Agriculture: Methods and Experiences

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1 Wireless Sensor Networks for Precision Agriculture: Methods and Experiences Novel Sensor Technologies for Plant Phenotyping September 13 th 14 th, 2012 Wageningen, The Netherlands Antonio Javier Garcia Sanchez Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Spain

2 Index What is a WSN? WSN Applications: Precision i Agriculture Novel Devices Design: Integrated WSN Solution for Precision Agriculture (ISSPA) Deployment Trial Scenario Results Recent Works How can WSNs apply to the Plant Phenotyping? Conclusions

3 What is a WSN? Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of multiple unassisted embedded devices (nodes) which process and transmit data collected from different on-board physical sensors (temperature, humidity, pressure, etc.)

4 What are the WSNs? Main WSN Features: Low Cost Low Power Consumption Small Size Wireless comunications ranging 100 meters Resource-constrained nodes (memory and processing) Energy constrained!!

5 WSN Applications

6 WSN Applications Video Services

7 WSN Applications:Precision Agriculture To monitor small-size and scattered crops Videosurveillance Crop yield improvement Wireless Sensor Network deployment for integrating video-surveillance and data-monitoring in precision agriculture over distributed crops, in Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Vol. 75, pp

8 Precision Agriculture: Devices Monitoring node PIR Sensor MDA100 board Front MicaZ mainboard Moisture Sensor Back Detection node Top Imote2 and battery boards ITS400 board

9 Precision Agriculture:Devices Camera sensor Battery board Identification Voltage node Regulator Imote2 Mainboard PhotoTransistor Battery IMB400 board XBee Module Imote2 Module

10 Design: Integrated WSN Solution for Precision Agriculture (ISSPA) Features to remark: Topology Communications Efficient Energy design at devices Crop parameters monitoring Detection functionality Video Surveillance Network operation

11 Design: Cluster-Tree Topology PAN Coordinator/FarmerCoop- Gateway Coordinator/Crop- Gateway Device (Monitoring, Detection or Identification node)

12 Design: Integrated WSN Solution for Precision Agriculture (ISSPA) Features to remark: Topology Communications Efficient Energy design at devices Crop parameters monitoring Detection functionality Video Surveillance Network operation

13 Design: Communications under IEEE standard 2b bytes 1b byte 4b bytes 0b bytes 105 bytes 2b bytes Auxiliary Frame Sequence Addressing Security Data Payload FCS Control Number Field Number BI = abasesuperframeduration x 2 BO Be eacon CAP CFP (GTS) INACTIVE Be eacon SD= abasesuperframeduration x 2 SO Note that BO and SO delimited the Superframe size and Note that BO and SO delimited the Superframe size and the active duration interval (CAP+CFP), respectively

14 Design: Integrated WSN Solution for Precision Agriculture (ISSPA) Features to remark: Topology Communications Efficient Energy design at devices Crop parameters monitoring Detection functionality Video Surveillance Network operation

15 Design: Integrated WSN Solution for Precision Agriculture (ISSPA) Features to remark: Topology Communications Efficient Energy design at devices Crop parameters monitoring Detection functionality Video Surveillance Network operation

16 ISSPA Functionality

17 Implementation and deployment SOFTWARE: TinyOS and Open-Zigbee DEPLOYMENT: Broccoli crop placed in the Valle de Ricote, Southern Spain.

18 Deployment- Trial Scenario

19 Results. Energy Simulation State Consumption Camera sensor Battery board Imote2 Mainboard C 1 Cp C 2 C R C 3/ mw mj/ 253 msec mw 6.63 uj/194 usec. 331 mw IMB400 board Powe er Consumption Device at deep-sleep mode The camera captures an image. CPU turns 104 Mhz on Receive (e.g beacon frame) or Transmit image C C C 3/4 C C 2 R C C C 3/4 1 p 2 R Transition states Schedule IDENTIFICATION-NODE

20 Results. Energy Simulation State D 1 Dp D 2 D R D 3/4 Consumption mw 2.2 uj/ 12.4 msec mw 6.63 uj/194 usec mw umption Power Cons Device is at standby state. The trigger-driven mode is activated The device detects an intruder. CPU turns 104 Mhz on D D D 3/4 D D 2 R D2 D R D 3/4 1 p Transition states Receive or Transmit event Schedule DETECTION- NODE

21 Device at sleep mode Results. Energy Simulation State Consumption Power Cons sumption The device turns at activate mode for developing measurements M HP The esensor so captures a measurement. M HP Receive or Transmit or or M M M 3/4 M M 2 M R M M M 3/4 SE 1 p 2 M SE R Transition states MONITORING- NODE MicaZ mainboard MDA100 board Moisture Sensor M 1 Mp M 2 M HP HidraProbe M SE Sensorex C R M 3 M mw 10.3 uj/ 22 msec 8 ma 110 ma/1.8 sec 40 ma/2 sec 6.63 uj/194 usec (Rx) mw (Tx) mw (a) (b)

22 Results. Analysis 1 P 1 1 ca 1 CW 2*(1 ) p a n 1 max 2* P *(2 1)* BEmax ca BE backoff 5 p a 1 a * m 1 numbercapslot for a 1,2,, m 1 *(2 BO 2)

23 Experimental Results (a) (b)

24 Experimental Results max 2* P *(2 1)* BEmax ca BE backoff 5 (a) (b)

25 Recent works: Large crop area or forest monitoring Humidity Tª CO2 Forest Fire prevention Biomass study Tracking animals

26 Recent works Requirements Physical sensors to monitor diverse parameters (temperature, humidity, pressure, gases, soil moisture, etc.) Available multimedia services, in particular, video. To guarantee different paths between source and sink End-user must access multimedia/data information with the best performance and, of course, the requirements of WSNs Mesh Topology IEEE SOLUTIONS Optimization techniques

27 Recent works. Mesh Topology

28 Recent Researches. IEEE IEEE provides, in a single recommendation, all the distinctive features for transmitting data efficiently in a mesh topology, including an effective energy saving procedure. Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) is part of the IEEE standard planned to provide energy saving to scheduled communications with strict temporal requirements that, a priori, facilitate the development of delay-sensitive applications (video). The problem of SES and, therefore, IEEE is that the synchronization scheme introduces variable delays in the dissemination of information that reduce lifetime of the nodes and the entire network. Solution: A new synchronization approach is designed. This issue is dealt with the research On the synchronization of IEEE wireless mesh sensor networks: shortcomings and improvements, EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2012:198

29 Recent Researches. Optimization STEP 1. Theoretical Study In a mesh network where video and monitoring nodes dispatch data, Optimization techniques to achieve the best network performance. In particular, our group has carried out investigations that lead to maximize the set throughput and lifetime metrics of the network together. STEP 2. Real Deployment STEP 2. Real Deployment To design and implement a new load-balancing algorithm which obtains results that are close to the optimization study, validating this theoretical work.

30 Recent Researches. Optimization STEP 1 100% % 5 kbps kbps

31 Recent Researches. Optimization STEP 2

32 Recent Researches. Optimization (a) (b) Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe Garcia-Sanchez, David Rodenas-Herraiz, Joan Garcia-Haro, On the Optimization of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: A Goal Programming approach, accepted in Sensors, vol.12, no. 09, 2012, ISSN

33 Conclusions We presented an integrated WSN-based system for small-size size and scattered crops monitoring, videosurveillance and process of cultivations control. This network implies an innovative deployment of precision agriculture using the IEEE cost-effective technology. We also showed our recent works addressed to monitor large crops including value-added services as video. Our works are conducted from a twofold perspective: (i) theoretical studies (analysis and simulation) and (ii) real experiments including novel devices, sensor integration, trial scenarios, test-beds, etc. Plant Phenotyping is an emerging technology that, in our humble opinion, would profit from WSN advances in precision agriculture.

34 Thanks! Questions?

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