SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN NORWAY

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN NORWAY"

Transcription

1

2 SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN NORWAY What is child trafficking? The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime A child is anyone under the age of 18 years. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child What s the problem? GLOBAL SEX TRAFFICKING Human trafficking is a complex phenomenon fueled by the tremendous growth in the global sex market. Exploitation is driven by poverty, uneven development, official corruption, gender discrimination, harmful traditional and cultural practices, civil unrest, natural disasters and lack of political will to end it. The number of child victims trafficked worldwide for sexual exploitation or cheap labour on an annual basis is 1.2 million. 1 Human trafficking, the third largest international crime, following illegal drugs and arms trafficking, is believed to be worth billions of dollars each year. Driving the trade is the demand for commercial sexual exploitation. Seventy-nine percent of all global trafficking is for sexual exploitation Illegal Arms 2. Drugs 3. Human Trafficking (7-10 Billion USD Industry) 79% of all global trafficking is for sexual exploitation Largest Global Criminal Activities SEX TRAFFICKING IN NORWAY Accurate figures on the trafficking of children for sexual purposes in Norway are difficult to obtain despite knowledge that Norway is a destination and transit country for children trafficked for sexual purposes. 3 In 2006, the police investigated 29 cases of trafficking for sexual exploitation. It is unclear how many of these cases may have included the trafficking of children. Between 2005 and 2007 seven people were convicted of trafficking through the criminal justice system in Norway. In 2007, the Norwegian Government identified 190 victims of trafficking. 4 These figures do not include the number of children exploited, and

3 as noted by the ECPAT Europe Law Enforcement Group, it is often difficult to estimate how many victims may be minors, as trafficked victims usually possess false documentation. 5 Who gets trafficked? Child victims of commercial sexual exploitation in Norway primarily come from the Baltic States, Southeast Europe, Africa and Asia. Although boys are also victimised, the majority of children exploited through prostitution are girls who have been trafficked into Norway from other countries. 6 These children are seldom exploited openly on the streets, but rather in indoor facilities and secret locations. 7 Unaccompanied minors who enter the country as refugees or through migration are highly vulnerable to exploitation. Some have been trafficked into Norway and are forced into commercial sexual exploitation and other exploitative situations after arrival. 8 According to the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration (UDI), the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children has steadily increased in Norway since 2000, with 916 unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in 2003, almost double the figure from In 2008, the UDI reported 14,400 persons applying for asylum in Norway with 3,500 of these children and 1,374 being unaccompanied minors. 10 Children in Norwegian refugee reception centres are also vulnerable to human trafficking. Each year, a large number of children disappear from these reception centres without appropriate follow up from the police concerning their whereabouts. 11 The demand for sex drives child sex trafficking globally while poverty, domestic violence and abuse, discrimination and the desire for a better life makes children vulnerable. Children are especially vulnerable to being trafficked because they are often uneducated, easy to overpower and easy to convince that they must do what an adult tells them to do. Children may also be in a position where they believe they must help to support their families and may be sold or sent abroad by family members to do so. Street children, children in refugee camps, children whose family and community life has been disrupted and do not have someone to look out for them are all especially vulnerable to human trafficking. Children may be at greater risk of trafficking from places where they are less protected. This may be because the law is weak or not properly enforced, or because children are less aware of the risks of trafficking and are more easily deceived. Countries are considered: Sending or origin - from where children are sent; Transit - where the children might be moved through and temporarily kept on the way to their final destination; and Receiving or destination - where the children finally end up. Depending on the reason for trafficking, some countries might be only sending, while others might be both sending and transit. Some countries can be all three. Norway is primarily a destination country for children trafficked for sexual purposes. Norway is a destination country for women and children trafficked from Eastern Europe, the Balkans, West Africa and East Asian countries for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. Victims are sometimes trafficked through transit countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Italy, and the Balkan countries en route to various locations in Norway. 12 Norway is also a transit country, as trafficked victims are moved on to other European countries. 13

4 For child trafficking, Norway is primarily considered as a: origin country transit country ü destination country internal/domestic country NORWAY Eastern Europe & Baltic States: Russia Ukraine Latvia Estonia Lithuania Albania East Asia Brazil Nigeria Who creates demand? Traffickers prey on children and young people to meet the sexual demands of paedophiles and people who pay for sex. Any person who patronises the commercial sex market may end up sexually exploiting a child. There is no common profile of perpetrators who sexually exploit children they may be young, old, married, single; they come from all types of socioeconomic backgrounds and work in all kinds of professions. Despite limited evidence, there is some indication that Norway is a country of origin for child-sex tourists. The Murmansk region and the city of St. Petersburg in Russia, as well as Baltic Sea countries, are the main destinations for Norwegian nationals seeking to buy sex from women and young people. 14 Eastern Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and Asia - where there is less risk of being detected - are also destinations for Norwegian tourists and business people, who take advantage of the opportunity to exploit children sexually. 15 In January 2009, Norway introduced new legislation that makes the buying of sexual services a crime. However, at this current time, it is unclear how this has affected the sex market and if it has had any impact on human trafficking.

5 Who are the traffickers? Traffickers can be a stranger or someone the child knows, such as a relative or a friend. Traffickers are often part of an organised criminal network that recruits children and supplies them with fake identification. They may also pose as boyfriends or girlfriends in order to convince children to leave for a new life. Among the successful convictions of traffickers between 2005 and 2007, three were Norwegians and the other four were foreigners. 16 Case Studies In September 2007, seven children from China arrived unaccompanied at three Norwegian airports within the period of a week. The event sparked suspicions that organised gangs were smuggling children into the country in the hope that they would be granted asylum. Authorities feared the traffickers would then coax the children away from asylum centers and force them into prostitution or slave labour elsewhere in Europe. 17 In 2007, a Norwegian man was charged with the sexual abuse and trafficking of children. The man was charged with trafficking after luring a young boy into his apartment in Thailand and allowing two other men to sexually abuse him. The suspect was also convicted for possessing 35,000 photographs and 1,300 videos of child pornography, and for sexually abusing six Thai boys as young as 10 during 2004 and 2005, photographing the abuse and publishing it on the Internet. 18 In April 2005, three men - two Norwegian and one Estonian - were prosecuted for the prostitution and trafficking of a 16-year-old Estonian girl into Norway. The Estonian girl s case was the first time a child trafficking case was put through the judicial process. The Estonian and one of the Norwegian men were accused of recruiting, transporting and exploiting the girl, while the other Norwegian was accused of housing her. 19 How can we stop the trafficking of children? LAW AND LAW ENFORCEMENT It is necessary for the Norwegian Government to conduct a policy review of all the current initiatives to combat child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. This process will identify gaps in the existing national plans and their implementation, and assist in the design of necessary follow-up actions. More resources to organisations working to eliminate child trafficking are needed. It is necessary for Norway to ratify the Council of Europe s Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. Encourage the Government to extend its cooperation to countries and regions that face serious problems related to child trafficking. It is suggested that Norway undertake a study to assess the nature and extent of trafficking and sexual exploitation of children and to identify target areas that are particularly vulnerable in the region.

6 International Conventions/Laws Date of Ratification by Norway Date of Reports Submitted UN Committee on the Rights of the Child Recommendations for Norway Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 8 January 1991 Initial Report: 30 August July April February 2008 The Committee is yet to make recommendations on the 2008 report. In response to the 2003 report, the Committee urges the State party to ensure that adequate support and supervision are provided to children living in reception centres, as well as adequate psychological and psychiatric care for traumatised asylum-seeking children. The Committee recommends that the State party improve the situation in reception centres for unaccompanied children seeking asylum, so that assistance and care for these children reaches the same level as that provided in other institutions under the child welfare system. Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography 2 October November 2004 N/A The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress & Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women & Children 23 September 2003 N/A N/A ILO Convention No. 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour 21 December 2000 N/A N/A Council of Europe Convention on Actions against Trafficking in Human Beings 17 January Entered into force 1 May 2008

7 PREVENTION OF CHILD TRAFFICKING AND VICTIM PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE It is recommended that Norway strengthen coordination among bodies responsible for the welfare of children. In particular, specific attention is required for existing services to assist child victims of all forms of commercial sexual exploitation to include all necessary physical and psychological recovery and appropriate reintegration. Improvement in coordination with government and non-government bodies in relevant countries is needed to assist with the safe repatriation of child victims of trafficking. Reinforced care and protection training is recommended within the welfare system and for relevant NGOs on methods to support vulnerable children or victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation. Comprehensive studies on the extent of child trafficking and other related forms of sexual exploitation of children are necessary to plan more effective prevention and protection strategies. To report a suspected incident of child trafficking, contact: KRIPOS is a police driven program that has the national responsibility for investigating cases related to the sexual exploitation of children. To report a suspected incident of human trafficking visit: The Rosa Centre provides a 24-hour telephone line where mainly women, but also children who are victims of trafficking can call and receive direct and immediate assistance. See To report a suspected incident of human trafficking or to contact the SOS hotline call: KOM is the national coordination unit for the identification of victims of trafficking: KOM prosjektet; Koordineringsenheten for ofre for menneskehandel, Politidirektoratet, Hammersborggata 12, Postboks 8051 Dep OSLO. Tel: (kontortid). Mob: (kontortid). E-post: More information Redd Barna/ Save the Children Norway: Tel: , Website: ECPAT International: The Body Shop and ECPAT Stop Trafficking of Children and Young People Campaign:

8 Endnotes 1 UNICEF UNODC. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons ECPAT International. Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children: Norway. Bangkok US State Department. Trafficking in Persons Report Viewed at 5 ECPAT Europe Law Enforcement Group. Joint East West Research on Trafficking in Children for Sexual Purposes in Europe: The Sending Countries. Amsterdam ECPAT International. Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children: Norway. Bangkok ECPAT Europe Law Enforcement Group. Joint East West Research on Trafficking in Children for Sexual Purposes in Europe: The Sending Countries. Amsterdam ECPAT International. Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children: Norway. Bangkok Skybak, Thale. (2005): Handel med barn i Norge, Intern rapport. Redd Barna. Viewed at: sum/2008/79032/thesis_liuyang.pdf 10 Tall og fakta Utlendingsdirektoratet. 11 ECPAT International. Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children: Norway. Bangkok USD, Trafficking in Persons Report, 2008 viewed at 13 ECPAT Europe Law Enforcement Group. Joint East West Research on Trafficking in Children for Sexual Purposes in Europe: The Sending Countries. Amsterdam Heiberg, Turid. Trafficking in children for sexual purposes- Update Country report. Joint East West Research Project on Trafficking in Children for Sexual Purposes in Europe. October 2003 viewed in ECPAT International, Global Monitoring Report: Norway ECPAT International. Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial sexual exploitation of children: Norway. Bangkok US State Department. Trafficking in Persons Report Viewed at 17 Aftenposten English Web Desk, Child smuggling fears rise. 4 September 2007, local/article ece 18 Norwegian prosecutor takes out first Norwegian indictment for child sex trafficking abroad. Pravda News. 18 April Viewed at: 19 Ibid.

9 NOTES

10

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN SOUTH KOREA

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN SOUTH KOREA SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN SOUTH KOREA What is child trafficking? The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. UN Convention against

More information

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE NETHERLANDS

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE NETHERLANDS SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE NETHERLANDS What is child trafficking? The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. UN Convention against

More information

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE BALTIC COUNTRIES

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE BALTIC COUNTRIES SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE BALTIC COUNTRIES Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania What is child trafficking? The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose

More information

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE PHILIPPINES

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE PHILIPPINES SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE PHILIPPINES What is child trafficking? The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. UN Convention against

More information

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THAILAND

SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THAILAND SEX TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THAILAND What is child trafficking? The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. UN Convention against Transnational

More information

Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children

Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children Introduction This booklet contains the Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially

More information

Study on trafficking in persons in West Africa: an analysis of the legal and political framework for the protection of victims.

Study on trafficking in persons in West Africa: an analysis of the legal and political framework for the protection of victims. Study on trafficking in persons in West Africa: an analysis of the legal and political framework for the protection of victims I. Introduction Summary In the West African sub-region the phenomenon of trafficking

More information

Why has Sweden as a society taken this step?

Why has Sweden as a society taken this step? Speech by Kajsa Wahlberg, Swedish National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings at the Conference on Trafficking in Human Beings and Prostitution How to Prevent and Combat Sex Trade in Finland, Helsinki,

More information

ACT AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING

ACT AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING ACT AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. Virtually every country in the world is affected by trafficking for sexual exploitation or forced labour. The international

More information

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/OPSC/VEN/CO/1 Distr.: General 19 September 2014 Original: English ADVANCE UNEDITED VERSION Committee on the Rights of the Child Optional Protocol

More information

STATE PARTY EXAMINATION OF ARGENTINA S INITIAL REPORT ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY

STATE PARTY EXAMINATION OF ARGENTINA S INITIAL REPORT ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY STATE PARTY EXAMINATION OF ARGENTINA S INITIAL REPORT ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY 54 TH SESSION OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Contents 25 MAY 11 JUNE

More information

Transnational Challenges and Approaches to Investigating Trafficking Offences. Ilias Chatzis, Chief, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section

Transnational Challenges and Approaches to Investigating Trafficking Offences. Ilias Chatzis, Chief, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section Transnational Challenges and Approaches to Investigating Trafficking Offences Ilias Chatzis, Chief, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section Trafficking in persons: a low risk / high profit crime

More information

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CANADA Frequently Asked Questions What is human trafficking? Human trafficking is slavery. Human beings are bought and sold for a number of purposes: sexual exploitation, forced or

More information

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography... (for full text of Optional Protocol, see Appendix 2, page 670 and for reporting guidelines, see Appendix 3, page 692)

More information

A Prompt and Appropriate Response from a Humanitarian Perspective Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan

A Prompt and Appropriate Response from a Humanitarian Perspective Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Japan s Actions to Combat Trafficking in Persons A Prompt and Appropriate Response from a Humanitarian Perspective Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a serious crime and

More information

Convention on the Rights of the Child COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD. Forty-ninth session

Convention on the Rights of the Child COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD. Forty-ninth session UNITED NATIONS CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child Distr. GENERAL CRC/C/OPSC/AUT/CO/1 22 October 2008 Original: ENGLISH COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Forty-ninth session CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS

More information

Country Reports from Canadian delegation

Country Reports from Canadian delegation Country Reports from Canadian delegation Research / media coverage What information is available about trafficking? Are there any reliable studies or statistics on the issue? How does the media cover the

More information

22. Stop sex trafficking of children and young people a unique ECPAT and Body Shop campaign

22. Stop sex trafficking of children and young people a unique ECPAT and Body Shop campaign 22. Stop sex trafficking of children and young people a unique ECPAT and Body Shop campaign Patchareeboon Sakulpitakphon ECPAT International Bangkok Introduction End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography

More information

Perth & Kinross Child Protection Committee

Perth & Kinross Child Protection Committee Perth & Kinross Child Protection Committee Child Trafficking Trafficking is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. The trafficking

More information

CRC/C/OPSC/SWE/CO/1. Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations

CRC/C/OPSC/SWE/CO/1. Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/OPSC/SWE/CO/1 Distr.: General 23 January 2012 Original: English Committee on the Rights of the Child Fifty-eighth session 19 September 7 October

More information

Their Protection is in our Hands. Summary Report

Their Protection is in our Hands. Summary Report Their Protection is in our Hands Acknowledgements Their Protection is in Our Hands The State of Global Child Trafficking for Sexual Purposes The full Global Report was compiled by a number of ECPAT International

More information

Resolution 11/3. Trafficking in persons, especially women and children

Resolution 11/3. Trafficking in persons, especially women and children Human Rights Council Eleventh Session Resolution 11/3. Trafficking in persons, especially women and children The Human Rights Council, Reaffirming all previous resolutions on the problem of trafficking

More information

A CHILD-RIGHTS APPROACH ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING: A UNICEF PERSPECTIVE

A CHILD-RIGHTS APPROACH ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING: A UNICEF PERSPECTIVE A CHILD-RIGHTS APPROACH ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING: A UNICEF PERSPECTIVE United Nations Children s Fund International migration and child trafficking affect a significant number of

More information

BANGLADESH. Number of court cases of trafficking in persons, Cases Source: Ministry of Home Affairs.

BANGLADESH. Number of court cases of trafficking in persons, Cases Source: Ministry of Home Affairs. SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH The new Anti-Human Trafficking Act was enacted in the year 212 and covers all forms of exploitation indicated in the UN Trafficking Protocol. Before 212, the legislation covered

More information

An Introduction to Human Slavery Tearfund NZ

An Introduction to Human Slavery Tearfund NZ An Introduction to Human Slavery Tearfund NZ By Reverend Francis Ritchie, 2014 Historical Background Slavery predates human records and was institutionalised in cultures around the world from the earliest

More information

Trends : Increase in numbers of children sexually exploited Younger children New vulnerable groups (displaced children, etc.) HIV/AIDS pandemic growth

Trends : Increase in numbers of children sexually exploited Younger children New vulnerable groups (displaced children, etc.) HIV/AIDS pandemic growth FACTSHEET ON COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN The facts Global figures: An estimated 1.2 million children are trafficked each year M ost of them (girls and boys) are trafficked

More information

Raising Understanding among Children and Young People on the OPSC

Raising Understanding among Children and Young People on the OPSC Raising Understanding among Children and Young People on the OPSC OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY (OPSC)

More information

Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process

Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process Declaration of the Ministerial Conference of the Khartoum Process (EU-Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative) Rome, 28 th November 2014 We, Ministers of the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

More information

Situation of trafficking in Thailand

Situation of trafficking in Thailand Wanchai Roujanavong Thailand UNODC, Vienna 27-29 January 2010 Situation of trafficking in Thailand Thailand has 3 statuses: 1 Sending country, 2 Destination country, 3 Transit country. Forced prostitution,

More information

REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL PROTECTION IN CASES OF THE REPATRIATION OF CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING

REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL PROTECTION IN CASES OF THE REPATRIATION OF CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL PROTECTION IN CASES OF THE REPATRIATION OF CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL

More information

Look Beneath the Surface: Role of Social Service Providers in Identifying and Helping Victims of Human Trafficking

Look Beneath the Surface: Role of Social Service Providers in Identifying and Helping Victims of Human Trafficking Look Beneath the Surface: Role of Social Service Providers in Identifying and Helping Victims of Human Trafficking Presentation Overview Understanding human trafficking Identifying human trafficking victims

More information

Definition of human trafficking

Definition of human trafficking Department of Information Society and Action against Crime Directorate of Cooperation Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs Project on Combating and Preventing Trafficking in Human Beings

More information

ILO 2012 Global estimate of forced labour Executive summary

ILO 2012 Global estimate of forced labour Executive summary ILO 2012 Global estimate of forced labour Executive summary UNDER EMBARGO UNTIL JUNE 1, 2012, 8:30 a.m. GMT RESULTS Using a new and improved statistical methodology, the ILO estimates that 20.9 million

More information

Advance copy of the authentic text. The copy certified by the Secretary-General will be issued at a later time.

Advance copy of the authentic text. The copy certified by the Secretary-General will be issued at a later time. PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME Advance copy of the authentic

More information

Operational indicators of trafficking in human beings

Operational indicators of trafficking in human beings Operational indicators of trafficking in human beings Results from a Delphi survey implemented by the ILO and the European Commission First published in March 2009 Revised version of September 2009 What

More information

WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE

WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE ALBANIA The current legislation on trafficking in persons in Albania covers all forms of exploitation indicated in the UN Trafficking Protocol. Investigations and suspects Number

More information

The Norwegian Government s Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking [ ] Stop Human Trafficking

The Norwegian Government s Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking [ ] Stop Human Trafficking The Norwegian Government s Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking [2006 2009] Stop Human Trafficking Contents Stop Human Trafficking! 1 1 The fight against human trafficking will be intensified 3 2

More information

Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report

Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report Universal Periodic Review CAPE VERDE I. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

More information

Profits and poverty: The economics of forced labour

Profits and poverty: The economics of forced labour US$150,000,000,000 Profits and poverty: The economics of forced labour The global integration of economies, including labour markets, has brought many opportunities for workers and businesses and has spurred

More information

ECPAT UK Briefing. Online Child Exploitation

ECPAT UK Briefing. Online Child Exploitation ECPAT UK Briefing Online Child Exploitation A transnational collaborative investigation by UK, US and Australian authorities has revealed the extent of the involvement of UK nationals, among others, in

More information

5. IRREGULAR MIGRATION, HUMAN TRAFFICKING

5. IRREGULAR MIGRATION, HUMAN TRAFFICKING 5. IRREGULAR MIGRATION, HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND REFUGEES Irregular migration poses multiple challenges to countries of origin, transit and destination, as well as to migrants themselves. Migrants in irregular

More information

LAW ENFORCEMENT and LEGAL FRAMEWORK (EAST AFRICAN REGION)

LAW ENFORCEMENT and LEGAL FRAMEWORK (EAST AFRICAN REGION) LAW ENFORCEMENT and LEGAL FRAMEWORK (EAST AFRICAN REGION) Presentation by: Japheth Kasimbu (ANPPCAN) BACKGROUND 2007 - ANPPCAN held an international conference on child sexual abuse Issues deliberated

More information

SCREENING CHAPTER 24 JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY AGENDA ITEM 7A: ORGANISED CRIME

SCREENING CHAPTER 24 JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY AGENDA ITEM 7A: ORGANISED CRIME 1 SCREENING CHAPTER 24 JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY Country Session: Republic of TURKEY 13-15 February 2006 CONTENT -LEGAL BASIS -ORGANISATION -COMBATTING INSTRUMENTS -EXPERTISE AND TRAINING -INTERNATIONAL

More information

UNITED NATIONS Press Release Committee on the Rights of the Child 16 January 2009

UNITED NATIONS Press Release Committee on the Rights of the Child 16 January 2009 UNITED NATIONS Press Release Committee on the Rights of the Child 16 January 2009 The Committee on the Rights of the Child this morning reviewed the initial report of the Netherlands on how that country

More information

Global Migration Group Symposium. Migration and youth: Harnessing opportunities for development

Global Migration Group Symposium. Migration and youth: Harnessing opportunities for development Global Migration Group Symposium Migration and youth: Harnessing opportunities for development Statement by Marta Santos Pais Special Representative of the Secretary General on Violence Against Children

More information

CPS Policy for Prosecuting Cases of Human Trafficking

CPS Policy for Prosecuting Cases of Human Trafficking CPS Policy for Prosecuting Cases of Human Trafficking May 2011 CPS POLICY FOR PROSECUTING CASES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING Contents Page Introduction 2 What is human trafficking? 4 What is smuggling? 7 The role

More information

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2012 UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME Vienna Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 UNITED NATIONS New York, 2012 United Nations, December 2012. All

More information

Trafficking in Children in South Asia

Trafficking in Children in South Asia Trafficking in Children in South Asia Trafficking in Children in South Asia Save the Children Sweden Regional office for South and Central Asia The vision Save the Children works for: a world which respects

More information

OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY

OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY [ ENGLISH TEXT TEXTE ANGLAIS ] OPTIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY The States Parties to the present Protocol,

More information

CRC/C/Q/FIN/3 Original: ENGLISH. COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Fortieth Session Pre-sessional Working Group 12 30 September 2005

CRC/C/Q/FIN/3 Original: ENGLISH. COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Fortieth Session Pre-sessional Working Group 12 30 September 2005 CRC/C/Q/FIN/3 Original: ENGLISH COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Fortieth Session Pre-sessional Working Group 12 30 September 2005 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD List of

More information

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) 14994/03. Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) MIGR 101

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) 14994/03. Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) MIGR 101 COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) 14994/03 MIGR 101 LEGISLATIVE ACTS AND OTHER INSTRUMTS Subject : Council Directive on the residence

More information

Child Trafficking in the Netherlands

Child Trafficking in the Netherlands Majorie Kaandorp and Mirjam Blaak Child Trafficking in the Netherlands Combating child trafficking and protecting child victims in the Netherlands Contents Summary 4 Preface 7 1 Introduction 8 1.1 Understanding

More information

Victim/Witness Security and Protection

Victim/Witness Security and Protection REFERENCE GUIDE ON PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN EUROPE Chapter 13 Victim/Witness Security and Protection 13.1 General principles Child victims who agree to testify should be

More information

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 2012 UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME Vienna Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2012 UNITED NATIONS New York, 2012 United Nations, December 2012. All

More information

Public Consultation on the Prevention of Human Trafficking Bill

Public Consultation on the Prevention of Human Trafficking Bill Public Consultation on the Prevention of Human Trafficking Bill Aim Mr Christopher de Souza, Member of Parliament for Holland-Bukit Timah GRC, and the Inter-Agency Task Force on Trafficking in Persons

More information

Alternative report from UNICEF Sweden re. the UPR process re. Sweden

Alternative report from UNICEF Sweden re. the UPR process re. Sweden To The Human rights council Geneva Stockholm 13 June 2014 Alternative report from UNICEF Sweden re. the UPR process re. Sweden Introduction This is a comment to the coming Universal Periodic Review (UPR)

More information

National and transnational protection of children from exploitation

National and transnational protection of children from exploitation National and transnational protection of children from exploitation Maud de Boer Buquicchio UN SR on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography & President of Missing Children Europe

More information

Recommendations for a Mexican Child Protection System

Recommendations for a Mexican Child Protection System Recommendations for a Mexican Child Protection System Introduction: Save the Children in Mexico Save the Children has operated in Mexico since 1973 and currently promotes and defends Children s Rights

More information

Report on Estonia Tenth Session of the Universal Periodic Review January 2011

Report on Estonia Tenth Session of the Universal Periodic Review January 2011 Report on Estonia Tenth Session of the Universal Periodic Review January 2011 a. Introduction This report is submitted by the Sexual Rights Initiative (a coalition including Action Canada for Population

More information

64/180. 2 A/CONF.213/RPM.1/1, A/CONF.213/RPM.2/1, A/CONF.213/RPM.3/1 and

64/180. 2 A/CONF.213/RPM.1/1, A/CONF.213/RPM.2/1, A/CONF.213/RPM.3/1 and Salvador Declaration on Comprehensive Strategies for Global Challenges: Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Systems and Their Development in a Changing World We, the States Members of the United Nations,

More information

Human Trafficking and the Russian Mob

Human Trafficking and the Russian Mob Moderator: Our first presenters are Samantha Hewitt and Taylor Weber and as Dr. [inaudible] has said these were students who were in my Women in Contemporary Societies class last semester where people

More information

Georgia MINIMAL ADVANCEMENT

Georgia MINIMAL ADVANCEMENT In 2014, Georgia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Georgia has received an assessment of minimal advancement because the Government lacked a labor inspectorate

More information

Child Labour What is child labour? What is the difference between child labour and child slavery?

Child Labour What is child labour? What is the difference between child labour and child slavery? Child Labour What is child labour? In 2010, the International Labor Organization estimated that there are over 306 million children aged 5-17 in the world who are economically active. This includes most

More information

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women United Nations CEDAW/C/ETH/Q/6-7 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Distr.: General 4 November 2010 Original: English Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination

More information

Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking. (Adopted on 28 April 2006, entered into force in 16 June 2006) Chapter I. General Provisions

Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking. (Adopted on 28 April 2006, entered into force in 16 June 2006) Chapter I. General Provisions Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking (Adopted on 28 April 2006, entered into force in 16 June 2006) Chapter I. General Provisions Article 1. Scope of Regulation This Law determines the organizational

More information

International Aspects of Human Trafficking Mary DeLorey Strategic Issues Advisor: Catholic Relief Services (CRS)

International Aspects of Human Trafficking Mary DeLorey Strategic Issues Advisor: Catholic Relief Services (CRS) 1 International Aspects of Human Trafficking Mary DeLorey Strategic Issues Advisor: Catholic Relief Services (CRS) As much as we would like to believe that slavery and human trafficking are only horrific

More information

THE DECLARATION ON THE ELIMINATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND ELIMINATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN ASEAN

THE DECLARATION ON THE ELIMINATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND ELIMINATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN ASEAN THE DECLARATION ON THE ELIMINATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND ELIMINATION OF VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN ASEAN WE, the Heads of State/Government of the Member States of the Association of Southeast

More information

A human rights approach to trafficking in persons

A human rights approach to trafficking in persons A human rights approach to trafficking in persons AUSTRALIAN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION SUBMISSION TO THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, AUSTRALIAN MISSION,

More information

Botswana MINIMAL ADVANCEMENT

Botswana MINIMAL ADVANCEMENT In 2013, Botswana made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government continued its Stay-in-School Program which is focused on training educators and social

More information

WHY IS IT AN EMERGING ISSUE?

WHY IS IT AN EMERGING ISSUE? WHY IS IT AN EMERGING ISSUE? As the world is moving towards more industrialization, political instability and widening gap between rich and poor, human trafficking can be predicted to increase in the future

More information

NATIONAL COMMISSIONER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT A Polititorvet Copenhagen V Tel: (+45) Fax: (+45)

NATIONAL COMMISSIONER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT A Polititorvet Copenhagen V Tel: (+45) Fax: (+45) NATIONAL COMMISSIONER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT A Polititorvet 14-1780 Copenhagen V Tel: (+45) 33 14 88 88 Fax: (+45) 33 43 00 06 Report on the fact-finding mission conducted in November 2000 by the National

More information

Of the 870,000 refugees and migrants arriving by sea in Europe in more than. 1 in 5. is a child. Finland 3,030. Sweden 27,975.

Of the 870,000 refugees and migrants arriving by sea in Europe in more than. 1 in 5. is a child. Finland 3,030. Sweden 27,975. Migration of children to Europe In this data brief, IOM and UNICEF examine recent trends in the migration of children to Europe in 2015. Of the 870,000 refugees and migrants arriving by sea in Europe in

More information

UNODC work on crime stats and analysis at international level. Enrico Bisogno Statistics and Surveys Section UNODC

UNODC work on crime stats and analysis at international level. Enrico Bisogno Statistics and Surveys Section UNODC UNODC work on crime stats and analysis at international level Enrico Bisogno Statistics and Surveys Section UNODC Main functions of UNODC on crime statistics 1. To collate, disseminate and analyse country

More information

Unaccompanied minors in the EU European policy responses and research

Unaccompanied minors in the EU European policy responses and research Unaccompanied minors in the EU European policy responses and research EMN/UNHCR Ireland International Conference Dublin, 27 November 2014 Presentation overview Overview of the phenomenon EU policy responses

More information

Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting. (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006)

Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting. (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006) Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006) At their meeting in Moscow on 15-16 June 2006 the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministers

More information

Guidelines for the UN.GIFT Call for Proposals from Civil Society Organizations

Guidelines for the UN.GIFT Call for Proposals from Civil Society Organizations Guidelines for the UN.GIFT Call for Proposals from Civil Society Organizations 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 1.1. Objective of the guidelines... 3 1.2. UN.GIFT... 3 1.3. UN.GIFT Small Grants Facility... 3 1.4.

More information

The Brazilian programme to prevent and combat the trafficking of human beings

The Brazilian programme to prevent and combat the trafficking of human beings Expert Group Meeting on Trafficking in women and girls 18-22 November 2002 Glen Cove, New York, USA EGM/TRAF/2002/EP.7 12 November 2002 The Brazilian programme to prevent and combat the trafficking of

More information

International Efforts Against Sex Trafficking: Human Rights Treaties, the UN Trafficking Protocol, and the Focus on Demand

International Efforts Against Sex Trafficking: Human Rights Treaties, the UN Trafficking Protocol, and the Focus on Demand International Efforts Against Sex Trafficking: Human Rights Treaties, the UN Trafficking Protocol, and the Focus on Demand Dorchen A. Leidholdt Co Executive Director Coalition Against Trafficking in Women

More information

Bangkok Declaration Synergies and Responses: Strategic Alliances in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

Bangkok Declaration Synergies and Responses: Strategic Alliances in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Bangkok Declaration Synergies and Responses: Strategic Alliances in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice We, the States Members of the United Nations, Having assembled at the Eleventh United Nations Congress

More information

PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS-A NEW APPROACH

PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS-A NEW APPROACH PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS-A NEW APPROACH Elizabeth F. Defeis* Trafficking in persons, the illegal and highly profitable recruitment, transport, or sale of human beings

More information

Our action is coordinated by a team led by the Prime Minister s Office - Department for Equal Opportunities. It consists of the Ministries of Justice

Our action is coordinated by a team led by the Prime Minister s Office - Department for Equal Opportunities. It consists of the Ministries of Justice Madame Chair, First of all, let me thank the IOM and ILO for organizing this side event together with the Permanent Mission of Italy. We agreed enthusiastically to be co-host of this event, knowing that

More information

The Rio de Janeiro Declaration and Call for Action to Prevent and Stop Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents. Preamble

The Rio de Janeiro Declaration and Call for Action to Prevent and Stop Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents. Preamble The Rio de Janeiro Declaration and Call for Action to Prevent and Stop Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents Preamble We, participants at the World Congress III against Sexual Exploitation of

More information

SAARC CONVENTION ON PREVENTING AND COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND CHILDREN FOR PROSTITUTION

SAARC CONVENTION ON PREVENTING AND COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND CHILDREN FOR PROSTITUTION SAARC SAARC CONVENTION ON PREVENTING AND COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND CHILDREN FOR PROSTITUTION THE MEMBER STATES OF THE SOUTH ASIAN ASSOCIATION FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION (SAARC), PARTIES TO THE PRESENT

More information

Women s Rights: Issues for the Coming Decades

Women s Rights: Issues for the Coming Decades September 24, 2010 Suzanne B. Goldberg Columbia Law School Remarks for the International Conference on the Protection of Women s Rights Women s Rights: Issues for the Coming Decades I am delighted to be

More information

2. The United Nations legislative framework for the protection of children from sexual violence, including sexual abuse and exploitation

2. The United Nations legislative framework for the protection of children from sexual violence, including sexual abuse and exploitation 2. The United Nations legislative framework for the protection of children from sexual violence, including sexual abuse and exploitation Marta Santos País United Nations Secretary-General s Special Representative

More information

COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 2015 COMMISSION ON CRIME PREVENTION AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE Twenty-fourth session, 18 22 May 2015 PROGRAMME OF EVENTS Time Plenary Committee of the Whole MONDAY, 18 MAY 10-11 a.m. Opening of the session Item

More information

SRI LANKA. Sri Lanka. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

SRI LANKA. Sri Lanka. Prevalence and Sectoral Distribution of the Worst Forms of Child Labor COUNTRY SRI PROFILES LANKA Sri Lanka During the reporting period, the Government of Sri Lanka took a major step by adopting a comprehensive child labor policy to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.

More information

Combat Trafficking in Human Beings. Stage One Research Findings. September 2015

Combat Trafficking in Human Beings. Stage One Research Findings. September 2015 Co-funded by the Prevention of and Fight against Crime Programme of the European Commission Combat Trafficking in Human Beings Stage One Research Findings September 2015 This report reflects only the author

More information

EU-UKRAINE VISA DIALOGUE

EU-UKRAINE VISA DIALOGUE EU-UKRAINE VISA DIALOGUE ACTION PLAN ON VISA LIBERALISATION 1. GENERAL FRAMEWORK 1. 1. Background The EU-Ukraine Action Plan on Freedom, Security and Justice (JLS), in place since 2001 and revised in 2007,

More information

TeamWork! Strengthening multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking for labour exploitation. - The role of municpalities

TeamWork! Strengthening multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking for labour exploitation. - The role of municpalities TeamWork! Strengthening multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking for labour exploitation - The role of municpalities 24 April 2015 ? 2 Structure of session 1) Introduction of project TeamWork!

More information

Threat Assessment of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Threat Assessment of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Centre Plan 2012-13 Threat Assessment of Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse June 2012 Child Exploitation and and Online Protection Centre Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre CEOP copyright

More information

Test Your Knowledge About Trafficking

Test Your Knowledge About Trafficking est Your Knowledge About rafficking Running ime: 1 hour Materials: Flipchart and flipchart stand/chalkboard, markers/chalk; Handout A: rafficking Awareness Survey; Handout B: rafficking Awareness Answers

More information

Orange County Human Trafficking Task Force Human Trafficking Victim Report. April 2013

Orange County Human Trafficking Task Force Human Trafficking Victim Report. April 2013 Orange County Human Trafficking Task Force April 2013 Mission The Orange County Human Trafficking Task Force (OCHTTF) is a collective body of agencies modeling a collaborative effort between law enforcement,

More information

COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS

COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS COUNCIL OF EUROPE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS Recommendation Rec(2006)8 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on assistance to crime victims (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 14 June 2006 at

More information

Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Norway

Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Norway G R E T A Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings GRETA(2013)5 Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

More information

Global Report On Trafficking In Persons Executive Summary

Global Report On Trafficking In Persons Executive Summary Global Report On Trafficking In Persons Executive Summary February 2009 A knowledge crisis about a crime that shames us all The term trafficking in persons can be misleading: it places emphasis on the

More information

Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report - Universal Periodic Review: TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO I. Background

More information

Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The Lanzarote Convention and the ONE in FIVE campaign

Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The Lanzarote Convention and the ONE in FIVE campaign PARLIAMENTS UNITED in combating sexual violence against children Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The Lanzarote Convention and the ONE in FIVE campaign Tanja Kleinsorge Head of the

More information

Alternative Report to the First National Report of Switzerland

Alternative Report to the First National Report of Switzerland Alternative Report to the First National Report of Switzerland Alternative Report on the national implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Child on the Sale of Children,

More information

Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others

Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others Approved by General Assembly resolution 317 (IV) of 2 December 1949 Preamble Entry into force:

More information