Definition of human trafficking

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Definition of human trafficking"

Transcription

1 Department of Information Society and Action against Crime Directorate of Cooperation Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs Project on Combating and Preventing Trafficking in Human Beings in Azerbaijan Definition of human trafficking Presented by: Karolina Rusiłowicz, Lawyer, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, Poland February 2011 The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the Council of Europe

2 To be able to effectively combat trafficking and help its victims, it is of fundamental importance to use a definition of trafficking in human beings on which there is international consensus. Such definition was formulated in the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime. The definition of trafficking in human beings in the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings is identical to the one of the so called Palermo Protocol. To be able to better understand the definition it is being broken into three basic elements: first, the action; second, the means; and third, the purpose. the action of: recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons ; by means of: the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person ; for the purpose of exploitation, which includes at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime explains that the crime of trafficking is defined through a combination of the three constituent elements and not the individual components, though in some cases these individual elements will constitute criminal offenses independently. Trafficking of the child is recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt for the purpose of exploitation, no matter by what means. In the Convention child means every person under 18 years old. First component (action) covers every possible action from recruitment to receipt of persons. Recruitment involves recruitment via Internet. With regard to transportation it is important to point out, that transport need not be across a border for the trafficking in human beings to take place. There are cases of internal trafficking when victim does not cross the border. Means covers not only forms of direct use of force or other forms of coercion, but also abuse of position of vulnerability, which can be less visible. Abuse of a position of vulnerability occurs when a person has no real or perceived acceptable alternative but to submit to the abuse involved. The vulnerability may be of any kind, whether physical, psychological, emotional, family-related, social or economic. Fraud and deception are frequently used by traffickers, as when victims are led to believe that an attractive job awaits them rather than the intended exploitation. The Convention sets the minimum forms of exploitation. That means that the particular state can cover more forms. Sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery-like practice, are not further defined in the Palermo Protocol (or in the CoE Convention), and signatory states are obligated to further define these terms under their domestic legislation (e.g. prostitution) or use the definitions from other international instruments. At national level one of the challenges Member States encounter is clarifying some elements of the trafficking definition, such as the notion of forced labour. In this regard there are international law standards and court interpretations of these concepts to rely on, and they provide guidance for criminal law and sanctions. ILO Conventions No 29 and 105 regarding Forced Labour and the Abolition of Forced Labour provide an international legal definition of forced labour as all work and services exacted under 2

3 menace of penalty for which a person has not offered himself/herself voluntarily'. According to the ILO, menace of penalty does not always mean that some form of penal sanction is applied; subtle forms of menace exist, sometimes of a psychological nature. The Palermo Protocol represents a broad international consensus on the definition of human trafficking; however there is still controversy surrounding some of its elements. The definition is aimed at covering a wide range of actions, means and exploitation forms and therefore is broad and unclear. The International Labour Organization (ILO) notes that for example, there has been a debate as to whether trafficking must involve some movement of the trafficked victims either within or across national borders together with the process of recruitment, or whether we should focus only on the exploitation that occurs at the end. An important aspect is the question of consent. The consent of the trafficked persons becomes irrelevant where any of the means (i.e. force or coercion) described in the Palermo Protocol definition are present. The Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report) 2009 published by the United States Department of State illustrates misconceptions held by some authorities regarding the consent of the victims and strongly expresses that even though a person may willingly agree to migrate legally or illegally or willingly take a job, once a person s work is recruited or compelled by the use of threat or physical violence or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process, the person s previous consent or effort to obtain employment with the trafficker becomes irrelevant. As the experience shows, the question of victim's consent is indeed problematic in practice. While visiting the detention centre in Bialystok, Poland, in 2009, I met a young woman from Belarus, who worked as a prostitute. She was aware that she was going to be involved in prostitution when she came to Poland. After a couple of months she wanted to quit, but was not able to she ran away and hided for months. After some time, I asked some authorities, how her case developed I received an answer, that it was not a case of trafficking because the she agreed to be engaged in prostitution so there was no exploitation. However, as it derives from the Explanatory Report to the CoE Convention, the question of consent is not simple and it is not easy to determine where free will ends and constraint begins. In trafficking, some people do not know what is in store for them while others are perfectly aware that, for example, they will be engaging in prostitution. However, while someone may wish employment, and possibly be willing to engage in prostitution, that does not mean that they give their consent to be subjected to abuse of all kinds. The ILO notes that where an employment relationship was originally the result of a freely concluded agreement, the worker s right to free choice of employment remains inalienable, that is, a restriction on leaving a job, even when the worker freely agreed to enter into it, can be considered forced labour. The European Court of Human Rights also addressed the issue of consent in the context of forced labour services in the case Van der Müssele v. Belgium. Traffickers use a variety of methods to create a vulnerable condition for the victims so that the victims do not have any other choice but to submit to the traffickers. One of the common methods used by traffickers is debt-bondage in which the traffickers tell their victims that they owe money relating to their travel and living expenses and that they will not be released until the debt has been paid back. Traffickers also use other methods including starvation, imprisonment, physical and verbal abuse, removal of victims' identification documents (e.g. passport), threats of violence to the victims and the victims families, and forced drug use. Also, what we should keep in mind is a cultural context. Lately I dealt with a case of a woman from 3

4 Cameroon that was trafficked in Moscow. The reason why she did not escape from traffickers and agreed for exploitation was that she believed that the they (also nationals of Cameroon) put a spell on her. That is also an example why we should treat the consent of a victim as irrelevant. In case of cross-border trafficking, victims often do not speak the local language or do not have any social network to assist them. Furthermore, victims illegal status makes it difficult for them to seek help from law enforcement, the healthcare system and/or other public services. Also because of the consequences that might be in store for them. Some time ago in my work I handled a case of a young India citizen, who entered Poland legally, had a job permit and visa with the right to work as a cook. Once he arrived to Poland and met his employer, it turned out, that there is no work for him in the restaurant, he stayed for a couple of day, kept at the employer's house, forced to work as a house keeper for free. He ran away, got to the nearest border guard quarter and was detained, because the boy did not fulfil the conditions defined in the job permit he was not performing work as it was stated in the permit. This allowed to revoke his visa and issue him a deportation order. While there is a common understanding on what trafficking in persons is, there are still sharp divisions over the understanding of who the victims of trafficking are. The CoE Convention provides for a definition of a victim of trafficking, but there are difficulties to identify them in practice. Some of the reasons why it is so difficult to identify trafficked persons are related to the following aspects: -social stigma the victims' experience may prevent them from coming forward and admitting to authorities, NGOs or family that they were trafficked. As IOM points out, victims are treated as suspect not only by society, but also by the authorities and under the law. They are often illegal migrants, they are prostitutes or they work close to criminal environment, on the margins of society. -disproportionate focus on immigration status of the victim rather than on exploitive situation. In practice immigration law tend to prevail over criminal and labour laws. This often results in detention and deportation of the victim before the actual proceedings starts (as in the case of Indian citizen). -confusion between trafficking in human beings and smuggling of migrants. This is one of the most recognized area of confusion. While there are two different UN Protocols, that include detailed definitions, there are still problems in distinguishing between these two. In case of cross-border trafficking, both smuggled migrants and victims of trafficking may enter the country, infringing the admission rules. They both may have given their consent for this. Irregular migrant may also suffer at the hands of smugglers or have their fundamental rights violated by the destination countries, but still there is a crucial difference the purpose of exploitation. Also, it is important to stress, that trafficking is a crime against the human being, while migrant smuggling is a crime against the state. It is very important to act against trafficking, minding that this is a gross violation of human rights, that might occur within a migration context but it is not just another migration issue. In 2010 the ECHR emphasized in its judgment in the Rantsev case that 'THB threatens the human dignity and fundamental freedoms of its victims and cannot be considered compatible with a democratic society and the values expounded in the Convention. This clearly emphasizes that trafficking in human beings is a serious violation of human rights. Too often victim identification is based on simplistic impressions, while it should be indeed an in-depth analysis if the person s experience meets the Protocol definition. 4

5 To sum up: The first internationally agreed legal definition of trafficking is provided by the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children. This trafficking definition has also been endorsed in the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. At EU level the Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings was the first important step towards approximating the criminal laws of the Member States. The 2010 Commission proposal for a new Directive on THB. The importance of the proposal lies inter alia in the extension of the definition of trafficking, which will include exploitation for the purposes of begging and criminal activities among the non-exhaustive list of forms of exploitation for which people are trafficked. THB is a changing phenomenon. That is why we have to remember that the definition should be flexible to be able to follow and adjust to the reality, which will always be one step ahead. Let me present you some data from Trafficking in Persons report of the US Department of State, June 2010 Major forms of trafficking in human beings (power point presentation): Forced Labour - recent studies show the majority of human trafficking in the world takes the form of forced labor.the ILO estimates that for every trafficking victim subjected to forced prostitution, nine people are forced to work. Sex trafficking Debt-bonded Labour (especially migrant workers) Involuntary domestic servitude Forced Child Labour Human trafficking by the numbers (power point presentation): Adults and children in forced labour, bonded labour and forced prostitution around the world: 12,3 million Successful trafficking prosecutions in 2009: 4,166 Successful trafficking prosecutions related to forced labour: 335 Victims identified: 49,105 5

Operational indicators of trafficking in human beings

Operational indicators of trafficking in human beings Operational indicators of trafficking in human beings Results from a Delphi survey implemented by the ILO and the European Commission First published in March 2009 Revised version of September 2009 What

More information

Look Beneath the Surface: Role of Social Service Providers in Identifying and Helping Victims of Human Trafficking

Look Beneath the Surface: Role of Social Service Providers in Identifying and Helping Victims of Human Trafficking Look Beneath the Surface: Role of Social Service Providers in Identifying and Helping Victims of Human Trafficking Presentation Overview Understanding human trafficking Identifying human trafficking victims

More information

Study on trafficking in persons in West Africa: an analysis of the legal and political framework for the protection of victims.

Study on trafficking in persons in West Africa: an analysis of the legal and political framework for the protection of victims. Study on trafficking in persons in West Africa: an analysis of the legal and political framework for the protection of victims I. Introduction Summary In the West African sub-region the phenomenon of trafficking

More information

Advance copy of the authentic text. The copy certified by the Secretary-General will be issued at a later time.

Advance copy of the authentic text. The copy certified by the Secretary-General will be issued at a later time. PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME Advance copy of the authentic

More information

Public Consultation on the Prevention of Human Trafficking Bill

Public Consultation on the Prevention of Human Trafficking Bill Public Consultation on the Prevention of Human Trafficking Bill Aim Mr Christopher de Souza, Member of Parliament for Holland-Bukit Timah GRC, and the Inter-Agency Task Force on Trafficking in Persons

More information

THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Dewey Section

THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Dewey Section EPC Exhibit 138-14.1 April 24, 2015 THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Dewey Section To: Cc: Jonathan Furner, Chair Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee Members of the Decimal Classification Editorial

More information

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CANADA Frequently Asked Questions What is human trafficking? Human trafficking is slavery. Human beings are bought and sold for a number of purposes: sexual exploitation, forced or

More information

OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking * Contents Paragraphs Recommended Principles on Human Rights and Human Trafficking.......

More information

REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL PROTECTION IN CASES OF THE REPATRIATION OF CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING

REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL PROTECTION IN CASES OF THE REPATRIATION OF CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL PROTECTION IN CASES OF THE REPATRIATION OF CHILD VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION REGIONAL GUIDELINES FOR SPECIAL

More information

Test Your Knowledge About Trafficking

Test Your Knowledge About Trafficking est Your Knowledge About rafficking Running ime: 1 hour Materials: Flipchart and flipchart stand/chalkboard, markers/chalk; Handout A: rafficking Awareness Survey; Handout B: rafficking Awareness Answers

More information

An Introduction to Human Slavery Tearfund NZ

An Introduction to Human Slavery Tearfund NZ An Introduction to Human Slavery Tearfund NZ By Reverend Francis Ritchie, 2014 Historical Background Slavery predates human records and was institutionalised in cultures around the world from the earliest

More information

Profits and poverty: The economics of forced labour

Profits and poverty: The economics of forced labour US$150,000,000,000 Profits and poverty: The economics of forced labour The global integration of economies, including labour markets, has brought many opportunities for workers and businesses and has spurred

More information

Committee on Migrant Workers General Discussion Day. Workplace exploitation of migrants

Committee on Migrant Workers General Discussion Day. Workplace exploitation of migrants Committee on Migrant Workers General Discussion Day Workplace exploitation of migrants François Crépeau, Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants A major pull factor for migration is the need

More information

International Aspects of Human Trafficking Mary DeLorey Strategic Issues Advisor: Catholic Relief Services (CRS)

International Aspects of Human Trafficking Mary DeLorey Strategic Issues Advisor: Catholic Relief Services (CRS) 1 International Aspects of Human Trafficking Mary DeLorey Strategic Issues Advisor: Catholic Relief Services (CRS) As much as we would like to believe that slavery and human trafficking are only horrific

More information

PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS-A NEW APPROACH

PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS-A NEW APPROACH PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS-A NEW APPROACH Elizabeth F. Defeis* Trafficking in persons, the illegal and highly profitable recruitment, transport, or sale of human beings

More information

The State of Child Trafficking in Mexico and Central America: Legal Frameworks, Best Practices, and Data Collection Covenant House International

The State of Child Trafficking in Mexico and Central America: Legal Frameworks, Best Practices, and Data Collection Covenant House International The State of Child Trafficking in Mexico and Central America: Legal Frameworks, Best Practices, and Data Collection Covenant House International Team: Dara MacDonald Nicole Margaretten Meghan McDonough

More information

Chargé Margaret Diop Remarks: TIP Subject Matter Expert Exchange at Police Training Academy, Port of Spain August 13, 2013

Chargé Margaret Diop Remarks: TIP Subject Matter Expert Exchange at Police Training Academy, Port of Spain August 13, 2013 Good morning. I am honored to be with you today to mark the beginning of two days of knowledge and information sharing. The work we do today is part of a global movement to end one of the gravest human

More information

BANGLADESH. Number of court cases of trafficking in persons, Cases Source: Ministry of Home Affairs.

BANGLADESH. Number of court cases of trafficking in persons, Cases Source: Ministry of Home Affairs. SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH The new Anti-Human Trafficking Act was enacted in the year 212 and covers all forms of exploitation indicated in the UN Trafficking Protocol. Before 212, the legislation covered

More information

National and transnational protection of children from exploitation

National and transnational protection of children from exploitation National and transnational protection of children from exploitation Maud de Boer Buquicchio UN SR on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography & President of Missing Children Europe

More information

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Human Trafficking Act, 2005 Act 694 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Section Prohibition and offences relating to trafficking 1. Meaning of trafficking 2. Prohibition of trafficking 3. Provision of trafficked person

More information

RECOMMENDATIONS ON IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL TO SERVICES OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS

RECOMMENDATIONS ON IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL TO SERVICES OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS RECOMMENDATIONS ON IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL TO SERVICES OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS 1. Identification of victims 1.1. Identification process A human rights centred approach requires early

More information

Country Reports from Canadian delegation

Country Reports from Canadian delegation Country Reports from Canadian delegation Research / media coverage What information is available about trafficking? Are there any reliable studies or statistics on the issue? How does the media cover the

More information

The migrations of African football players to Europe

The migrations of African football players to Europe The migrations of African football players to Europe Human trafficking and neo-colonialism in question Dr. Raffaele Poli Sport Science Institute, Univ. of Lausanne International Center for Sports Studies,

More information

5. IRREGULAR MIGRATION, HUMAN TRAFFICKING

5. IRREGULAR MIGRATION, HUMAN TRAFFICKING 5. IRREGULAR MIGRATION, HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND REFUGEES Irregular migration poses multiple challenges to countries of origin, transit and destination, as well as to migrants themselves. Migrants in irregular

More information

International Efforts Against Sex Trafficking: Human Rights Treaties, the UN Trafficking Protocol, and the Focus on Demand

International Efforts Against Sex Trafficking: Human Rights Treaties, the UN Trafficking Protocol, and the Focus on Demand International Efforts Against Sex Trafficking: Human Rights Treaties, the UN Trafficking Protocol, and the Focus on Demand Dorchen A. Leidholdt Co Executive Director Coalition Against Trafficking in Women

More information

Copenhagen Conference on Human Trafficking 14 April 2010

Copenhagen Conference on Human Trafficking 14 April 2010 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION Copenhagen Conference on Human Trafficking 14 April 2010 Forced labour in Europe: cases, concepts and action Dear Ladies and gentlemen, distinguished participants, On

More information

A CHILD-RIGHTS APPROACH ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING: A UNICEF PERSPECTIVE

A CHILD-RIGHTS APPROACH ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING: A UNICEF PERSPECTIVE A CHILD-RIGHTS APPROACH ON INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND CHILD TRAFFICKING: A UNICEF PERSPECTIVE United Nations Children s Fund International migration and child trafficking affect a significant number of

More information

Global Migration Group Symposium. Migration and youth: Harnessing opportunities for development

Global Migration Group Symposium. Migration and youth: Harnessing opportunities for development Global Migration Group Symposium Migration and youth: Harnessing opportunities for development Statement by Marta Santos Pais Special Representative of the Secretary General on Violence Against Children

More information

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

A human rights approach to trafficking in persons

A human rights approach to trafficking in persons A human rights approach to trafficking in persons AUSTRALIAN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION SUBMISSION TO THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, AUSTRALIAN MISSION,

More information

Compensation. International framework Marjan Wijers

Compensation. International framework Marjan Wijers Compensation International framework Marjan Wijers Why? Legal basis International human rights law ECrtHR, Rantsev vs Russia and Cyprus (2010): trafficking falls within the scope of Art. 4 ECHR without

More information

Alternative report from UNICEF Sweden re. the UPR process re. Sweden

Alternative report from UNICEF Sweden re. the UPR process re. Sweden To The Human rights council Geneva Stockholm 13 June 2014 Alternative report from UNICEF Sweden re. the UPR process re. Sweden Introduction This is a comment to the coming Universal Periodic Review (UPR)

More information

Qatari Law NO. (15)OF YEAR 2011 On Combating Trafficking in Human Beings

Qatari Law NO. (15)OF YEAR 2011 On Combating Trafficking in Human Beings Qatari Law NO. (15)OF YEAR 2011 On Combating Trafficking in Human Beings Chapter One-Definitions Article (1) In the implementation of the provisions of this law, the following words shall have the respective

More information

Human Rights and Human Trafficking

Human Rights and Human Trafficking Human Rights and Human Trafficking Fact Sheet No. 36 Rev.1 Human Rights and Human Trafficking Fact Sheet No. 36 UNITED NATIONS New York and Geneva, 2014 NOTE The designations employed and the presentation

More information

ACT AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING

ACT AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING ACT AGAINST HUMAN TRAFFICKING Human trafficking is a crime against humanity. Virtually every country in the world is affected by trafficking for sexual exploitation or forced labour. The international

More information

Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking. (Adopted on 28 April 2006, entered into force in 16 June 2006) Chapter I. General Provisions

Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking. (Adopted on 28 April 2006, entered into force in 16 June 2006) Chapter I. General Provisions Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking (Adopted on 28 April 2006, entered into force in 16 June 2006) Chapter I. General Provisions Article 1. Scope of Regulation This Law determines the organizational

More information

Manual for experts on multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation

Manual for experts on multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation Manual for experts on multidisciplinary cooperation against trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation TeamWork! TeamWork! TeamWork! TeamWork! TeamWork! TeamWork! TeamWork! TeamWork! TeamWork!

More information

Cash Assistance Program for Immigrants (CAPI) Program Guide Letter No. 8

Cash Assistance Program for Immigrants (CAPI) Program Guide Letter No. 8 Guide Letter No. 8 October 10, 2007 Subject ELIGIBILITY FOR NON-CITIZEN VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING, DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, AND OTHER SERIOUS CRIMES Effective date Upon receipt Reference All-County Letter

More information

Resolution 11/3. Trafficking in persons, especially women and children

Resolution 11/3. Trafficking in persons, especially women and children Human Rights Council Eleventh Session Resolution 11/3. Trafficking in persons, especially women and children The Human Rights Council, Reaffirming all previous resolutions on the problem of trafficking

More information

CPS Policy for Prosecuting Cases of Human Trafficking

CPS Policy for Prosecuting Cases of Human Trafficking CPS Policy for Prosecuting Cases of Human Trafficking May 2011 CPS POLICY FOR PROSECUTING CASES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING Contents Page Introduction 2 What is human trafficking? 4 What is smuggling? 7 The role

More information

FORCED LABOUR WHY IT IS AN ISSUE FOR EMPLOYERS

FORCED LABOUR WHY IT IS AN ISSUE FOR EMPLOYERS FORCED LABOUR WHY IT IS AN ISSUE FOR EMPLOYERS INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF EMPLOYERS SEPTEMBER 2010 INTRODUCTION Although forced labour is universally condemned and banned and many believe that it is

More information

Krisztina SZÁRAZ: The role of the European Union in the global fight against trafficking in human beings

Krisztina SZÁRAZ: The role of the European Union in the global fight against trafficking in human beings Krisztina SZÁRAZ: The role of the European Union in the global fight against trafficking in human beings Department of World Economics Consultant: Prof. Dr. Ferenc Miszlivetz Professor Száraz Krisztina

More information

Create a public awareness poster on human trafficking directed at student peers.

Create a public awareness poster on human trafficking directed at student peers. HIGH SCHOOL Modern Day Slavery: Human Trafficking (Lesson Choice A) Overview: Students will learn about human trafficking in the United States and read a short profile of human trafficking survivors as

More information

ILO 2012 Global estimate of forced labour Executive summary

ILO 2012 Global estimate of forced labour Executive summary ILO 2012 Global estimate of forced labour Executive summary UNDER EMBARGO UNTIL JUNE 1, 2012, 8:30 a.m. GMT RESULTS Using a new and improved statistical methodology, the ILO estimates that 20.9 million

More information

A Prompt and Appropriate Response from a Humanitarian Perspective Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan

A Prompt and Appropriate Response from a Humanitarian Perspective Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Japan s Actions to Combat Trafficking in Persons A Prompt and Appropriate Response from a Humanitarian Perspective Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a serious crime and

More information

Guidelines for the UN.GIFT Call for Proposals from Civil Society Organizations

Guidelines for the UN.GIFT Call for Proposals from Civil Society Organizations Guidelines for the UN.GIFT Call for Proposals from Civil Society Organizations 1. INTRODUCTION... 3 1.1. Objective of the guidelines... 3 1.2. UN.GIFT... 3 1.3. UN.GIFT Small Grants Facility... 3 1.4.

More information

A Human Rights Report on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. Australia

A Human Rights Report on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. Australia Australia Population: 21,262,641 Population Growth Rate: 1.195% Birth Rate: 12.47 births/1,000 population Life Expectancy: total population: 81.63 years; male: 79.25 years; female: 84.14 years (2008 est.)

More information

TITLE III JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY

TITLE III JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY TITLE III JUSTICE, FREEDOM AND SECURITY Article 14 The rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms In their cooperation on justice, freedom and security, the Parties shall attach

More information

ENOC Position statement on Children on the move. Children on the Move: Children First

ENOC Position statement on Children on the move. Children on the Move: Children First ENOC Position statement on Children on the move Children on the Move: Children First Adopted at the 17 th ENOC Annual General Assembly held on 27 September 2013 in Brussels 1 We, European Independent Children

More information

GUIDE FOR DETAINED IMMIGRANTS

GUIDE FOR DETAINED IMMIGRANTS Revised 01/31/2011 GUIDE FOR DETAINED IMMIGRANTS Northwest Immigrant Rights Project 402 Tacoma Ave. South, Suite 300 Tacoma, WA 98402 253-383-0519 877-814-6444 253-383-0111 (fax) The Northwest Immigrant

More information

PHILADELPHIA POLICE DEPARTMENT DIRECTIVE 3.24

PHILADELPHIA POLICE DEPARTMENT DIRECTIVE 3.24 PHILADELPHIA POLICE DEPARTMENT DIRECTIVE 3.24 Issued Date: 12-18-14 Effective Date: 12-18-14 Updated Date: SUBJECT: HUMAN TRAFFICKING PLEAC 4.5.1b,d 1. POLICY A. Human trafficking is a multi-billion dollar

More information

Child Trafficking in the Netherlands

Child Trafficking in the Netherlands Majorie Kaandorp and Mirjam Blaak Child Trafficking in the Netherlands Combating child trafficking and protecting child victims in the Netherlands Contents Summary 4 Preface 7 1 Introduction 8 1.1 Understanding

More information

What Predicts Human Trafficking? Kevin Bales 1. For any case of trafficking there is a unique set of causes and effects. The broad

What Predicts Human Trafficking? Kevin Bales 1. For any case of trafficking there is a unique set of causes and effects. The broad What Predicts Human Trafficking? Kevin Bales 1 For any case of trafficking there is a unique set of causes and effects. The broad variation of trafficking in persons across regions and cultures means that

More information

STATE PARTY EXAMINATION OF ARGENTINA S INITIAL REPORT ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY

STATE PARTY EXAMINATION OF ARGENTINA S INITIAL REPORT ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY STATE PARTY EXAMINATION OF ARGENTINA S INITIAL REPORT ON THE SALE OF CHILDREN, CHILD PROSTITUTION AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY 54 TH SESSION OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD Contents 25 MAY 11 JUNE

More information

NATIONAL COMMISSIONER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT A Polititorvet Copenhagen V Tel: (+45) Fax: (+45)

NATIONAL COMMISSIONER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT A Polititorvet Copenhagen V Tel: (+45) Fax: (+45) NATIONAL COMMISSIONER OF POLICE DEPARTMENT A Polititorvet 14-1780 Copenhagen V Tel: (+45) 33 14 88 88 Fax: (+45) 33 43 00 06 Report on the fact-finding mission conducted in November 2000 by the National

More information

Human Trafficking FOR DUMMIES. What is Human Trafficking? A Guide for the Rest of Us! AND MORE! What is human trafficking? Who are the perpetrators?

Human Trafficking FOR DUMMIES. What is Human Trafficking? A Guide for the Rest of Us! AND MORE! What is human trafficking? Who are the perpetrators? What is human trafficking? Who are the perpetrators? Who are the victims? Why are people trafficked? How are people exploited? AND MORE! Human Trafficking FOR DUMMIES A Guide for the Rest of Us! What is

More information

Dear Representative,

Dear Representative, Dear Representative, The Sex Workers Outreach Project-USA is a social justice network dedicated to the fundamental human rights of sex workers and their communities, focusing on ending violence and stigma

More information

Situation of trafficking in Thailand

Situation of trafficking in Thailand Wanchai Roujanavong Thailand UNODC, Vienna 27-29 January 2010 Situation of trafficking in Thailand Thailand has 3 statuses: 1 Sending country, 2 Destination country, 3 Transit country. Forced prostitution,

More information

Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting. (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006)

Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting. (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006) Chairman's Summary of the Outcomes of the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministerial Meeting (Moscow, 15-16 June 2006) At their meeting in Moscow on 15-16 June 2006 the G8 Justice and Home Affairs Ministers

More information

Minor Victims of Human Trafficking. Elizabeth Campbell Clinical Assistant Professor of Law Human Trafficking Clinic University of Michigan Law School

Minor Victims of Human Trafficking. Elizabeth Campbell Clinical Assistant Professor of Law Human Trafficking Clinic University of Michigan Law School Minor Victims of Human Trafficking Elizabeth Campbell Clinical Assistant Professor of Law Human Trafficking Clinic University of Michigan Law School What does the Clinic do? Represent approximately 70

More information

Joint efforts of police and health authorities to combat trafficking in human beings. handbook

Joint efforts of police and health authorities to combat trafficking in human beings. handbook Joint efforts of police and health authorities to combat trafficking in human beings handbook for professionals at the interface of police & health authorities Gudrun Biffl, Thomas Pfeffer, Aga Trnka-Kwiecinski

More information

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND MODERN-DAY SLAVERY

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND MODERN-DAY SLAVERY NOVEMBER 2006 Human Rights & International Affairs Contact: Leticia Diaz, MS Senior Policy Advisor Human Rights & International Affairs What Human Trafficking & Slavery May Look Like? A young girl in Russia

More information

Modern Slavery Act 2015

Modern Slavery Act 2015 Modern Slavery Act 2015 CHAPTER 30 Explanatory Notes have been produced to assist in the understanding of this Act and are available separately 14.25 Modern Slavery Act 2015 CHAPTER 30 CONTENTS PART 1

More information

THE AIRE CENTRE Advice on Individual Rights in Europe

THE AIRE CENTRE Advice on Individual Rights in Europe THE AIRE CENTRE Advice on Individual Rights in Europe Monitoring Report on the Implementation by the United Kingdom of EU Directive 2011/36 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings July

More information

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) 14994/03. Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) MIGR 101

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION. Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) 14994/03. Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) MIGR 101 COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 17 December 2003 (OR. en) Interinstitutional File: 2002/0043 (CNS) 14994/03 MIGR 101 LEGISLATIVE ACTS AND OTHER INSTRUMTS Subject : Council Directive on the residence

More information

Ending Human Trafficking in Partnership with the Business Community

Ending Human Trafficking in Partnership with the Business Community Ending Human Trafficking in Partnership with the Business Community 1 What is human trafficking? HUMAN TRAFFICKING Action Recruitment or transporting a person. Exploitation forced labour, slavery, sexual

More information

Washington Anti-Trafficking Response Network (WARN) Human Trafficking in Washington State: Identifying & Serving Survivors

Washington Anti-Trafficking Response Network (WARN) Human Trafficking in Washington State: Identifying & Serving Survivors Human Trafficking in Washington State: Identifying & Serving Survivors Washington Anti-Trafficking Response Network (WARN) Kathleen Morris WARN Program Manager International Rescue Committee in Seattle

More information

The United Nations (UN) broadly defines human trafficking as the acquisition of people by

The United Nations (UN) broadly defines human trafficking as the acquisition of people by Psychological Impact of Human Trafficking and Sex Slavery Worldwide: Empowerment and Intervention Leah Kaylor Intern from John Jay College of Criminal Justice New York, NY The United Nations (UN) broadly

More information

Indicators for monitoring child labour, trafficking and

Indicators for monitoring child labour, trafficking and Indicators for monitoring child labour, trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation Core indicators Improve integration of information systems for recording the incidence of harmful labour, trafficking

More information

Victims of modern slavery frontline staff guidance. Version 3.0

Victims of modern slavery frontline staff guidance. Version 3.0 Victims of modern slavery frontline staff guidance Version 3.0 Page 1 of 62 Published for Home Office staff on 18 March 2016 Contents Contents... 2 About this guidance... 6 Contacts... 7 Clearance... 7

More information

The Situation of Women Migrant Domestic Workers in Bahrain

The Situation of Women Migrant Domestic Workers in Bahrain The Situation of Women Migrant Domestic Workers in Bahrain Report submitted to the 42 nd session of the CEDAW Committee October 2008 Table of contents I. Introduction...3 1. Overview of the major violations

More information

Code of Conduct Applied to Vietnamese enterprises sending workers for overseas employment

Code of Conduct Applied to Vietnamese enterprises sending workers for overseas employment Code of Conduct Applied to Vietnamese enterprises sending workers for overseas employment Introduction Increasing the numbers and quality of overseas employment for workers is a matter of great interest

More information

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND FORCED LABOR: A Recommendation

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND FORCED LABOR: A Recommendation HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND FORCED LABOR: A Recommendation Brittany Foor 1 Only within the last several years that the definition of human trafficking has been expanded to include forced labor in otherwise legal

More information

OVERVIEW OF IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF STATE COURT CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS

OVERVIEW OF IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF STATE COURT CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS OVERVIEW OF IMMIGRATION CONSEQUENCES OF STATE COURT CRIMINAL CONVICTIONS By: Center for Public Policy Studies, Immigration and State Courts Strategic Initiative and National Immigrant Women s Advocacy

More information

NEW YORK STATE ANTI-TRAFFICKING LAW

NEW YORK STATE ANTI-TRAFFICKING LAW NEW YORK STATE ANTI-TRAFFICKING LAW New York State (NYS), especially New York City (NYC), is a destination for trafficked persons from all over the world who are forced into various labor sectors, such

More information

Are you a child who has come to the UK from another country?

Are you a child who has come to the UK from another country? Are you a child who has come to the UK from another country? Find out about children s rights in the UK and who can help you Hello If you are a child who s come to the UK from another country, this booklet

More information

UNITED NATIONS Press Release Committee on the Rights of the Child 16 January 2009

UNITED NATIONS Press Release Committee on the Rights of the Child 16 January 2009 UNITED NATIONS Press Release Committee on the Rights of the Child 16 January 2009 The Committee on the Rights of the Child this morning reviewed the initial report of the Netherlands on how that country

More information

Migration/ Asylum. Co-operation in the field of drugs

Migration/ Asylum. Co-operation in the field of drugs Non-exhaustive list of issues and questions to facilitate preparations for the bilateral meeting with Turkey in the area of Chapter 24 Justice, freedom and security Migration/ Asylum - Which are currently

More information

Why has Sweden as a society taken this step?

Why has Sweden as a society taken this step? Speech by Kajsa Wahlberg, Swedish National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings at the Conference on Trafficking in Human Beings and Prostitution How to Prevent and Combat Sex Trade in Finland, Helsinki,

More information

Child Trafficking in the European Union Challenges, perspectives and good practices

Child Trafficking in the European Union Challenges, perspectives and good practices Child Trafficking in the European Union Challenges, perspectives and good practices European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers to your questions about

More information

ADVANCE UNEDITED VERSION

ADVANCE UNEDITED VERSION Committee against Torture Forty-fifth session 1-19 November 2010 List of issues prior to the submission of the second periodic report of Qatar (CAT/C/QAT/2) 1 ADVANCE UNEDITED VERSION Specific information

More information

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography... (for full text of Optional Protocol, see Appendix 2, page 670 and for reporting guidelines, see Appendix 3, page 692)

More information

Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Portugal

Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Portugal G R E T A Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings GRETA(2012)17 Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

More information

NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED

NOT PROTECTIVELY MARKED UKHTC: A Strategic Assessment on the Nature and Scale of Human Trafficking in 2012 August 2013 SOCA 2012 http://www.soca.gov.uk SOCA has produced this intelligence report for release to the general public.

More information

Legislation and Child Labour Policy in Malawi Paper for the National Conference in Eliminating Child labour in Agriculture

Legislation and Child Labour Policy in Malawi Paper for the National Conference in Eliminating Child labour in Agriculture Formatted: Left: 2.54 cm, Right: 2.54 cm, Width: 21.59 cm, Height: 27.94 cm, Header distance from edge: 1.27 cm, Footer distance from edge: 1.27 cm, Different first page header Legislation and Child Labour

More information

Recommended Guidelines for Migrant Recruitment Policy and Practice in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region

Recommended Guidelines for Migrant Recruitment Policy and Practice in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region Recommended Guidelines for Migrant Recruitment Policy and Practice in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region Preamble These recommended guidelines emphasise the importance of improving recruitment processes in

More information

Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children

Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children Introduction This booklet contains the Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially

More information

The European Commission is today proposing to

The European Commission is today proposing to Turkey s progress on the visa liberalisation roadmap 4 May 2016 The European Commission is today proposing to the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament to lift the visa requirements

More information

violation of women s rights A cause and consequence of trafficking in women

violation of women s rights A cause and consequence of trafficking in women violation of women s rights A cause and consequence of trafficking in women La Strada International Violation of Women s Rights A cause and consequence of trafficking in women Violation of women s rights:

More information

Transnational Challenges and Approaches to Investigating Trafficking Offences. Ilias Chatzis, Chief, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section

Transnational Challenges and Approaches to Investigating Trafficking Offences. Ilias Chatzis, Chief, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section Transnational Challenges and Approaches to Investigating Trafficking Offences Ilias Chatzis, Chief, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Section Trafficking in persons: a low risk / high profit crime

More information

Human Trafficking: A Brief Overview

Human Trafficking: A Brief Overview No. 122 / December 2009 Human Trafficking: A Brief Overview Introduction Millions of men, women and children are victims of human trafficking for sexual, forced labor and other forms of exploitation worldwide.

More information

TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ORGAN REMOVAL

TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ORGAN REMOVAL TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS FOR THE PURPOSE OF ORGAN REMOVAL Indicators for judicial and law enforcement authorities, transplant professionals and victim support workers Jessica de Jong - Central Division

More information

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography

Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/OPSC/VEN/CO/1 Distr.: General 19 September 2014 Original: English ADVANCE UNEDITED VERSION Committee on the Rights of the Child Optional Protocol

More information

Labour exploitation and human trafficking

Labour exploitation and human trafficking Labour exploitation and human trafficking NGO ASTRA TNS Medium Gallup Prepared for NGO ASTRA, October 2011 Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Serbia Under the EU funded Support to Civil

More information

Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report

Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees For the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report Universal Periodic Review CAPE VERDE I. BACKGROUND INFORMATION

More information

Our action is coordinated by a team led by the Prime Minister s Office - Department for Equal Opportunities. It consists of the Ministries of Justice

Our action is coordinated by a team led by the Prime Minister s Office - Department for Equal Opportunities. It consists of the Ministries of Justice Madame Chair, First of all, let me thank the IOM and ILO for organizing this side event together with the Permanent Mission of Italy. We agreed enthusiastically to be co-host of this event, knowing that

More information

CRC/C/OPSC/SWE/CO/1. Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations

CRC/C/OPSC/SWE/CO/1. Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/OPSC/SWE/CO/1 Distr.: General 23 January 2012 Original: English Committee on the Rights of the Child Fifty-eighth session 19 September 7 October

More information

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING. DPKO Policy Paper (March 2004)

HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING. DPKO Policy Paper (March 2004) HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING DPKO Policy Paper (March 2004) Executive Summary Introduction This paper examines human trafficking and peacekeeping, and presents a DPKO strategy. i.

More information

ILO A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour

ILO A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour 93 I (B) A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour Report of the Director-General Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work 2005 An illuminating

More information