. He also held related line management positions, such as the worldwide director of project management at NCR Teradata. Yvan Petit, PhD, M.Eng. MBA (Insead), PMP, has been an Associate Professor and part of the Project management research chair at the University of Quebec at Montreal (ESG-UQAM) since He defended his doctoral thesis entitled Project Portfolio Management in Dynamic Environments: Organizing for Uncertainty in September 2011 which was published as a monograph in He has over 25 years of experience in project management, primarily in software development and R&D in the telecommunications industry. He is currently a member of the Canadian committee on the ISO TC-258 on Project Portfolio Management and was part of the core team for the third revision of PMI s Standard for Portfolio Management. Sorin Piperca, M.Eng., B.Eng., is a PhD candidate in Business Administration at the University of Quebec in Montreal. His research focuses on structuring processes, project management and inter-organizational collaborations. He co-authored one monograph published by the Project Management Institute (PMI) and various other books, book chapters, and articles. He has also presented papers in many prestigious conferences, including those organized by the Academy of Management, European Group for Organizational Studies (EGOS), European Academy of Management (EURAM), and Administrative Sciences Association of Canada (ASAC). He also studied sociology at the University of Bucharest, Romania. 14

17 Julien Pollack, PhD (UTS), BSc (UNSW), B.A (UNSW), returned from practicing project management in industry in 2011, and is now Course Director of the UTS Master of Project Management program. His teaching focuses on developing students communication and critical thinking skills. Julien s PhD involved action research into practical ways of combining project management with systems thinking tech niques to meet the demands of organizational change in the public sector and won local and international awards. More recently, he has drawn on complexity theory to extend some of the closed-system assumptions on which project management theory is based. He has published articles on these topics, and one book, Tools for Complex Projects, with Kaye Remington. Julien s interest in theory is tempered by an understanding of the practical needs of industry. He is an experienced project manager, having worked in the engineering, telecommunications and health industries, implementing projects from organizational change and information systems development, to rolling stock manufacturing. Shankar Sankaran, PhD, MEng, PMP, CEng, is an Associate Professor at the School of the Built Environment at the University of Tech nology Sydney, Australia. He is a member of the Centre for Management and Organization Studies (CMOS) at UTS and a Chief Investigator in two Australian Research Council Grants, one investigating Project Governance and the other Leadership of Not-for-Profit Organizations. Shankar has edited two books: Effective Change Management Using Action Learning and Action Research and Enhancing Organizational Capability through Knowledge Management. He is an Associate Editor of the Sage Encyclopaedia of Action Research. He teaches in the Master of Project Management Program at UTS and supervises several doctoral students. Shankar is the Vice President of Research and Publications at the International Society for the Systems Sciences and a distinguished fellow of the action research centre at the University of Cincinnati. He has published papers in ranked journals and presented at international conferences. His research interests are in project management, systems thinking and action studies. Jingting Shao, PhD (SKEMA), PhD (Xi an, China), is a post-doctoral researcher at the Institute for Industrial Economics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Vice President of China s Young Crew project manager organization within the International Association of Project Management (IPMA). She has two doctoral degrees, one from SKEMA Business School (Lille, France) in Strategy, Programme and Project Management and one from Northwestern Polytech nical University (Xi an, China) in Management Science and Engineering. Her research interests are in program management, leadership, and project governance. In 2011 she was awarded the IPMA Outstanding Research Contribution of a Young Researcher Award and in 2012 the China Project Management Research Contribution Award. She has participated in several international research projects sponsored by the Project Management Institute (PMI ) and the Norwegian Centre for Project Management. 15

18 Jonas Söderlund, PhD, is Professor at BI Norwegian Business School and a founding member of KITE at Linköping University, Sweden. Jonas has researched and published widely on the management and organization of projects and project-based firms, time and knowledge integration in complex projects, and the evolution of project competence. He has written about the fundamental questions of project management research, the schools of project management research, the pressing challenges for business schools, and teaching project management in business schools. His work has appeared in such journals as Advances in Strategic Management, International Journal of Management Reviews, Organization Studies, Human Resource Management, International Journal of Human Resource Management, R&D Management, International Journal of Innovation Management and International Business Review. His most recent books are the Oxford Handbook of Project Management (Oxford University Press), Human Resource Management in Project-based Organizations: the HR Quadriad Framework (Palgrave), and Knowledge Integration and Innovation (Oxford University Press). Kim van Oorschot, PhD (Eindhoven), MSc (Eindhoven), is an Associate Professor of project management and system dynamics in the Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour at the BI Norwegian Business School. Her current research concerns decision making, trade-offs, and tipping points in new product development projects. For this purpose she develops system dynamics models based on actual project data. Before her academic career, she was a consultant working for international companies including ASML, KPN, Stork Fokker, and NXP. She has published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Productions and Operations Management, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Journal of the Operational Research Society and International Journal of Operations and Production Management. Jonathan Whitty, PhD, BEng (Hons), is currently senior lecturer in project management at the University of Southern Queensland, Australia. His role includes leading project management research, and directing postgraduate project management teaching programs for which he has been recognized for his contributions to developing postgraduate learning outcomes. Jonathan has two major themes to his research which have their roots either in evolutionary theory or philosophical empiricism and scepticism. His unique evolutionary approach to project management research considers all matters pertaining to projects and project management and examines them against the framework of evolution by natural, social, cultural, and memetic section. He also contributes to the literature on complexity in project management. This work leverages off evolutionary theory and considers project management to be complex emergent behaviour that manifests under the particular social and tech nological conditions of a capitalistic system. Project management is therefore considered to be a complex adaptation (a tool) employed by organizations and individuals to manage productivity in an environment which is both competitive and dynamic. 16